Abstract

Strong tunable photoluminescence (PL) from silicon oxynitride materials have been demonstrated by modulating the oxygen content. The increase of oxygen content in the films from 8% to 61% results in red, orange-yellow and white switching PL. The change in PL characteristics of these films is ascribed to the variation of defect luminescent centers as well as the evolution of dominant phase structures changing from silicon nitride to silicon oxynitride and silicon oxide. The intense PL intensity is suggested from the nanoseconds recombination lifetime as well as the alleviation of internal stress in silicon oxynitride.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

LEDs based on III-Nitride system and InGaN system are regarded as the most important light sources in next-generation solid-state lighting owing to their high quantum efficiency and multiple applications [16]. However, these state-of-the-art LED technologies are not fully compatible with current complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) techniques. In the past decade, highly luminescent silicon-based materials have attracted a great deal of interest owing to their potential application in Si-based monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuits [717]. To engineer Si into a more efficient light-emitting material, different approaches such as low-dimensional Si systems and Si modification have been developed [715]. Among them, enormous efforts have been devoted to the silicon oxide system in which efficient photoluminescence as well as optical gain has been achieved [8, 16, 17]. However, it is found that the silicon oxide system is not suitable for the fabrication of stable and efficient electroluminescent devices due to the wide bandgap of SiO2 (9 eV) that causes the difficulty in efficient electrical injection. Silicon nitride with respect to silicon dioxide features narrower tunable band gaps in the range of 2.0–5.0 eV, rendering it useful for the design of efficient light emitting devices. So far, an effective EL at a low driving voltage has been achieved in the SiN-based light-emitting devices (LEDs) [1825]. However, light emission efficiency of SiNx-based LEDs is still so low that it can't meet the demands of silicon-based light sources. The insufficient EL efficiency is due to the unbalanced carrier injection and strong nonradiative recombination in silicon nitride system. In recent years, much attention has been paid on the silicon oxynitride system [2630]. It has been reported that silicon oxynitride exhibits strong green light emission as a result of the formation of Si-O localize states [27, 31]. Moreover, silicon oxynitride in comparison to silicon nitride and silicon oxide can more effectively improve the equivalent carrier injections in LEDs and thus significantly increase the carrier recombination probability [30]. In addition, silicon oxynitride also has a narrower tunable band gaps as compared to silicon oxide, making it favorable for carrier injections in LEDs at a low driving voltage [29, 30]. Although recent studies have explored efficient light emission from the silicon oxynitride system, the progress is still slow. In particular, a well-control full-color emitter based on silicon oxynitride is still far from being established. The partial reason for this is the lack of information available to correlate PL characteristics to the influential factors such as oxygen content.

In this paper, we will show that silicon oxynitride films can be finely tuned to emit light in different colors by means of modulating the oxygen content. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements combined with XPS analysis reveal that the increase of the oxygen content from 8% to 61% results in the red, orange-yellow and white switching photoluminescence. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that these very bright red, orange-yellow and white light emissions can be clearly observed with the naked eye in a bright room. The intense tunable light emission is discussed and suggested from the chemical bonds reconstruction as a result of the increasing oxygen content in the films.

