Abstract

A comparative research on the near infrared performance of three kinds of widely used graphene saturable absorbers, namely, graphene polymer composite films, neat graphene films and graphene dispersions, was performed by using Z-scan technique with 340 fs pulses at 1030 nm. The polymer films and graphene films were fabricated through solution cast method and vacuum filtration technique based on the liquid-phase exfoliated graphene dispersions, respectively. The polymer films reveal the best saturable absorption (SA) response and the lowest saturation intensity Is, in comparison with the neat films and dispersions. The graphene films show the largest SA coefficient and figure of merit due to its highest linear absorption coefficient and refractive index. By employing slow SA modeling, the excited state and ground state absorption cross sections were estimated to be ~10−17 cm2, and the ratio were 0.61, 0.57 and 0.71 for the dispersions, polymer films and neat films, respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Graphene has attracted enormous attention as a promising material for photonics and optoelectronics applications, due to its excellent physical and chemical properties, such as, high carrier mobility, strict optical transparency of single layer, high thermal conductivity, high chemical stability, ultrafast carrier dynamics, etc [1–8]. Its zero band gap and linear dispersion of Dirac electrons, combined with Pauli blocking property, make graphene to be an ideal ultrafast saturable absorber over a wide spectral range from the visible to the near infrared [2]. In recent years, a number of graphene saturable absorbers with different forms have been reported, such as graphene solutions, graphene composite films, pure graphene films, etc [9–13]. However, there is lack of a comprehensive study on saturable absorption (SA) performance of graphene in different hosts under the same assessment condition. Thus, in this work, we prepared three kinds of widely used graphene saturable absorbers, i.e., graphene polymer composite films, neat graphene films, as well as graphene dispersions. For a convincing evaluation, we keep the linear transmittance, i.e., amount of effective graphene nanoflakes the same. All absorbers were tested by the same open-aperture Z-scan setup with 340 fs pulses at 1030 nm from a mode-locked fiber laser. Absorption saturation was observed in all three absorbers. With the same experimental condition, the polymer absorbers reveal the best SA response and the lowest saturation intensity Is, in comparison with the neat films and the dispersions. The graphene films show the largest SA coefficient and figure of merit (FOM) due to its highest linear absorption coefficient and refractive index. In addition, the excited state and ground state absorption cross sections were analyzed by employing a slow SA model [14]. The result is helpful for the design and application of graphene-based saturable absorbers.

2. Materials

Figure 1 shows the process to fabricate the three kinds of graphene absorbers. The left part is the preparation flow of graphene dispersions, and the right part corresponds to the preparation of the graphene-polyvinyl alcohol composite films (G/PVA films) and deposited graphene neat films based on the graphene dispersions. The graphene dispersions were produced by liquid-phase exfoliation technique [15]. The graphite powders were dispersed in an aqueous solution of the surfactant sodium cholate (SC) (CSC = 1.5 mg/ml) with an initial concentration of 5 mg/ml. The resultant dispersions were sonicated by using a point probe (flathead sonic tip) for 60 min with a power output of 285 W, followed by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 90 min to remove unexfoliated or aggregated powders. The top 3/4 centrifuged dispersions were gently extracted by pipetting. The obtained graphene dispersions were stable against sedimentation over a few weeks. The graphene dispersions in SC were used to fabricate G/PVA films and graphene films. The G/PVA films were manufactured by solution-cast method [16, 17]. The prepared graphene SC dispersions were added into 10 ml PVA water solutions (50 mg/ml) at ~90°C. The resulting mixtures were stirred for 24 h and ultrasonically agitated for 4 h to obtain homogeneous solutions before transferring into polymer petri-dishes (55 mm diameter). Then high quality transparent films with uniform surfaces were obtained by drying at 55°C for 3-4 days, and the thicknesses located in a range of 130~160 µm measured by a micrometer. The graphene films were obtained by vacuum filtration method [18]. The graphene SC dispersions were diluted with further sonication for 1 h and vacuum-filtrated with membrane (225 nm aperture). Then, the obtained wet membranes were pressed against cleaned glass substrates with the graphene sides touching with the substrates, followed by drying at 60 °C with a 1 kg flat stainless steel on them overnight. Graphene films on glass were obtained after the membranes were removed through acetone. For the comparison of the SA performance, the graphene dispersions in N-methylpyrrolidone (G/NMP) were also prepared for Z-scan measurement. The effective linear transmittance of all the three graphene absorbers was kept constant of ~59% by finely controlling the amount of graphene in the hosts. Estimation of the effective linear transmittance had excluded the influence of the hosts, i.e., PVA, glass substrate, NMP and quartz cuvette in the G/PVA films, graphene films and graphene dispersions, respectively. That is to say, the amount of effective graphene nanoflakes is the same in the three absorbers. Thickness of the G/PVA films, neat films and G/NMP dispersions are 160 μm, 105 nm and 1 mm, respectively.

 

Fig. 1 Fabrication process flow of the graphene dispersions, G/PVA films and graphene films.

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3. Results and discussion

The bright-field TEM image of a graphene flake is shown in Fig. 2(a).According to our previous work, the number fraction of monolayer graphene (number of monolayers/total number of flakes) is close to 30% and the size of the graphene nanoflakes is ~0.5-2 μm [5]. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) was carried out to determine the surface morphology of the graphene film. The AFM image given in Fig. 2(b) demonstrates the surface roughness is about 40 nm, while the roughness of a G/PVA film is about 4 nm in our previous work [19]. Though the surface of the graphene film is not such smooth as the G/PVA films, it is acceptable and good enough for the optical experiments. Figure 2(c) shows the absorption spectra of the G/NMP dispersions, G/PVA films and graphene films. The absorption peak in the UV region of the G/PVA films is due to the π-π* transitions of the C = C bonds in the aromatic ring of graphene [9]. The peak was not observed in absorption spectra of the G/NMP dispersions and graphene films, which may be attributed to the strong background noise of NMP in the liquid dispersions and glass substrates of the graphene films. It should be pointed out that the absorption spectra in Fig. 2(c) come from the whole samples, i.e., the hosts result in the difference of the three spectra, meanwhile the effective linear transmittance remains the same.

 

Fig. 2 (a) Bright-field TEM image of a graphene nanoflake in NMP. (b) AFM image of the graphene film. (c) Absorption spectra and (d) Raman spectra of the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film.

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Raman spectra, depicted in Fig. 2(d), were measured by using a Renishaw Invia Raman spectrometer excited at 488 nm. The graphene Raman feature peaks—G peak (~1580 cm−1) corresponding to the first-order scattering of the E2g phonon at the Brillouin, D peak (~1350 cm−1) mainly resulting from intrinsic defects and 2D peak (~2700 cm−1) whose characteristics vary along with the number of layers in graphene flakes—are all observed to be similar in the three absorbers, indicating the structure of graphene is consistent with each other among the absorbers [10, 15, 20]. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the 2D band for G/PVA film, graphene film, and G/NMP dispersion are ~66.2 cm−1, ~67.8 cm−1, and ~66.8 cm−1, respectively, which is similar as the result of five-layer graphene ~66.1 ± 1.4 cm−1 in the previous report [21]. In addition, the band around ~1440 cm−1 in G/PVA films is originated from PVA.

Ultrafast SA performance of the three absorbers were studied by using an open aperture Z-scan system under 340 fs pulses operating at 1030 nm with the repetition of 100 Hz [22, 23]. The laser beam was tightly focused through a lens with the focal length of 10 cm, and the beam waist radius at the focus was estimated to be ~29 µm. In our experiment, we did not observe any clear NLO response from the NMP solvent, pure PVA films and glass substrates. Figures 3(a), 3(b) and 3(c) show the typical Z-scan results of the three absorbers at different incident energies. The normalized transmittance increases as the sample moves toward the beam focus (z = 0), indicating a clear SA response. The SA becomes much more pronounced as the incident energy increasing for all the three absorbers. For comparison, the maximum transmittance variations at different excitation pulse energies are summarized in Fig. 3(d). Obviously, the G/PVA film has the largest variation in the three absorbers at the same pulse energy, that is to say, the G/PVA film exhibits stronger SA response than the others. In contrast, the neat film is inferior. Under the excitation of 160 nJ/pulse, the SA response follows G/PVA film > G/NMP dispersion > graphene film, which is clearly shown in Fig. 3(e).

 

Fig. 3 (a), (b) and (c): Z-scan curves at different incident pulse energies of the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film. The solid lines are the fitting results. (d) The maximum transmittance variation in Z-scan traces at different incident pulse energies for the three absorbers. (e) The Z-scan curves of the three absorbers at the excitation pulse energy ~160 nJ. (f) Is as function of input energy for the three absorbers.

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According to the NLO theory, the propagation equation in the graphene saturable absorbers can be expressed as: dI/dz’ = -α(I)I, where I is the excitation intensity and z’ is the propagation distance in the sample. To obtain the saturation intensity Is, we can describe the total absorption α(I) with the form of α(I) = α0/(1 + I/Is) [24]. Figure 3(f) gives Is deduced by numerically fitting the Z-scan curves as a function of input energy. It is clearly that Is increases gradually with input energy increasing for the three absorbers, and the G/PVA film exhibits the lowest Is at same input energy, implying it exhibits much stronger SA response than the others, consistent with the results of Fig. 3(d) and (e). Is for the G/PVA film, G/NMP dispersion and graphene film were calculated to be ~(59.9 ± 21.6) GW/cm2, ~(67.1 ± 21.6) GW/cm2 and ~(85.1 ± 26.3) GW/cm2, respectively. Nonlinear absorption coefficient αNL can also be deduced with the nonlinear propagation equation α(I) = α0 + αNLI, where α0 is the linear absorption coefficient [25]. The imaginary part of the third order NLO susceptibility, Imχ(3), is directly related to αNL, Imχ(3) = (10−7cλn2/96π2NL, where c is the speed of light, λ is the wavelength of the incident light, and n is the refractive index. In order to eliminate the discrepancy caused by the linear absorption α0, we define FOM for the third order optical nonlinearity as FOM = |Imχ(3)0|. The obtained αNL, Imχ(3) and FOM values as a function of input energy are shown in Fig. 4.It is obviously that the three parameters decrease gradually with input energy increasing in our experimental range for all absorbers. What we need to point out is that the SA responses are not directly consistent with the values of αNL, Imχ(3) and FOM because of the different linear absorption coefficients and refractive indices in the three absorbers. All linear and NLO parameters are summarized in Table 1.

 

Fig. 4 (a)αNL, (b)Imχ(3) and (c)FOM as functions of input energy for the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film for 340 fs pulses at 1030 nm.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Linear and NLO parameters of the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film.

The interband relaxation lifetime of graphene is around a few picoseconds [26, 27], which is quite longer than the 340 fs pulse duration. Therefore the SA results in this work can be analyzed by slow saturable absorber model used for the case where the excited state decay time τ is much longer than the pulse duration [14, 28]. Details of the model has been described in the previous works [15]. In Fig. 5, we show the fitting results with the slow saturable absorber model, and the parameters are given in Table 2..Referring to the same linear transmittance, the ground state absorption cross section of the three absorbers are estimated to be the same σgs = 7.8 × 10−17 cm2. The variation of the number density N is mainly due to the same amount of effective graphene nanoflakes but the different pathlengths of the three absorbers. In consequence, the excited state absorption cross sections are deduced to be 4.8 × 10−17 cm2, 4.4 × 10−17 cm2 and 5.5 × 10−17 cm2 for the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film, and the corresponding σesgs are 0.61, 0.57 and 0.71, respectively. In Table 2, σes are smaller than σgs, resulting in the SA phenomena in all three absorbers. The G/PVA absorber possesses the lowest σesgs, implying much stronger SA response than the others, which is in good agreement with the above results.

 

Fig. 5 Nonlinear transmission of the three graphene absorbers as a function of the input laser intensity at the excitation pulse energy of 160 nJ. The solid lines are the fitting results based on the slow saturable absorber model. Inset is a schematic diagram of graphene level and a three-level system used for the modeling.

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Tables Icon

Table 2. The physical parameters used for the fitting based on the slow saturable absorber model.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we prepared three kinds of widely used graphene saturable absorbers, i.e., G/PVA films, graphene films and dispersions. In the three graphene absorbers with the same amount of effective graphene nanoflakes, the G/PVA film exhibits the strongest SA response and lowest saturation intensity Is, while the graphene film shows the largest SA coefficient and FOM. By employing the slow SA modeling, σes and σgs were estimated to be ~10−17 cm2, and the ratio were 0.61, 0.57 and 0.71 for the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film, respectively. The results are expected to be helpful for the design and application of graphene-based saturable absorbers.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported in part by NSFC (No. 61178007, 61308087), the External Cooperation Program of BIC, CAS (No. 181231KYSB20130007), STCSM (No. 12ZR1451800), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014T70435 and 2012M520049). J.W. thanks the National 10000-Talent Program and CAS 100-Talent Program for financial support.

