Abstract

Highly transparent Cu+, Sm3+ co-doped sodium silicate glasses were prepared by melt-quenching technique. The optical and luminescent properties of Cu+, Sm3+ single-doped and co-doped glasses, and energy transfer process from Cu+ to Sm3+ were systemically investigated through absorption, excitation, emission spectra and lifetime measurement. Tuning the concentration of Sm3+ can generate the varied hues from yellowish green to orange. Our results suggest that Cu+, Sm3+ co-doped glasses may be used as converting phosphors for UV-excitation white LEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

During the past decades, white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) have attracted considerable attention as light source to replace fluorescent and incandescent lamps due to their vital economic and technological advantages in power efficiency and environmental friendly character [17]. More recently a new approach to obtain white light, the combination of ultraviolet (UV) LED chip with red, green and blue phosphors, has aroused scientists’ great interest because it can offer tunable color temperature and high color-rendering index [8]. Specifically, several significant works have been reported in advancing the deep UV and mid UV emitter technology by using high Al-content AlGaN [9] and AlInN [10] alloys, which enable the practical implementation of UV-excitation white LEDs. Thus, it is urgent to develop novel single-phased multi-activators co-doped systems capable of emitting white light under UV chip excitation, which are based on the luminescence and energy transfer (ET) between multi-activators [8,1721].

On the other hand, compared with conventional powder phosphors used for W-LEDs, transparent luminescent glasses show better mechanical properties, lower production cost, simpler manufacture procedure, excellent optical properties, and epoxy resin free in assembly process. Consequently, the investigations on application of glasses in W-LEDs have been carried out extensively [7,1119]. Highly transparent sodium silicate glasses were suggested to be excellent host glasses for rare earth ions (REI) to design and develop highly efficient luminescent materials because of their good solubility for REI without forming ion clusters and wide range for chemical modifications [12].

Luminescence of Cu+ comes from excited s state to ground d state (d9s→d10) transition, which is strictly forbidden for free ions but partially allowed in solids by electronic coupling with lattice vibrations of odd parity [12,20]. Cu+ ions exhibit broad excitation at UV band and wide emission at visible (VIS) region, which are very sensitive to their environmental conditions, such as covalence, coordination number, and site symmetry. Our previous work showed that Cu+ doped sodium silicate glasses can emit yellowish green light under the excitation of UV light [12].

In this paper, the luminescent properties of Cu+, Sm3+ single- and co-doped sodium silicate glasses and ET process from Cu+ to Sm3+ were investigated systematically. Adjustable emissions from yellowish green to orange and white were obtained.

2. Experimental

The nominal host composition is 73.2SiO2-15.3Na2CO3-6MgO-2ZnO-3.5CaCO3 (in wt%). Samples G-host (the host), G-2Cu (host doped with 2CuO only), G-1Sm (doped with 1Sm2O3 only), G-2CuxSm (host doped with 2CuO and xSm2O3, x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) and G-2Cu1SmyCe (host doped with 2CuO, 1Sm2O3 and yCeO2, y = 1, 2, 3) were prepared by melt-quenching method. Raw materials were first mixed and ground thoroughly in an agate mortar by adding ethanol for 30 minutes and dried in an oven at 100 °C for 20 minutes. Then the mixtures were melted in a covered corundum crucible at 1500 °C for 1 h at air atmosphere. The melt was poured onto a 300 °C preheated stainless steel mold and pressed by another plate, then cooled down to room temperature to form glasses. Finally, all glasses were sliced and polished with thickness of 1.5 mm for optical measurements.

Absorption spectra were measured by a U-3900 UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Hitachi). Excitation and emission spectra were recorded by FLS920 spectrofluorometer (Edinburgh Instruments) by using a continuous wave 450 W Xe lamp as excitation source. Decay curves were measured by using a microsecond flashlamp (μF900) as excitation source. All the measurements were carried out at room temperature.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 1 reveals transmission spectra of G-host, G-1Sm and G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) samples in UV-VIS region, and the gray dash-dotted line is the difference spectra of G-host and G-2Cu samples. All samples are highly transparent (above 85%) and colorless. Compared with G-host and G-1Sm samples, G-2CuxSm samples present a distinct absorption band range from 250 to 360 nm centered at 320 nm, which can be generally attributed to the transition of Cu+ from ground d state to excited s state [12]. For Sm3+ doped G-1Sm and G-2CuxSm samples, characteristic absorption from f-f transitions of Sm3+ can be observed. The dominant absorption peaks locate at 401 nm (6H5/24F7/2) and 471 nm (6H5/24I11/2) [21,22]. And the absorption peaks become more distinct with the increase of Sm3+ concentration. Besides, no other obvious absorption band from 510 to 800 nm can be observed, indicating the absence of Cu2+ or Cu nanoparticles in glasses [12,23].