2. Experimental

The amorphous silicon oxynitride films were prepared on Si (100) wafers and quartz in very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF-PECVD) system using the gas mixture of SiH4, NH3, and O2 as the precursor. The power density of 0.6 W/cm2 was used in the experiments. The depositions were carried out at a radio frequency power density of 0.6 W/cm2, a low temperature of 250 °C and a pressure of 20 Pa. The flow rates of SiH4 and NH3 were kept at 5 and 3 sccm, respectively, while the flow rates of O2 were varied from 0.6 to 3 sccm. Samples were named by Sx (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) for the O2 flow rates at 0.6, 1, 2, and 3 sccm, respectively. PL measurements were performed on a Jobin Yvon fluorolog-3 spectrophotometer with PMT detector at room temperature. Photoluminescence time decay measurements were performed on the Edinburgh FLS 920 spectrometer equipped with a laser diode head as excitation source (20 MHz repetition rate, λexc = 401 nm, 5 ps time resolution upon deconvolution). Optical absorption spectra were conducted by Shimadzu UV-3600 spectrophotometer on quartz samples and used to estimate the optical bandgaps of samples. A Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope was employed to record the bonding configurations of the samples. And x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the Si, N, and O contents in the samples.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 1(a) presents PL spectra of silicon oxynitride samples deposited at different oxygen flow rates. It can be seen that the samples excited by the 325 nm line from Xe lamp show tunable light emission in the visible range when varying the oxygen flow rate from 0.6 sccm to 3 sccm. For the sample S1, the dominant PL is peaked at 1.65 eV (~750 nm). With the increase of oxygen flow rate, the dominant PL peak is gradually shifted toward the high energy side, and it is observed at 1.82 eV (~680 nm) in sample S2 and at 1.97 eV (~630 nm) in sample S3. With increasing oxygen flow rate up to 3.0 sccm, the PL band from sample S4 splits into two peaks. One is related to the blue band at 2.82 eV (~440 nm), the other corresponds to the green band at 2.29 eV (~540 nm). The PL intensity tends to increase with increasing the oxygen flow rate. Among the oxygen flow rates investigated, 2 sccm results in the highest PL intensity, as is demonstrated in Fig. 1(b). It is interesting to find that intense red, orange, yellow and white switching light emissions from the samples are perceptible to be observed with the naked eye in a bright room when excited with a wavelength of 325 nm, as is shown in the inset of Fig. 1(a). Our experimental results indicate that oxygen plays an importance role in the light emission of silicon oxynitride.

 

Fig. 1 (a) PL spectra of silicon oxynitride samples fabricated at different oxygen flow rates: 0.6 sccm (S1), 1.0 sccm (S2), 2.0 sccm (S3), and 3.0 sccm (S4). Inset shows the photography of the samples under an excitation wavelength of 325 nm. (b) The integrated PL intensity of the samples as a function of oxygen flow rate.

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Figure 2 shows optical bandgap energy (Eopt) of the samples as a function of oxygen flow rate. The Eopt is calculated according to the Tauc equation (αhν)1/2 = Β (hν−Εopt), where α is the absorption coefficient and B is a constant [32]. One can see that the Eopt increases from 2.28 to 3.81 eV with the increase of the oxygen flow rate from 0.6 to 3 sccm. The increase in the Eopt indicates an evolution of the band structure in the samples, which can be attributed to the increasing oxygen concentration in the samples as revealed in the following Fig. 4(b). From Fig. 2, it is also found that the PL peak energy of the samples is smaller than the corresponding Eopt. This indicates that the tunable PL in our case is not from the band-to-band recombination. To clarify the PL characteristics, the effect of excitation wavelengths on PL of the samples were investigated as shown in Fig. 3.One can see that the peak positions for all PL bands show a negligible shift as the excitation wavelengths vary from 300 nm to 400 nm. This behavior is identical to that of defect-related PL which peak position is independent of the excitation wavelengths because of the narrow distribution of defect-related localized states [27]. Therefore, in our case the PL bands may come from the defect-related luminescence centers.

 

Fig. 2 Optical bandgap and PL peak energy of silicon oxynitride samples as a function of oxygen flow rate. Inset shows the tauc plots of S1.

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Fig. 3 PL peak energy versus the excitation wavelength for S1, S2, S3, and S4.

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To analyze the origin of PL characteristics, FTIR was employed to examine the local bonding configurations of the samples. Figure 4(a) displays the FTIR absorption spectra of all samples. These spectra mainly show the following vibrational bands [28, 33]: The predominant band between 830 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 is mainly caused by the vibration of Si-N, O-Si-N and Si-O groups. The ~2140 cm−1 band is connected with the Si-H stretching vibration. The ~3350 cm−1 band is associated to N-H stretching vibration. A remarkable feature for the FTIR spectra in Fig. 4(a) is that the predominant bands strongly depend on the oxygen flow rates. The predominant band in S1 appears at ~836 cm−1, corresponding to the Si-N stretching vibration. With increasing the oxygen flow rate, this band becomes broaden and shifts to ~855 cm−1 with a shoulder at ~920 cm−1 in S3. According to earlier FTIR analysis on a-SiNxOy films reported by Dong [33], the ~920 cm−1 band is from the vibration of O-Si-N bond. With increasing oxygen flow rate up to 3.0 sccm, the predominant band moves to ~1060 cm−1, which is assigned to Si-O-Si stretching vibration. Apparently, the increase of the oxygen flow rate results in chemical bonds reconstruction in the samples. Combining with the PL results mentioned above, the chemical bonds reconstruction induced by oxygen seems to be responsible for the strong tunable light emission.

 

Fig. 4 (a) FTIR spectra of silicon oxynitride samples fabricated at different oxygen flow rates, respectively. (b) Si, N and O concentration as a function of the oxygen flow rate. (c) Deconvoluted Si 2p XPS spectra for S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively.

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The chemistry of the samples was further characterized by XPS. The Si, N and O content in the samples were estimated from XPS spectra as indicated in Fig. 4(b). At the oxygen flow rate of 0.6 sccm, the contents of Si, N and O in S1 are 60%, 31% and 8%, respectively. This means that the dominant phase in S1 is silicon nitride. With increasing the oxygen flow rate up to 3 sccm, the O content rapidly increases to 61%, while the contents of Si and N simultaneously decrease down to 29% and 8%, respectively. This indicates the dominant phase in S4 changes into silicon oxide. To gain more insight on the phase transition in the samples, Si 2p core level spectra, which are an indication for the coexistence of different ionic states of Si atoms [34], were analyzed as shown in Fig. 4(c). One can see that the binding energy spectra are typically composed of various Si phases, those are untreated Si, SiNx, SiOxNy and SiOx. At low oxygen flow rates (0.6 and 1.0 sccm), the samples are dominated by SiNx phase. It means that the oxygen may be doped as defect states located in the SiNx energy band. In previous work, it has been reported that the introduction of oxygen can create the localized states related to the N-Si-O bonds in the SiNx and give rise to strong light emission [27, 33]. Moreover, the location of the oxygen-induced luminescent defect states in the band gap is found to be at around 0.63 eV from the absorption edge. In our case, we note that the values between Eopt and EPL in S1 and S2 are about 0.63 eV and 0.61 eV,respectively, which is in good agreement with the value reported by Dong [33]. This strongly indicates that the PL emissions in S1 and S2 are originated from the radiative recombination in the localized states related to the N-Si-O bonds. From Fig. 4(c), it is also found that there is a peak located at around 99.50 eV for S1 and S2, which is related to the elemental Si components, indicating a formation of Si clusters in S1 and S2. With the increase of oxygen flow rate from 1.0 to 2.0 sccm, one can see that the dominant phase in the S3 changes into silicon oxynitride. Therefore, according to the Wong’ work, the 1.96 eV PL band in S3 is caused by the ≡Si2N· defects in silicon oxynitride [35]. It is worth noting that this kind of defects strongly relies on the oxygen content in the film and can be removed by increasing the oxygen content to some extent [35]. This well accounts for the fact that the 1.96 eV PL band observed in S3 disappears after increasing the oxygen flow rate to 3.0 sccm. It is found that in this case high oxygen content (61%) leads to the dominant phase of S4 transforming into silicon oxide, as is indicated in Fig. 4(c). Compared with the PL spectra in Fig. 1(a), one can see that the PL band in S4 synchronously shifts to high energy side and splits into two peaks at 2.29 eV and 2.82 eV, respectively. In silicon oxide, 2.29 eV PL band is unambiguously attributed to the radiative recombination through defects such as the nonbridging oxygen hole centers [36]. On the other hand, we notice that the 2.82 eV PL band is consistent with the previous observation reported by Noma [37] where 2.6-2.9 eV PL band is ascribed to the Si-N defect states located at the top of the valence band in silicon oxide structure. The vibration band at ~860 cm−1 shown in Fig. 4(a) further presents a direct evident of the existence of Si-N in S4. Therefore, the 2.82 eV PL in our case is suggested from the recombination of holes and electrons in localized states corresponding to Si–N bonds. From the above results, it is obvious that oxygen plays a decisive role in the chemical bonds reconstruction, especially the transformation of the kinds of defect luminescence centers as well as the dominant phase structures in silicon oxynitride films.

In order to further clarify the light emission mechanism of all samples, we have carried out luminescence decay measurements. Figure 5 illustrates normalized RT luminescence decay traces taken from different samples. The decay process can be well fitted with a double exponential functionA0+A1*exp(t/τ1)+A2*exp(t/τ2), in which τi and Ai (i = 1, 2) represent the lifetime and amplitude of each exponential decay component, respectively, and A0 is the background level [38]. The intensity-weighted averaged PL lifetimes are then determined by (A1τ12+A2τ22)/(A1τ1+A2τ2) [38]. It can be seen that all samples show a fast decay dynamic with the lifetimes between 2.0 to 3.5 nanoseconds as revealed in Fig. 5. Such a luminescent dynamic behavior is consistent with that observed in defect-related luminescent Si-based materials such as SiNx and SiOx [38, 39]. We also notice that the luminescent lifetimes in our case are shorter than that reported by Kato [40] where the PL is attributed to optical transitions among the band tail states of silicon oxynitride. These support our argument that the photoluminescence of our samples is from defect states instead of band tail states. It’s worth noting that the lifetimes in different samples show a similar value, almost independent of the oxygen content in the samples. This is completely different from that reported in Si quantum dots (Si-QDs) system where the luminescence lifetime strongly relies on the Si-QD size owing to the quantum confinement effect [41]. Although the luminescence lifetimes in our case are independent of the oxygen content in the samples, the PL intensity of the samples is found to increase with increasing the oxygen flow rate up to 2 sccm, as is shown in Fig. 1(b). For the PL intensity (IPL), it can be expressed as follows: IPL=τR1/(τR1+τNR1), where τR and τNR are the lifetime of the radiative and nonradiative recombinations, respectively [42]. According to the equation, the value of τNR increases with the increase of IPL due to the similar value of τR in different samples. Therefore, the fact that the IPL increases with the oxygen flow rate can be attributed to the decrease of the nonradiative recombination rate in the samples. This is because the Si–O bonds can effectively relieve the internal stress in silicon oxynitride due to the oxygen taking twofold coordination [40], thus making the structural disorder in silicon oxynitride become smaller.

 

Fig. 5 Room-temperature luminescence decay traces taken from different samples, respectively.

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4. Conclusion

In summary, strong tunable light emissions from red to white have been achieved in silicon oxynitride films by modulating the oxygen content. The transformation of the kinds of defect luminescence centers as well as the dominant phase structures in silicon oxynitride films controlled by the oxygen content are responsible for the tunable light emissions, while the strong PL intensity is suggested from the nanoseconds recombination lifetime and the decrease of nonradiative recombination rate as a consequence of internal stress reduction in silicon oxynitride. The strong tunable light emission and the fast decay dynamics open the possibility of the applications of the luminescent silicon oxynitride in photonics as well as optoelectronics integration.

Acknowlegments

This work is supported by NSF of China (No. 61274140, 21301043 and 61306003), the NSF of Guangdong Province (S2011010001853), and the Project of DEGP (No. 2012KJCX0075).

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References

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  1. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “High-efficiency visible photoluminescence from amorphous silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3474–3476 (2003).
  11. Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3474–3476 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Kurokawa, S. Tomita, S. Miyajima, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots in Si quantum dots/amorphous SiC superlattice,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(35), L833–L835 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Rodriguez, J. Arenas, and J. C. Alonso, “Photoluminescence mechanisms in silicon quantum dots embedded in nanometric chlorinated-silicon nitride films,” J. Lumin. 132(9), 2385–2389 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. R. Lin, C. W. Lian, C. L. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “Gain analysis of optically-pumped Si nanocrystal waveguide amplifiers on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9213–9219 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093122 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263514 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Kamyab, M. B. Yu. Rusli, L. Ding, and G.-Q. Lo, “Electroluminescence from amorphous-SiNx:H/SiO2 multilayers using lateral carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061105 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 692–694 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. Song, R. Huang, X. Wang, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Tunable red light emission from a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 664–670 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and Q. Que, “Tailoring effect of enhanced local electric field from metal nanoparticles on electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4602504 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, “Controlling defect and Si nanoparticle luminescence from silicon oxynitride films with CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093114 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081114 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er 3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L. J. Chou, and Y. L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Huang, S. Xu, Y. Guo, W. Guo, X. Wang, C. Song, J. Song, L. Wang, K. M. Ho, and N. Wang, “Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-core/a-SiNx: H-shell nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5891–5896 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).
  34. S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, C. J. Oton, and G. V. Prakash, “Phase evolution and photoluminescence in as-deposited amorphous silicon nitride films,” Scr. Mater. 63(6), 605–608 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  35. H. Wong and V. A. Gritsenko, “Defects in silicon oxynitride gate dielectric films,” Microelectron. Reliab. 42(4-5), 597–605 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  36. A. V. Kabashin, J. P. Sylvestre, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Correlation between photoluminescence properties and morphology of laser-ablated Si/SiOx nanostructured films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3248–3254 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  37. T. Noma, K. S. Seol, H. Kato, M. Fujimaki, and Y. Ohki, “Origin of photoluminescence around 2.6–2.9 eV in silicon oxynitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 1995–1997 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  38. K. H. Lin, S. C. Liou, W. L. Chen, C. L. Wu, G. R. Lin, and Y. M. Chang, “Tunable and stable UV-NIR photoluminescence from annealed SiOx with Si nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23416–23424 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  40. H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Ohki, K. S. Seol, and T. Noma, “Band-tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 239–244 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  41. C. L. Wu and G. R. Lin, “Power gain modeling of Si quantum dots embedded in a SiOx waveguide amplifier with inhomogeneous broadened spontaneous emission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 3000109 (2013).
  42. H. L. Hao and W. Z. Shen, “Identification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 19(45), 455704 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (12)

C. Song, R. Huang, X. Wang, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Tunable red light emission from a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 664–670 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and Q. Que, “Tailoring effect of enhanced local electric field from metal nanoparticles on electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4602504 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, S. Xu, Y. Guo, W. Guo, X. Wang, C. Song, J. Song, L. Wang, K. M. Ho, and N. Wang, “Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-core/a-SiNx: H-shell nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5891–5896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081114 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er 3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lin, S. C. Liou, W. L. Chen, C. L. Wu, G. R. Lin, and Y. M. Chang, “Tunable and stable UV-NIR photoluminescence from annealed SiOx with Si nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23416–23424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. L. Wu and G. R. Lin, “Power gain modeling of Si quantum dots embedded in a SiOx waveguide amplifier with inhomogeneous broadened spontaneous emission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 3000109 (2013).

2012 (3)

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Rodriguez, J. Arenas, and J. C. Alonso, “Photoluminescence mechanisms in silicon quantum dots embedded in nanometric chlorinated-silicon nitride films,” J. Lumin. 132(9), 2385–2389 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

L. Kamyab, M. B. Yu. Rusli, L. Ding, and G.-Q. Lo, “Electroluminescence from amorphous-SiNx:H/SiO2 multilayers using lateral carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061105 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263514 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, C. J. Oton, and G. V. Prakash, “Phase evolution and photoluminescence in as-deposited amorphous silicon nitride films,” Scr. Mater. 63(6), 605–608 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. R. Lin, C. W. Lian, C. L. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “Gain analysis of optically-pumped Si nanocrystal waveguide amplifiers on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9213–9219 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. L. Hao and W. Z. Shen, “Identification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 19(45), 455704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Kurokawa, S. Tomita, S. Miyajima, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots in Si quantum dots/amorphous SiC superlattice,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(35), L833–L835 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, “Controlling defect and Si nanoparticle luminescence from silicon oxynitride films with CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093114 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L. J. Chou, and Y. L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “High-efficiency visible photoluminescence from amorphous silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3474–3476 (2003).

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3474–3476 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Ohki, K. S. Seol, and T. Noma, “Band-tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 239–244 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

H. Wong and V. A. Gritsenko, “Defects in silicon oxynitride gate dielectric films,” Microelectron. Reliab. 42(4-5), 597–605 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kabashin, J. P. Sylvestre, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Correlation between photoluminescence properties and morphology of laser-ablated Si/SiOx nanostructured films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3248–3254 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

T. Noma, K. S. Seol, H. Kato, M. Fujimaki, and Y. Ohki, “Origin of photoluminescence around 2.6–2.9 eV in silicon oxynitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 1995–1997 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[Crossref]

Alonso, J. C.

A. Rodriguez, J. Arenas, and J. C. Alonso, “Photoluminescence mechanisms in silicon quantum dots embedded in nanometric chlorinated-silicon nitride films,” J. Lumin. 132(9), 2385–2389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arenas, J.

A. Rodriguez, J. Arenas, and J. C. Alonso, “Photoluminescence mechanisms in silicon quantum dots embedded in nanometric chlorinated-silicon nitride films,” J. Lumin. 132(9), 2385–2389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourianoff, G. I.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, “Controlling defect and Si nanoparticle luminescence from silicon oxynitride films with CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cao, L.

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3474–3476 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “High-efficiency visible photoluminescence from amorphous silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3474–3476 (2003).

Cao, Z. X.

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “High-efficiency visible photoluminescence from amorphous silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3474–3476 (2003).

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3474–3476 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cen, Z. H.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. M.

Chen, C.

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263514 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. P.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. L.

Choi, C. J.

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, L. J.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L. J. Chou, and Y. L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

Chueh, Y. L.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L. J. Chou, and Y. L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

L. Kamyab, M. B. Yu. Rusli, L. Ding, and G.-Q. Lo, “Electroluminescence from amorphous-SiNx:H/SiO2 multilayers using lateral carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, H.

H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ee, Y.-K.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[Crossref]

Franzò, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimaki, M.

T. Noma, K. S. Seol, H. Kato, M. Fujimaki, and Y. Ohki, “Origin of photoluminescence around 2.6–2.9 eV in silicon oxynitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 1995–1997 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fung, S.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Galli, G.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, C. J. Oton, and G. V. Prakash, “Phase evolution and photoluminescence in as-deposited amorphous silicon nitride films,” Scr. Mater. 63(6), 605–608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goh, W. P.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gritsenko, V. A.

H. Wong and V. A. Gritsenko, “Defects in silicon oxynitride gate dielectric films,” Microelectron. Reliab. 42(4-5), 597–605 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

Guo, Y.

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Huang, X. Wang, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Tunable red light emission from a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 664–670 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, S. Xu, Y. Guo, W. Guo, X. Wang, C. Song, J. Song, L. Wang, K. M. Ho, and N. Wang, “Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-core/a-SiNx: H-shell nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5891–5896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y. Q.

Hamel, S.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Han, P.

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hao, H. L.

H. L. Hao and W. Z. Shen, “Identification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 19(45), 455704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, K. M.

Hu, Y.-L.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, R.

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Huang, X. Wang, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Tunable red light emission from a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 664–670 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, S. Xu, Y. Guo, W. Guo, X. Wang, C. Song, J. Song, L. Wang, K. M. Ho, and N. Wang, “Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-core/a-SiNx: H-shell nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5891–5896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081114 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.-C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[Crossref]

Iveland, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jin, L.

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er 3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, J. P. Sylvestre, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Correlation between photoluminescence properties and morphology of laser-ablated Si/SiOx nanostructured films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3248–3254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kamyab, L.

L. Kamyab, M. B. Yu. Rusli, L. Ding, and G.-Q. Lo, “Electroluminescence from amorphous-SiNx:H/SiO2 multilayers using lateral carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kashio, N.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Ohki, K. S. Seol, and T. Noma, “Band-tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 239–244 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kato, H.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Ohki, K. S. Seol, and T. Noma, “Band-tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 239–244 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Noma, K. S. Seol, H. Kato, M. Fujimaki, and Y. Ohki, “Origin of photoluminescence around 2.6–2.9 eV in silicon oxynitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 1995–1997 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kekatpure, R. D.

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, “Controlling defect and Si nanoparticle luminescence from silicon oxynitride films with CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Khan, S. A.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, C. J. Oton, and G. V. Prakash, “Phase evolution and photoluminescence in as-deposited amorphous silicon nitride films,” Scr. Mater. 63(6), 605–608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Konagai, M.

Y. Kurokawa, S. Tomita, S. Miyajima, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots in Si quantum dots/amorphous SiC superlattice,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(35), L833–L835 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093122 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kurokawa, Y.

Y. Kurokawa, S. Tomita, S. Miyajima, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots in Si quantum dots/amorphous SiC superlattice,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(35), L833–L835 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and Q. Que, “Tailoring effect of enhanced local electric field from metal nanoparticles on electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4602504 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er 3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-H.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lian, C. W.

Lin, C.

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263514 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. J.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093122 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L. J. Chou, and Y. L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. K.

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L. J. Chou, and Y. L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263514 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, G. R.

K. H. Lin, S. C. Liou, W. L. Chen, C. L. Wu, G. R. Lin, and Y. M. Chang, “Tunable and stable UV-NIR photoluminescence from annealed SiOx with Si nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23416–23424 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Wu and G. R. Lin, “Power gain modeling of Si quantum dots embedded in a SiOx waveguide amplifier with inhomogeneous broadened spontaneous emission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 3000109 (2013).

G. R. Lin, C. W. Lian, C. L. Wu, and Y. H. Lin, “Gain analysis of optically-pumped Si nanocrystal waveguide amplifiers on silicon substrate,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9213–9219 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093122 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, C. K. Lin, L. J. Chou, and Y. L. Chueh, “Oxygen defect and Si nanocrystal dependent white-light and near-infrared electroluminescence of Si-implanted and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition-grown Si-rich SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 094306 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, K. H.

Lin, Y. H.

Lin, Z.

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liou, S. C.

Liu, G.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

L. Kamyab, M. B. Yu. Rusli, L. Ding, and G.-Q. Lo, “Electroluminescence from amorphous-SiNx:H/SiO2 multilayers using lateral carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meunier, M.

A. V. Kabashin, J. P. Sylvestre, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Correlation between photoluminescence properties and morphology of laser-ablated Si/SiOx nanostructured films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3248–3254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Miyajima, S.

Y. Kurokawa, S. Tomita, S. Miyajima, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots in Si quantum dots/amorphous SiC superlattice,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(35), L833–L835 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mu, W.

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Noma, T.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Ohki, K. S. Seol, and T. Noma, “Band-tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 239–244 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Noma, K. S. Seol, H. Kato, M. Fujimaki, and Y. Ohki, “Origin of photoluminescence around 2.6–2.9 eV in silicon oxynitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 1995–1997 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ohki, Y.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Ohki, K. S. Seol, and T. Noma, “Band-tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 239–244 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Noma, K. S. Seol, H. Kato, M. Fujimaki, and Y. Ohki, “Origin of photoluminescence around 2.6–2.9 eV in silicon oxynitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 1995–1997 (2001).
[Crossref]

Oton, C. J.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, C. J. Oton, and G. V. Prakash, “Phase evolution and photoluminescence in as-deposited amorphous silicon nitride films,” Scr. Mater. 63(6), 605–608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pai, Y.

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263514 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, N. M.

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patskovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, J. P. Sylvestre, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Correlation between photoluminescence properties and morphology of laser-ablated Si/SiOx nanostructured films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3248–3254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prakash, G. V.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, C. J. Oton, and G. V. Prakash, “Phase evolution and photoluminescence in as-deposited amorphous silicon nitride films,” Scr. Mater. 63(6), 605–608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, B.

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Que, Q.

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and Q. Que, “Tailoring effect of enhanced local electric field from metal nanoparticles on electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4602504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, A.

A. Rodriguez, J. Arenas, and J. C. Alonso, “Photoluminescence mechanisms in silicon quantum dots embedded in nanometric chlorinated-silicon nitride films,” J. Lumin. 132(9), 2385–2389 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rusli, M. B. Yu.

L. Kamyab, M. B. Yu. Rusli, L. Ding, and G.-Q. Lo, “Electroluminescence from amorphous-SiNx:H/SiO2 multilayers using lateral carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seol, K. S.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Ohki, K. S. Seol, and T. Noma, “Band-tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(1), 239–244 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Noma, K. S. Seol, H. Kato, M. Fujimaki, and Y. Ohki, “Origin of photoluminescence around 2.6–2.9 eV in silicon oxynitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 1995–1997 (2001).
[Crossref]

Seong, T. Y.

N. M. Park, C. J. Choi, T. Y. Seong, and S. J. Park, “Quantum confinement in amorphous silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(7), 1355–1357 (2001).
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Shen, W. Z.

H. L. Hao and W. Z. Shen, “Identification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 19(45), 455704 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simeonov, D.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Singh, S. P.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, C. J. Oton, and G. V. Prakash, “Phase evolution and photoluminescence in as-deposited amorphous silicon nitride films,” Scr. Mater. 63(6), 605–608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, C.

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Huang, X. Wang, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Tunable red light emission from a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 664–670 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081114 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, S. Xu, Y. Guo, W. Guo, X. Wang, C. Song, J. Song, L. Wang, K. M. Ho, and N. Wang, “Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-core/a-SiNx: H-shell nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5891–5896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Huang, X. Wang, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Tunable red light emission from a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 664–670 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, S. Xu, Y. Guo, W. Guo, X. Wang, C. Song, J. Song, L. Wang, K. M. Ho, and N. Wang, “Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-core/a-SiNx: H-shell nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5891–5896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081114 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

Speck, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, P.

S. P. Singh, P. Srivastava, S. Ghosh, S. A. Khan, C. J. Oton, and G. V. Prakash, “Phase evolution and photoluminescence in as-deposited amorphous silicon nitride films,” Scr. Mater. 63(6), 605–608 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sylvestre, J. P.

A. V. Kabashin, J. P. Sylvestre, S. Patskovsky, and M. Meunier, “Correlation between photoluminescence properties and morphology of laser-ablated Si/SiOx nanostructured films,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3248–3254 (2002).
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Tan, C.

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tayo, B.

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tewary, A.

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, “Controlling defect and Si nanoparticle luminescence from silicon oxynitride films with CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tomita, S.

Y. Kurokawa, S. Tomita, S. Miyajima, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots in Si quantum dots/amorphous SiC superlattice,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(35), L833–L835 (2007).
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R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and Q. Que, “Tailoring effect of enhanced local electric field from metal nanoparticles on electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4602504 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, N.

Wang, X.

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Song, R. Huang, X. Wang, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Tunable red light emission from a-Si:H/a-SiNx multilayers,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 664–670 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, S. