Abstract

Effects of the polarization field distribution in the quantum well layer of InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on their photoelectric properties are numerically studied. Specifically, the polarization and built-in electricfield distributions, energy band diagrams, carrier concentrations, radiative recombination rate, carrier current density, electroluminescence (EL) spectra, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) are investigated. The simulation results suggest that the triangular polarization field distribution contributes to uniform carrier distribution in the quantum wells, which inhibits electron current leakage and enhances radiative recombination. In addition, the effects of the polarization field on InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are effectively suppressed by implementation of triangular MQWs, which leads to minimization of the resulting efficiency droop. LEDs incorporated with triangular MQWs with gallium face-oriented inclination band profiles exhibit a 128% improvement in EL intensity at 20 mA and a 9% reduction in droop at 100 mA in comparison to the conventional square-MQW LEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are currently of great interest for applications in lighting, displays, sensing, biotechnology, medical instrumentation, and other fields [16]. However, the development of InGaN LEDs for the realization of high-power, high-brightness applications is plagued by the problem of reduction in emission efficiency at high injection current densities (efficiency droop). The reason for the occurrence of efficiency droop remains a topic of active research [7]. Various research groups have identified the reasons as being Auger recombination processes [8], overflow electron current [9], inefficient carrier injection [10], and transport mechanisms [11]. It has also been reported [12, 13] that the proposed nonradiative Auger recombination process is unlikely to be the cause of efficiency droop since the Auger recombination coefficients are too low to account for the efficiency losses. The effects of overflow electron current on droop were investigated using polarization-matched AlInGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) [14], AlxGa1-xN,and lattice-matched InAlN electron-blocking layers (EBLs) [15] and by adopting nonpolar and semipolar growth directions [16]. The polarization field in these structures can be eliminated in the active region to restrain the electron current leakage and to enhance the uniformity of hole distribution throughout the active region. While these approaches have been shown to improve the efficiency, the use of MQWs and EBLs degrades the carrier injection and transport mechanisms. In addition, the growth of quaternary AlxGa1-x-yInyN limits the maximum incorporation of indium content into the alloy [17], and the growth of nonpolar or semipolar GaN-based MQWs remains hindered by the existence of a high threading dislocation density and basal stacking faults along the c-direction [18].

Recently, several research groups have proposed that efficiency droop can be suppressed by designing the polarization field distribution in MQWs and EBLs [19, 20]. For example, the graded composition of quantum barriers or the EBL can enable the enhancement of hole injection and suppression of electron overflow [11]. Moreover, the nonsquare shape of QWs has been experimentally and theoretically demonstrated to suppress efficiency droop [21]. The experiment confirmed that the triangular MQW LEDs showed a higher intensity and a narrower linewidth of EL, a lower operation voltage, and a stronger light-output power [22, 23]. The calculations have shown that the triangular MQW LEDs exhibited high IQE and low efficiency droop because of the lower Auger recombination rate, improved carrier distribution, and reduced influence of polarization fields compared to square MQW LEDs [2426].

In the present study, we designed three different InGaN LED structures with triangular MQWs and compared their polarization field distributions with those of conventional LEDs with square MQWs. Furthermore, we performed a numerical simulation to analyze and compare the photoelectric properties of the designed triangular-MQW LEDs with those of the conventional LEDs in order to determine the correlation between polarization distribution and the photoelectric properties of InGaN LEDs.

2. Calculation model and parameters

In this study, we numerically investigate the optical and electrical properties of the conventional InGaN LED with square MQWs and a newly designed InGaN LED with triangular MQWs by using six-by-six K·P method. Figure 1 shows schematic diagrams of the four LED designs. The 3-μm-thick n-GaN layer (n-doping = 6 × 1018 cm−3) is used as the template of the LEDs. The active region consists of a 5-period In0.18Ga0.82N (3.6 nm)/GaN (12 nm) MQW. On top of the active region is a 20-nm-thick p-Al0.15Ga0.85N EBL (p-doping = 5 × 1017cm−3) and a 0.2-μm-thick p-GaN caplayer (p-doping = 1.2 × 1018 cm−3). The band offset ratio, Ec/Ev = 0.7/0.3, serves as a default parameter in the simulation. The electron and hole mobilities are assumed to be 100 and 10 cm2V−1s−1, respectively, and the operating temperature is assumed to be 300 K. Other material parameters of the semiconductors and a detailed description of the simulation model are reported elsewhere [27, 28].