 

Fig. 1 Transmission spectra of G-host, G-1Sm and G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) samples in UV-VIS regions, and the gray dash-dotted line is the difference spectra of G-host and G-2Cu samples.

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Excitation and emission spectra of G-2Cu sample are given in Fig. 2.In excitation spectra (λem = 532 nm), a broad excitation band ranging from 250 to 360 nm with a maximum at about 320 nm arising from d→s transition of Cu+ is detected [12], which is consistent with the absorption band of Cu+ in Fig. 1. The high excitation intensity at 300-360 nm suggests that Cu-doped sodium silicate glasses may be good candidates for UV-pumped W-LEDs. Meanwhile, under the excitation of 320 nm, G-2Cu sample presents a yellowish green band centered at 532 nm, corresponding to s→d transition of Cu+ [12].

 

Fig. 2 Excitation (λem = 532 nm) and emission (λex = 320 nm) spectra of G-2Cu sample, and excitation (λem = 601 nm) and emission spectra (λex = 401 nm) of G-1Sm sample.

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Excitation (λem = 601 nm) and emission spectra (λex = 401 nm) of G-1Sm sample are plotted in Fig. 2 as well. It can be clearly seen that the excitation spectra of G-1Sm sample consist of several sharp peaks at 343, 360, 373, 401 and 471 nm, which are the characteristic f-f transitions of Sm3+ [21]. Excitation bands at 401 nm (6H5/24F7/2) and 471 nm (6H5/24I11/2) are dominant, in agreement with the absorption bands of Sm3+ ions in Fig. 1. The emission spectra are composed of four manifolds with maxima at 563, 601, 650 and 707 nm and are assigned to the 4G5/26HJ (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2) transitions of Sm3+, respectively [21]. Interestingly, G-2Cu sample exhibits a broad emission band at 400-750 nm, while G-Sm1 sample shows an absorption band ranging from 400 to 500 nm. It means that there is a big overlap between emission of Cu+ and excitation of Sm3+ in the range of 400-500 nm. Thus, it is reasonable to suppose that ET process can occur from Cu+ to Sm3+ in sodium silicate glasses [24].

Figure 3(a) and Fig. 3(b) reveal emission spectra (λex = 320 nm) and excitation spectra (λem = 601 nm) of G-2Cu, G-1Sm and G-2CuxSm (x = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) samples, respectively. As shown in Fig. 3(a), excited by 320 nm light, the optimal excitation wavelength for Cu+ but not for Sm3+, almost no emission can be detected in Sm3+ single doped G-1Sm sample. While emission spectra of G-2CuxSm samples not only include yellowish green emission from Cu+ but also contain orange emission from Sm3+ with the characteristic peaks at 563, 601, 650 and 707 nm. With increasing Sm3+ content, emission intensity of Cu+ decreases, while that of Sm3+ increases firstly and reaches a maximum at x = 1 and then remarkably decreases when Sm3+ content is further increased due to concentration quenching. Excitation spectra of Cu+, Sm3+ co-doped G-2CuxSm samples monitored Sm3+ emission (λem = 601 nm) ranging from 250 to 360 nm given in Fig. 3(b) are almost similar with excitation spectrum of G-2Cu sample monitored at 601 nm emission of Cu+. All above phenomena indicate that high light output of Sm3+ emission actually comes from ET process from Cu+ to Sm3+.

 

Fig. 3 (a) Emission (λex = 320 nm) and (b) excitation (λem = 601 nm) spectra of G-1Sm and G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5); (c) Decay curves of Cu+ emission (λex = 320 nm, λem = 532 nm) in G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 1, 3, 5); (d) Energy level diagram of Cu+ and Sm3+ in sodium silicate glasses and possible energy transfer process from Cu+ to Sm3+.