References and links

1. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009). [CrossRef]  

6. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. M. Midrio, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Graphene-based optical phase modulation of waveguide transverse electric modes,” Photon. Res. 2(3), 34–40 (2014). [CrossRef]  

8. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]  

9. S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013). [CrossRef]  

10. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]  

12. J. Tarka, G. Sobon, J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, M. Aksienionek, L. Lipinska, M. Zdrojek, J. Judek, and K. M. Abramski, “168 fs pulse generation from graphene-chitosan mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(10), 1981–1986 (2014). [CrossRef]  

13. C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015). [CrossRef]  

14. Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998). [CrossRef]  

15. Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. H. Zidan, “Structural properties of CrF3- and MnCl2-filled poly (vinyl alcohol) films,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 88(5), 1115–1120 (2003). [CrossRef]  

17. Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010). [CrossRef]  

18. X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Chang, Y. Feng, Y. Li, N. Dong, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Facile fabrication of scalable MoS2 neat films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical performance,” Nanoscale

19. Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015). [CrossRef]  

20. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]  

23. H. Yan and J. S. Wei, “False nonlinear effect in z-scan measurement based on semiconductor laser devices: theory and experiments,” Photon. Res. 2(2), 51–58 (2014). [CrossRef]  

24. G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012). [CrossRef]  

27. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008). [CrossRef]  

28. M. Pokrass, Z. Burshtein, R. Gvishi, and M. Nathan, “Saturable absorption of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/hybrid-glass composites,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 825–838 (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Midrio, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Graphene-based optical phase modulation of waveguide transverse electric modes,” Photon. Res. 2(3), 34–40 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Tarka, G. Sobon, J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, M. Aksienionek, L. Lipinska, M. Zdrojek, J. Judek, and K. M. Abramski, “168 fs pulse generation from graphene-chitosan mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(10), 1981–1986 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Zidan, “Structural properties of CrF3- and MnCl2-filled poly (vinyl alcohol) films,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 88(5), 1115–1120 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Chang, Y. Feng, Y. Li, N. Dong, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Facile fabrication of scalable MoS2 neat films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical performance,” Nanoscale
  19. Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Yan and J. S. Wei, “False nonlinear effect in z-scan measurement based on semiconductor laser devices: theory and experiments,” Photon. Res. 2(2), 51–58 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Pokrass, Z. Burshtein, R. Gvishi, and M. Nathan, “Saturable absorption of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/hybrid-glass composites,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 825–838 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Pokrass, Z. Burshtein, R. Gvishi, and M. Nathan, “Saturable absorption of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/hybrid-glass composites,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 825–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Zidan, “Structural properties of CrF3- and MnCl2-filled poly (vinyl alcohol) films,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 88(5), 1115–1120 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aksienionek, M.

Arif, R.

C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedford, R. G.

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernazzani, P.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, P.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Blighe, F. M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boguslawski, J.

Boland, J. J.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burshtein, Z.

M. Pokrass, Z. Burshtein, R. Gvishi, and M. Nathan, “Saturable absorption of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/hybrid-glass composites,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 825–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Byrne, M.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W. J.

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandrashekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cocke, D. L.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

De, S.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, N.

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duesberg, G.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elias, D. C.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galli, P.

M. Midrio, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Graphene-based optical phase modulation of waveguide transverse electric modes,” Photon. Res. 2(3), 34–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomes, J. A.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, L. P.

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goodhue, R.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guha, S.

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Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
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C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
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C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
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Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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M. Midrio, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Graphene-based optical phase modulation of waveguide transverse electric modes,” Photon. Res. 2(3), 34–40 (2014).
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Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
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Krishnamurthy, S.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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Lobach, A. S.

C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
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Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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M. Midrio, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Graphene-based optical phase modulation of waveguide transverse electric modes,” Photon. Res. 2(3), 34–40 (2014).
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M. Midrio, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Graphene-based optical phase modulation of waveguide transverse electric modes,” Photon. Res. 2(3), 34–40 (2014).
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S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
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S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
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Nathan, M.

Ni, Z.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
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Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
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S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
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A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
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Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
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Pokrass, M.

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
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M. Midrio, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Graphene-based optical phase modulation of waveguide transverse electric modes,” Photon. Res. 2(3), 34–40 (2014).
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Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rozhin, A.

C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
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Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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Scardaci, V.

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schedin, F.

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shimony, Y.

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shivaraman, S.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Slagle, J. E.

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sobon, G.

Sotor, J.

Spencer, M. G.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Spitsina, N. G.

C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stauber, T.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sum, T. C.

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tarka, J.

Thong, J. T. L.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turitsyn, S.

C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Wang, H. Y.

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, J. S.

Wei, S.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Xing, G.

Xu, W. C.

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Young, D. P.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zdrojek, M.

Zhang, D.

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite films over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, H. Guo, X. Zhang, T. C. Sum, and C. H. A. Huan, “The physics of ultrafast saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4564–4573 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zidan, H.

H. Zidan, “Structural properties of CrF3- and MnCl2-filled poly (vinyl alcohol) films,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 88(5), 1115–1120 (2003).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (2)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Wang, Y. Hernandez, M. Lotya, J. N. Coleman, and W. J. Blau, “Broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene dispersions,” Adv. Mater. 21(23), 2430–2435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Mou, R. Arif, A. S. Lobach, D. V. Khudyakov, N. G. Spitsina, V. A. Kazakov, S. Turitsyn, and A. Rozhin, “Poor fluorinated graphene sheets carboxymethylcellulose polymer composite mode locker for erbium doped fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Husaini, J. E. Slagle, J. M. Murray, S. Guha, L. P. Gonzalez, and R. G. Bedford, “Broadband saturable absorption and optical limiting in graphene-polymer composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 191112 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Z. Burshtein, P. Blau, Y. Kalisky, Y. Shimony, and M. R. Kikta, “Excited-state absorption studies of Cr4+ ions in several garnet host crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 292–299 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

H. Zidan, “Structural properties of CrF3- and MnCl2-filled poly (vinyl alcohol) films,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 88(5), 1115–1120 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Nanopart. Res. (1)

Z. Guo, D. Zhang, S. Wei, Z. Wang, A. B. Karki, Y. Li, P. Bernazzani, D. P. Young, J. A. Gomes, D. L. Cocke, and T. C. Ho, “Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on polyvinyl alcohol: interfacial layer and bulk nanocomposites thin film,” J. Nanopart. Res. 12(7), 2415–2426 (2010).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

W. J. Cao, H. Y. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Graphene-based, 50 nm wide-band tunable passively Q-switched fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(1), 54–58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y. Hernandez, V. Nicolosi, M. Lotya, F. M. Blighe, Z. Sun, S. De, I. T. McGovern, B. Holland, M. Byrne, Y. K. Gun’Ko, J. J. Boland, P. Niraj, G. Duesberg, S. Krishnamurthy, R. Goodhue, J. Hutchison, V. Scardaci, A. C. Ferrari, and J. N. Coleman, “High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(9), 563–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Photon. Res. (2)

M. Midrio, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Graphene-based optical phase modulation of waveguide transverse electric modes,” Photon. Res. 2(3), 34–40 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yan and J. S. Wei, “False nonlinear effect in z-scan measurement based on semiconductor laser devices: theory and experiments,” Photon. Res. 2(2), 51–58 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(18), 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

Y. Hao, Y. Wang, L. Wang, Z. Ni, Z. Wang, R. Wang, C. K. Koo, Z. Shen, and J. T. L. Thong, “Probing layer number and stacking order of few-layer graphene by raman spectroscopy,” Small 6(2), 195–200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Chang, Y. Feng, Y. Li, N. Dong, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Facile fabrication of scalable MoS2 neat films with enhanced third-order nonlinear optical performance,” Nanoscale

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication process flow of the graphene dispersions, G/PVA films and graphene films.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Bright-field TEM image of a graphene nanoflake in NMP. (b) AFM image of the graphene film. (c) Absorption spectra and (d) Raman spectra of the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a), (b) and (c): Z-scan curves at different incident pulse energies of the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film. The solid lines are the fitting results. (d) The maximum transmittance variation in Z-scan traces at different incident pulse energies for the three absorbers. (e) The Z-scan curves of the three absorbers at the excitation pulse energy ~160 nJ. (f) Is as function of input energy for the three absorbers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)αNL, (b)Imχ(3) and (c)FOM as functions of input energy for the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film for 340 fs pulses at 1030 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Nonlinear transmission of the three graphene absorbers as a function of the input laser intensity at the excitation pulse energy of 160 nJ. The solid lines are the fitting results based on the slow saturable absorber model. Inset is a schematic diagram of graphene level and a three-level system used for the modeling.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear and NLO parameters of the G/NMP dispersion, G/PVA film and graphene film.

Tables Icon

Table 2 The physical parameters used for the fitting based on the slow saturable absorber model.

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