 

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of LED structures and (b) distribution of indium composition in SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, and NOAT-MQW.

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The conventional InGaN LED with symmetric square MQWs (hereafter SS-MQW) was used as a reference. As shown in Fig. 1(a), the thickness of one QW was 3.6 nm, with a uniform indium composition of approximately 0.18. In this study, we designed three different InGaN LED structures with triangular MQWs, as described next. The thickness of one QW was set as 3.6 nm, and the graded indium composition ranged from 0 to 0.18. The InGaN LED with symmetric triangular MQWs (hereafter ST-MQW) has a symmetric distribution of the indium composition in the QWs. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the thicknesses of both the graded sides and of the uniform side of the QW were all set as 1.2 nm. Figures 1(c) and 1(d) show the distribution of the indium composition in the InGaN LED with asymmetric triangular MQWs (hereafter AT-MQW) in the QWs. The thicknesses of the steep graded side, uniform side, and inclined graded side of the QW were set as 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 nm, respectively. In Fig. 1(c), the asymmetric QW is seen to incline toward the gallium face orientation, which is hereafter referred to as the gallium face-oriented inclination AT-MQW (GOAT-MQW in short). By contrast, in Fig. 1(d), it is seen that the asymmetric QW inclined toward the nitrogen face orientation, hereafter referred to as the nitrogen face-oriented inclination AT-MQWs (NOAT-MQW in short).

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2 shows a plot of the calculated polarization field and built-in electricfield for all four MQW structures at 20 mA.The polarizations of the SS-MQW and ST-MQW show rectangular and isosceles-triangle-shaped distributions, respectively, because polarization charges at the GaN/InGaN interface are distributed symmetrically on both sides of the quantum barrier. For the GOAT-MQW and NOAT-MQW, the asymmetrical graded indium composition in the QW leads to an asymmetric distribution of the triangular polarization and built-in electricfield and is bent toward the gallium face and the nitrogen face respectively, as shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). The graded-indium-composition QWs can weaken the piezoelectric polarization and reduce the polarization charge at the GaN/InGaN interface in comparison to what can be achieved by the uniform-indium-composition QWs.

 

Fig. 2 Distribution of polarization field (a) and built-in electricfield (b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT-MQW at 20 mA.

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Figure 3 shows the simulated energy band diagram and enlarged drawing of the QW near the EBL of the four different MQW structures at 20 mA. For the SS-MQW, the energy band in the QW is strongly bent toward the gallium face. This band bending causes the conduction band edge of the barriers to be higher than that of the EBL, as shown in Fig. 3(a). Thus, insufficient electron blocking efficiency and result an severe electron current leakage can be expected in this structure. Owing to the quantum confined stark effect (QCSE), the electron and hole wave functions separate partially, which results in poor overlap between them, as well as a reduction of the radiative recombination rate and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE). The ST-MQW structure has a symmetric triangular QW that is attributed to the symmetric distribution of the polarization field. Further, for the GOAT-MQW structure, the slopes of the triangular QWs are oriented in the opposite direction of the polarization field. The bending of the energy band seems to be compensated by applying the NOAT-MQW structure. Moreover, the electron and hole wave functions of the triangular QWs in this structure are closely integrated, which enhances the overlap integration that is facilitated by these QWs, as shown in Figs. 3(b).

 

Fig. 3 Energy band diagram(a) and enlarged drawing(b) of QW near EBL of SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW and NOAT-MQW at 20 mA.

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Figure 4(a) shows the calculated distribution of carrier concentrations in the last two QWs for the four different MQW structure designs. The electron and hole concentrations reflect the wave function distribution in the QW. Separated spatial distributions of the electron and hole envelope functions can be easily observed in the SS-MQWs because of the internal polarization fields produced by QCSE. Contrarily, in the ST-MQWs, GOAT-MQWs, and NOAT-MQWs, the carrier concentration is observed to be slightly higher, and the overlap between the electron and hole concentrations is better in the last two QWs, as shown in Fig. 4(a). It is noteworthy that the carrier injection can be improved by implementing triangular QWs. Figure 4(b) shows the calculated distributions of the radiative recombination rates for the four MQW structure designs. For the SS-MQW, the radiative recombination rate clearly occurred in the final QW nearest to the p-side, because of the nonuniform carrier distribution resulting from the poor hole transport in the MQWs and the high electron mobility that resulted in the accumulation of carriers in the final QW nearest of the p-side. However, the triangular QWs exhibit a higher radiative recombination rate distribution in the last two QWs. The radiative recombination rate increases by 187%, 193%, and 175% in the ST-MQWs, GOAT-MQWs, and NOAT-MQWs, respectively [Fig. 4(b)]. In the case of the NOAT-MQW as well, the carrier distribution is nonuniform. As shown in Fig. 3, the electrons in the QWs tend to move rapidly toward the p-side because of the nitrogen face-oriented inclination for NOAT-MQW (Fig. 3), which results in lower radiative recombination rates. Among all four MQW structure designs, the GOAT-MQW exhibits the most uniform distribution of the radiative recombination rate. The graded barrier band profile of the GOAT-MQW enhances the carrier distribution. The distribution of the radiative recombination rate of the ST-MQW lies between those of the NOAT-MQW and GOAT-MQW. Therefore, it is concluded that the GOAT-MQW structure can achieve the highest radiative recombination rate among the four MQW structures.

 

Fig. 4 Distribution of carrier concentrations (a) and radiative recombination rates(b) of SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, and NOAT-MQW structures at 20 mA.

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A uniform hole distribution is beneficial for suppression of carrier leakage. With the aim of comparing leakage currents of the four MQW structures, the distribution of elctron and hole current densities are plotted at a current of 20 mA, as shown in Fig. 5.It can be seen that the hole leakage current is nearly 0 owing to transport impediment [Fig. 5(a)]. For the SS-MQW, the hole current is distributed only in the last QW. The other three MQW structures, with triangular QWs, show more uniform distributions of the hole current. However, the electron leakage currents of all four MQW structures are significant[Fig. 5(b)]. For the SS-MQW, the electron current leakage is as high as 46.2%. However, the presence of the triangular QW suppresses the electron current leakage and enhances hole injection, and therefore, the carrier distribution is more uniform. The electron leakage currents are 4.3%, 4.2%, and 4.0% for the ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, and NOAT-MQW, respectively. The electrons that have escaped from the MQWs participate in nonradiative recombination, resulting in an efficiency droop of the MQWs.

 

Fig. 5 Distribution of hole current densities(a) and electron current densities(b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT MQW at 20 mA. Inset: Enlarged drawing of current densities near the EBL of the triangular QWs structures.

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Figure 6 shows the optical properties, i.e., the electroluminescence (EL) spectra and IQE, of the four MQW structure designs. The spectral intensity of the ST-MQW, NOAT-MQW, and GOAT-MQWare higher by 105%, 120%, and 128% than that of the SS-MQW [Fig. 6(a)]. The higher radiative recombination rate in the triangular MQW structures prominently enhances the luminescence of the LEDs. Moreover, the EL spectrum of the GOAT-MQW structure is blue-shifted by 28 nm relative to that of the SS-MQW structure because of an increase in the effective energy band gap [Fig. 3(b)]. From the IQE curves in Fig. 6(b), we can see the occurrence of an obvious efficiency droop of 32% at 100 mA in the SS-MQW structure. However, there is an obvious reduction in the efficiency droop when MQWs with a triangular polarization fieldare used. For example, the GOAT-MQW has a slight efficiency droop of 23% at 100 mA, as shown in Fig. 6(b). Therefore, implementation of triangular QWs leads to effective suppression of effects of the polarization field on the InGaN MQWs and subsequent minimization of the resulting efficiency droop.

 

Fig. 6 Electroluminescence (EL) spectra at 20 mA(a) and IQE as a function of current density (b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT-MQW.