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To further prove the ET process from Cu+ to Sm3+, decay curves of Cu+ emission were measured (λex = 320 nm, λem = 532 nm) and are given in Fig. 3(c). Since all curves are non-exponential, the decay processes of these samples are characterized by average lifetime (τ¯x), which can be evaluated by [14]

τ¯x=0tI(t)dt/0I(t)dt
where I(t) stands for the emission intensity at time t. The lifetimes τ¯x calculated are 61.4, 54.0, 50.3 and 42.5 µs for G-2CuxSm samples with x = 0, 1, 3 and 5, respectively. The lifetime of microsecond order is one of the specific characteristics of Cu+ electric-dipole forbidden transition. The increase of Sm3+ doping leads to faster decay, which can be attributed to ET process from Cu+ to neighboring Sm3+.

ET efficiency (ηET) can be estimated by the following formula [1,25],

ηET=1τ¯x/τ¯0
The ET efficiencies calculated are 12%, 18% and 31% for G-2CuxSm samples with x = 1,3 and 5, respectively. The limited energy transfer efficiency may be due to the poor overlap between the emission of Cu+ and the excitation of Sm3+.

The energy-level diagram of Cu+ and Sm3+ and possible ET process are schematically plotted in Fig. 3(d). Under 320 nm excitation, Cu+ ions are excited from ground d state to excited s state. The excited Cu+ ions at high phonon energy level non-radiatively relax to low phonon energy level (that is Stokes shift). They can partly radiate back to ground state with emitting 532 nm yellowish green light. As the excited state of Cu+ is energetically close to the 4I11/2 and other levels of Sm3+, the ET process from Cu+ to Sm3+ can easily proceed. An excited Cu+ ion relaxes from excited state to ground state non-radiatively and transfers the excitation energy to a neighboring Sm3+, promoting it from 6H5/2 ground state to 4I11/2 level and other levels [Fig. 3(d), ET]. After then, Sm3+ ions in the populated levels undergo multi-phonon relaxation to luminescent 4G5/2 level and radiatively relax to 6HJ/2 (J = 5, 7, 9, 11) levels, resulting in characteristic orange emissions of Sm3+.

Emission of Cu+ ions locates at yellowish green region and that of Sm3+ ions is at orange region. Combining both of them, white light emission may be achieved. Hence, luminescent colors of G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) samples excited by 320 nm light are characterized by Commission International de I’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram and displayed in Fig. 4.It is clear that the chromaticity coordinates of G-2CuxSm samples gradually move from yellowish green to orange region with increasing x.

 

Fig. 4 CIE chromaticity diagrams corresponding to emission light of G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) and G-2Cu1SmyCe (y = 1, 2, 3) samples (λex = 320 nm).

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In order to obtain perfect white-light emission, G-2Cu1SmyCe (y = 1, 2, 3) co-doped with Ce3+ ions were elaborated and their CIE chromaticity diagram is also displayed in Fig. 4. The CIE chromaticity coordinate (X, Y) of emission of G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) and G-2Cu1SmyCe (y = 1, 2, 3) samples (λex = 320 nm) are listed in Table 1. A perfect white light emission can be obtained for G-2Cu1Sm1Ce sample and the CIE coordinates (X = 0.320, Y = 0.321) is very close to the standard equal energy white light illuminate (X = 0.333, Y = 0.333). The inset of Fig. 4 gives yellowish green, orange and perfect white luminescent photos of G-2Cu, G-2Cu1Sm and G-2Cu1Sm1Ce samples taken under 320 nm excitation in dark, respectively, further indicating that Cu+ and Sm3+ co-doped sodium silicate glasses could be used as converting phosphors for UV LED chips to generate W-LEDs.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Chromaticity coordinates (X, Y) corresponding to emission light of G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) and G-2Cu1SmyCe (y = 1, 2, 3) samples (λex = 320 nm).