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4. Conclusions

In conclusion, the performance of InGaN LEDs is markedly improved when the square QWs of conventional InGaN LEDs are replaced with triangular QWs, owing to the appropriately modified polarization field distribution, low electron current leakage, high carrier injection efficiency, high radiative recombination rate, and small efficiency droop. The simulation results indicate that the use of triangular QW structures enhances the performance of InGaN LEDs, particularly in terms of their high-current-injection operation.

Acknowledgments

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.51002102), Shanxi Province science and technology innovation team project(Grant No.2012041011) Scientific and Technological Research Program of Chongqing Municipal Education Commission(Grant No.KJ131308) and Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province (Grant No. 2014021019-1).

References and links

1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007). [CrossRef]  

2. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002). [CrossRef]  

4. Y. Aoyama and T. Yachi, “An LED module array system designed for streetlight use,” in Energy 2030 Conference, 2008. ENERGY 2008. IEEE(IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.

5. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002). [CrossRef]  

6. H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013). [CrossRef]  

8. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011). [CrossRef]  

9. K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009). [CrossRef]  

10. C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010). [CrossRef]  

11. C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011). [CrossRef]  

12. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009). [CrossRef]  

13. F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010). [CrossRef]  

14. J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000). [CrossRef]  

15. S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010). [CrossRef]  

16. Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014). [CrossRef]  

17. J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003). [CrossRef]  

18. M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002). [CrossRef]  

19. B.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-P. Lan, C.-C. Lin, P.-T. Lee, M.-H. Shih, Y.-K. Kuo, and H.-C. Kuo, “Hole injection and electron overflow improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 463–469 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003). [CrossRef]  

21. L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013). [CrossRef]  

22. S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012). [CrossRef]  

23. L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009). [CrossRef]  

24. C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091111 (2014). [CrossRef]  

25. T.-J. Yang, J. S. Speck, and Y.-R. Wu, “Influence of nanoscale indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum-well LED to the efficiency droop with a fully 3D simulation model,” in SPIE OPTO(International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), pp. 89861I–89861I–89868.

26. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997). [CrossRef]  

28. I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Aoyama and T. Yachi, “An LED module array system designed for streetlight use,” in Energy 2030 Conference, 2008. ENERGY 2008. IEEE(IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.
  5. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. B.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-P. Lan, C.-C. Lin, P.-T. Lee, M.-H. Shih, Y.-K. Kuo, and H.-C. Kuo, “Hole injection and electron overflow improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 463–469 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091111 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. T.-J. Yang, J. S. Speck, and Y.-R. Wu, “Influence of nanoscale indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum-well LED to the efficiency droop with a fully 3D simulation model,” in SPIE OPTO(International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), pp. 89861I–89861I–89868.
  26. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  28. I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

B.-C. Lin, K.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wang, C.-H. Chiu, Y.-P. Lan, C.-C. Lin, P.-T. Lee, M.-H. Shih, Y.-K. Kuo, and H.-C. Kuo, “Hole injection and electron overflow improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by a tapered AlGaN electron blocking layer,” Opt. Express 22(1), 463–469 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[Crossref]

L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balke, H.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baranowski, M.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bellotti, E.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bertazzi, F.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhat, J.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Binot, R. A.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. Y.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.-J.

Chen, R.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C.-H.

Choi, R.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cook, L.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Craford, M.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

Craven, M.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[Crossref]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

Dong, X.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, R. D.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Erdem, T.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, B.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ge, W.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Goano, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goetz, W.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grillot, P.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hahn, Y.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[Crossref]

Han, M.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[Crossref]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ju, Z.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ke, C.

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Keuper, M.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Khare, R.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, A.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krames, M.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

Kroon, B. M.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ku, P.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kudrawiec, R.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

Kuo, Y.-K.

Lan, Y.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lan, Y.-P.

Latkowska, M.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, P.-T.

Li, D.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lieten, R. R.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, S.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lin, B.-C.

Lin, C.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-C.

Liu, B.-L.

L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

Liu, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.-C.

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ludowise, M.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Matthijs, H. C.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meneghesso, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meneghini, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

Misra, M.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mur, L. R.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ponce, F. A.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Ram-Mohan, L.

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J.-H.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Saguatti, D.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shatalov, M.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shen, Y.-C.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shih, M.-H.

Shim, H.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Simin, G.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Speck, J.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stockman, S.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Subramanya, S.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Suh, E.

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

Trottier, T.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vampola, K. J.

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

van Hes, U. M.

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Verzellesi, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-H.

Wang, G.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xian, Y.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

Zheng, Q.-H.

L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Zhu, L.-H.

L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. J. Vampola, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Measurement of electron overflow in 450 nm InGaN light-emitting diode structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061116 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Ke, C. Lee, S. Chang, W. Chang, J. Li, Z. Li, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Hole injection and efficiency droop improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by band-engineered electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261103 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, S. Chang, P. Ku, J. Li, Y. Lan, C. Lin, H. Yang, H. Kuo, T. Lu, S. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “A numerical study of Auger recombination in bulk InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231118 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(17), 2668–2670 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, W. Liu, T. Erdem, R. Chen, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Z. Ju, X. Zhang, H. Sun, and X. W. Sun, “Comparative study of field-dependent carrier dynamics and emission kinetics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (112¯ 2) semipolar versus (0001) polar planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 143506 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Craven, S. Lim, F. Wu, J. Speck, and S. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112¯ 0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11¯ 02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Choi, Y. Hahn, H. Shim, M. Han, E. Suh, and H. Lee, “Efficient blue light-emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN triangular shaped multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2764–2766 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Huang, Z. Chen, Y. Xian, B. Fan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wu, H. Jiang, and G. Wang, “Emission enhancement in GaN-based light emitting diodes with shallow triangular quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 041116 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Chang, H. Li, and T.-C. Lu, “High efficiency InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with asymmetric triangular multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1)

H. C. Matthijs, H. Balke, U. M. van Hes, B. M. Kroon, L. R. Mur, and R. A. Binot, “Application of light-emitting diodes in bioreactors: flashing light effects and energy economy in algal culture (Chlorella pyrenoidosa),” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 50(1), 98–107 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

I. Vurgaftman, J. Meyer, and L. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5815–5875 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. Huang, X. Dong, X. Luo, D. Li, X. Liu, Z. Xu, and W. Ge, “Growth temperature effect on the optical and material properties of Al xInyGa1− x− y N epilayers grown by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 247(1-2), 84–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Zhang, R. R. Lieten, M. Latkowska, M. Baranowski, R. Kudrawiec, K. Cheng, H. Liang, and G. Borghs, “Design and Optical Characterization of Novel InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well Structures by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(8S), 08JL10 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

F. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, and J. J. Wierer, “High power LEDs–Technology status and market applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 380–388 (2002).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

L.-H. Zhu, Q.-H. Zheng, and B.-L. Liu, “Performance improvement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with triangular-shaped multiple quantum wells,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24(12), 125003 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

T.-J. Yang, J. S. Speck, and Y.-R. Wu, “Influence of nanoscale indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum-well LED to the efficiency droop with a fully 3D simulation model,” in SPIE OPTO(International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), pp. 89861I–89861I–89868.

Y. Aoyama and T. Yachi, “An LED module array system designed for streetlight use,” in Energy 2030 Conference, 2008. ENERGY 2008. IEEE(IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–5.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of LED structures and (b) distribution of indium composition in SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, and NOAT-MQW.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Distribution of polarization field (a) and built-in electricfield (b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT-MQW at 20 mA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Energy band diagram(a) and enlarged drawing(b) of QW near EBL of SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW and NOAT-MQW at 20 mA.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Distribution of carrier concentrations (a) and radiative recombination rates(b) of SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, and NOAT-MQW structures at 20 mA.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Distribution of hole current densities(a) and electron current densities(b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT MQW at 20 mA. Inset: Enlarged drawing of current densities near the EBL of the triangular QWs structures.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Electroluminescence (EL) spectra at 20 mA(a) and IQE as a function of current density (b) for SS-MQW, ST-MQW, GOAT-MQW, andNOAT-MQW.

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