4. Conclusion

Efficient energy transfer from Cu+ to Sm3+ in Cu+,Sm3+ co-doped highly transparent (above 85%) sodium silicate glasses was investigated systemically. Excited by 320 nm UV light, varied hues from yellowish green to orange were obtained by combining the emission of Cu+ and Sm3+ ions. In addition, a perfect white emission with CIE coordinates (X = 0.320, Y = 0.321) was realized in Cu+,Sm3+,Ce3+ co-doped samples. Our results may extend the understanding of interactions between Cu+ and REI, and Cu+,Sm3+ co-doped glasses may provide a new platform to design and fabricate novel luminescent materials for W-LEDs in the future.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by NSFC (No. 11374269), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LY12E02001), Zhejiang Provincial Key Science and Technology Innovation Team No's 2011R50012, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory No. 2013E10022, the Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (South China University of Technology, No. 2013-skllmd-10), the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (No. 2013012655), and the Display and Lighting Phosphor Bank at Pukyong National University.

References and links

1. C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “A novel single-composition trichromatic white-light Ca3Y(GaO)3(BO3)4:Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ phosphor for UV-light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(5), 2349–2355 (2011). [CrossRef]  

2. G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011). [CrossRef]  

3. P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011). [CrossRef]  

4. Y. Y. Ma, F. Xiao, S. Ye, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Y2Si3O3N4:Ce3+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(4), H358–H362 (2012). [CrossRef]  

5. J. Ueda, K. Aishima, and S. Tanabe, “Temperature and compositional dependence of optical and optoelectronic properties in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Al3-xGaxO12 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3),” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1952–1957 (2013). [CrossRef]  

6. J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013). [CrossRef]  

7. C. Ming, F. Song, C. Li, Y. Yu, G. Zhang, H. Yu, T. Sun, and J. Tian, “Highly efficient downconversion white light in Tm³⁺/Tb³⁺/Mn²⁺ tridoped P₂O₅-Li₂O-Sb₂O₃ glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2242–2244 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. G. Zhu, Y. Shi, M. Mikami, Y. Shimomura, and Y. Wang, “Design, synthesis and characterization of a new apatite phosphor Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ with long wavelength Ce3+ emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(2), 229–236 (2013). [CrossRef]  

9. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum-well gain media for mid- and deep-ultraviolet lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2600209 (2013). [CrossRef]  

10. R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011). [CrossRef]  

11. H. Guo, R. Wei, Y. Wei, X. Liu, J. Gao, and C. Ma, “Sb3+/Mn2+ co-doped tunable white emitting borosilicate glasses for LEDs,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4275–4277 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. H. Guo, R. F. Wei, and X. Y. Liu, “Tunable white luminescence and energy transfer in (Cu+)2, Eu3+ codoped sodium silicate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1670–1672 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. R. Wei, C. Ma, Y. Wei, J. Gao, and H. Guo, “Tunable white luminescence and energy transfer in novel Cu⁺, Sm³⁺ co-doped borosilicate glasses for W-LEDs,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29743–29750 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. R. Wei, H. Zhang, F. Li, and H. Guo, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence of Ce3+, Tb3+ co-doped sodium silicate glasses for white LEDs,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(1), 34–36 (2012). [CrossRef]  

15. H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013). [CrossRef]  

16. H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Teng, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, “Tunable luminescence from Sm3+, Ce3+ codoped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses for white light emission,” J. Mater. Res. 24(05), 1730–1734 (2009). [CrossRef]  

17. H. Guo, X. Wang, J. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18900–18905 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. G. J. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Y. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Tunable dual-mode photoluminescence from nanocrystalline Eu-doped Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramic phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 3156–3161 (2011). [CrossRef]  

19. H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, H. Kawamoto, K. Miyauchi, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, “White emission of Yb²⁺:fluoride glasses efficiently excited with near-UV light,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22043–22052 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009). [CrossRef]  

21. L. Zhang, M. Peng, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 27(16), 2111–2115 (2012). [CrossRef]  

22. H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and S. S. Yi, “Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III),” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 443–451 (2012). [CrossRef]  

23. J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009). [CrossRef]  

24. G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, 1994).

25. H. Guo, H. Zhang, J. Li, and F. Li, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence from Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors excited by ultraviolet light,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27257–27262 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “A novel single-composition trichromatic white-light Ca3Y(GaO)3(BO3)4:Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ phosphor for UV-light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(5), 2349–2355 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Y. Ma, F. Xiao, S. Ye, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Y2Si3O3N4:Ce3+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(4), H358–H362 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Ueda, K. Aishima, and S. Tanabe, “Temperature and compositional dependence of optical and optoelectronic properties in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Al3-xGaxO12 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3),” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1952–1957 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Ming, F. Song, C. Li, Y. Yu, G. Zhang, H. Yu, T. Sun, and J. Tian, “Highly efficient downconversion white light in Tm³⁺/Tb³⁺/Mn²⁺ tridoped P₂O₅-Li₂O-Sb₂O₃ glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2242–2244 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. Zhu, Y. Shi, M. Mikami, Y. Shimomura, and Y. Wang, “Design, synthesis and characterization of a new apatite phosphor Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ with long wavelength Ce3+ emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(2), 229–236 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum-well gain media for mid- and deep-ultraviolet lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2600209 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Guo, R. Wei, Y. Wei, X. Liu, J. Gao, and C. Ma, “Sb3+/Mn2+ co-doped tunable white emitting borosilicate glasses for LEDs,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4275–4277 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Guo, R. F. Wei, and X. Y. Liu, “Tunable white luminescence and energy transfer in (Cu+)2, Eu3+ codoped sodium silicate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1670–1672 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. R. Wei, C. Ma, Y. Wei, J. Gao, and H. Guo, “Tunable white luminescence and energy transfer in novel Cu⁺, Sm³⁺ co-doped borosilicate glasses for W-LEDs,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29743–29750 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. Wei, H. Zhang, F. Li, and H. Guo, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence of Ce3+, Tb3+ co-doped sodium silicate glasses for white LEDs,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(1), 34–36 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Teng, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, “Tunable luminescence from Sm3+, Ce3+ codoped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses for white light emission,” J. Mater. Res. 24(05), 1730–1734 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Guo, X. Wang, J. Chen, and F. Li, “Ultraviolet light induced white light emission in Ag and Eu3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18900–18905 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. G. J. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Y. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Tunable dual-mode photoluminescence from nanocrystalline Eu-doped Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramic phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 3156–3161 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, H. Kawamoto, K. Miyauchi, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, “White emission of Yb²⁺:fluoride glasses efficiently excited with near-UV light,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22043–22052 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Zhang, M. Peng, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 27(16), 2111–2115 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and S. S. Yi, “Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III),” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 443–451 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, 1994).
  25. H. Guo, H. Zhang, J. Li, and F. Li, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence from Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors excited by ultraviolet light,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27257–27262 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum-well gain media for mid- and deep-ultraviolet lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2600209 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ueda, K. Aishima, and S. Tanabe, “Temperature and compositional dependence of optical and optoelectronic properties in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Al3-xGaxO12 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3),” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1952–1957 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, Y. Shi, M. Mikami, Y. Shimomura, and Y. Wang, “Design, synthesis and characterization of a new apatite phosphor Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ with long wavelength Ce3+ emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(2), 229–236 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, H. Kawamoto, K. Miyauchi, Y. Shimotsuma, and K. Miura, “White emission of Yb²⁺:fluoride glasses efficiently excited with near-UV light,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22043–22052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

2011 (6)

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “A novel single-composition trichromatic white-light Ca3Y(GaO)3(BO3)4:Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ phosphor for UV-light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(5), 2349–2355 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. J. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Y. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Tunable dual-mode photoluminescence from nanocrystalline Eu-doped Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramic phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 3156–3161 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Ming, F. Song, C. Li, Y. Yu, G. Zhang, H. Yu, T. Sun, and J. Tian, “Highly efficient downconversion white light in Tm³⁺/Tb³⁺/Mn²⁺ tridoped P₂O₅-Li₂O-Sb₂O₃ glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2242–2244 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Teng, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, “Tunable luminescence from Sm3+, Ce3+ codoped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses for white light emission,” J. Mater. Res. 24(05), 1730–1734 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aishima, K.

J. Ueda, K. Aishima, and S. Tanabe, “Temperature and compositional dependence of optical and optoelectronic properties in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Al3-xGaxO12 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3),” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1952–1957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, Q.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. M.

C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “A novel single-composition trichromatic white-light Ca3Y(GaO)3(BO3)4:Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ phosphor for UV-light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(5), 2349–2355 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, B. C.

Chung, R.

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, G.

L. Zhang, M. Peng, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 27(16), 2111–2115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, G. J.

G. J. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Y. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Tunable dual-mode photoluminescence from nanocrystalline Eu-doped Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramic phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 3156–3161 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Geng, D.

G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

Huang, C. H.

C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “A novel single-composition trichromatic white-light Ca3Y(GaO)3(BO3)4:Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ phosphor for UV-light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(5), 2349–2355 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jang, K.

Jeong, J. H.

Kasuga, K.

Kawamoto, H.

Keller, S.

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kubota, Y.

Lakshminarayana, G.

H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Teng, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, “Tunable luminescence from Sm3+, Ce3+ codoped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses for white light emission,” J. Mater. Res. 24(05), 1730–1734 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. S.

Li, C.

Li, F.

Li, G.

G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, J.

H. Guo, H. Zhang, J. Li, and F. Li, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence from Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors excited by ultraviolet light,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27257–27262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liang, Y.

J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

H. Guo, R. Wei, Y. Wei, X. Liu, J. Gao, and C. Ma, “Sb3+/Mn2+ co-doped tunable white emitting borosilicate glasses for LEDs,” Opt. Lett. 37(20), 4275–4277 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. Y.

Ma, C.

Ma, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Ma, F. Xiao, S. Ye, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Y2Si3O3N4:Ce3+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(4), H358–H362 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mikami, M.

Ming, C.

Miura, K.

Miyauchi, K.

Moon, B. K.

Nakamura, S.

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, N.

Okamoto, H.

Parmentier, A. B.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peng, M.

L. Zhang, M. Peng, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 27(16), 2111–2115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, M. Y.

G. J. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Y. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Tunable dual-mode photoluminescence from nanocrystalline Eu-doped Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramic phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 3156–3161 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poelman, D.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Peng, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 27(16), 2111–2115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Teng, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, “Tunable luminescence from Sm3+, Ce3+ codoped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses for white light emission,” J. Mater. Res. 24(05), 1730–1734 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reibstein, S.

G. J. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Y. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Tunable dual-mode photoluminescence from nanocrystalline Eu-doped Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramic phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 3156–3161 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.

H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shang, M.

G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sheng, J.

J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

Shimomura, Y.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Shivaraman, R.

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smet, P. F.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, F.

Speck, J.

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, T.

Tanabe, S.

J. Ueda, K. Aishima, and S. Tanabe, “Temperature and compositional dependence of optical and optoelectronic properties in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Al3-xGaxO12 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3),” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1952–1957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum-well gain media for mid- and deep-ultraviolet lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2600209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teng, Y.

H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Teng, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, “Tunable luminescence from Sm3+, Ce3+ codoped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses for white light emission,” J. Mater. Res. 24(05), 1730–1734 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Ueda, J.

J. Ueda, K. Aishima, and S. Tanabe, “Temperature and compositional dependence of optical and optoelectronic properties in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Al3-xGaxO12 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3),” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1952–1957 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, R.

Wei, R. F.

Wei, Y.

Wondraczek, L.

G. J. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Y. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Tunable dual-mode photoluminescence from nanocrystalline Eu-doped Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramic phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 3156–3161 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, Z.

J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao, F.

Y. Y. Ma, F. Xiao, S. Ye, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Y2Si3O3N4:Ce3+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(4), H358–H362 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.

J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Teng, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, “Tunable luminescence from Sm3+, Ce3+ codoped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses for white light emission,” J. Mater. Res. 24(05), 1730–1734 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. K.

Ye, S.

Y. Y. Ma, F. Xiao, S. Ye, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Y2Si3O3N4:Ce3+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(4), H358–H362 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yi, S. S.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, Q.

H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

C. Ming, F. Song, C. Li, Y. Yu, G. Zhang, H. Yu, T. Sun, and J. Tian, “Highly efficient downconversion white light in Tm³⁺/Tb³⁺/Mn²⁺ tridoped P₂O₅-Li₂O-Sb₂O₃ glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2242–2244 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

R. Wei, H. Zhang, F. Li, and H. Guo, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence of Ce3+, Tb3+ co-doped sodium silicate glasses for white LEDs,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(1), 34–36 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, H. Zhang, J. Li, and F. Li, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence from Ba2Gd2Si4O13:Ce3+,Tb3+ phosphors excited by ultraviolet light,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27257–27262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum-well gain media for mid- and deep-ultraviolet lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2600209 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, M. Peng, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 27(16), 2111–2115 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. Y.

Y. Y. Ma, F. Xiao, S. Ye, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Y2Si3O3N4:Ce3+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(4), H358–H362 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

H. Yang, G. Lakshminarayana, Y. Teng, S. Zhou, and J. Qiu, “Tunable luminescence from Sm3+, Ce3+ codoped Al2O3-La2O3-SiO2 glasses for white light emission,” J. Mater. Res. 24(05), 1730–1734 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Dong, G. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, and D. Chen, “The reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+ and optical properties of Cu+ ions in Cu-doped and Cu/Al-codoped high silica glasses sintered in an air atmosphere,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 482(4-6), 228–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Engineering of AlGaN-Delta-GaN quantum-well gain media for mid- and deep-ultraviolet lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(2), 2600209 (2013).
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Int. J. Hydrogen Energy (1)

J. Sheng, S. Chen, J. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Yu, “UV-light irradiation induced copper nanoclusters in a silicate glass,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 34(2), 1119–1122 (2009).
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J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

R. Wei, H. Zhang, F. Li, and H. Guo, “Blue-white-green tunable luminescence of Ce3+, Tb3+ co-doped sodium silicate glasses for white LEDs,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(1), 34–36 (2012).
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H. Zeng, Q. Yu, Z. Wang, L. Sun, J. Ren, G. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Tunable multicolor emission and energy transfer of Sb3+/Mn2+ codoped phosphate glasses by design,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 96(8), 2476–2480 (2013).
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J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. Chung, F. Wu, R. Shivaraman, S. Keller, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Growth study and impurity characterization of AlxIn1−xN grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Cryst. Growth 324(1), 163–167 (2011).
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J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
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Y. Y. Ma, F. Xiao, S. Ye, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Characterization and luminescence properties of Y2Si3O3N4:Ce3+ phosphor for white light-emitting-diode,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 159(4), H358–H362 (2012).
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G. J. Gao, S. Reibstein, M. Y. Peng, and L. Wondraczek, “Tunable dual-mode photoluminescence from nanocrystalline Eu-doped Li2ZnSiO4 glass ceramic phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 3156–3161 (2011).
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L. Zhang, M. Peng, G. Dong, and J. Qiu, “Spectroscopic properties of Sm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 27(16), 2111–2115 (2012).
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J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

C. H. Huang and T. M. Chen, “A novel single-composition trichromatic white-light Ca3Y(GaO)3(BO3)4:Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ phosphor for UV-light emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(5), 2349–2355 (2011).
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G. Li, D. Geng, M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color tuning luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via energy transfer: Potential single-phase white-light-emitting phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (2)

J. Ueda, K. Aishima, and S. Tanabe, “Temperature and compositional dependence of optical and optoelectronic properties in Ce3+-doped Y3Sc2Al3-xGaxO12 (x = 0, 1, 2, 3),” Opt. Mater. 35(11), 1952–1957 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, Y. Wu, Y. Liang, M. Liu, F. Yang, and Z. Xia, “A novel green-emitting phosphor Ca10Na(PO4)7:Eu2+ for near ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1675–1678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Other (1)

G. Blasse and B. C. Grabmaier, Luminescent Materials (Springer, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transmission spectra of G-host, G-1Sm and G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) samples in UV-VIS regions, and the gray dash-dotted line is the difference spectra of G-host and G-2Cu samples.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Excitation (λem = 532 nm) and emission (λex = 320 nm) spectra of G-2Cu sample, and excitation (λem = 601 nm) and emission spectra (λex = 401 nm) of G-1Sm sample.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Emission (λex = 320 nm) and (b) excitation (λem = 601 nm) spectra of G-1Sm and G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5); (c) Decay curves of Cu+ emission (λex = 320 nm, λem = 532 nm) in G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 1, 3, 5); (d) Energy level diagram of Cu+ and Sm3+ in sodium silicate glasses and possible energy transfer process from Cu+ to Sm3+.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 CIE chromaticity diagrams corresponding to emission light of G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) and G-2Cu1SmyCe (y = 1, 2, 3) samples (λex = 320 nm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chromaticity coordinates (X, Y) corresponding to emission light of G-2CuxSm (x = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5) and G-2Cu1SmyCe (y = 1, 2, 3) samples (λex = 320 nm).

Equations (2)

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τ ¯ x = 0 tI(t)dt / 0 I(t)dt
η ET =1 τ ¯ x / τ ¯ 0

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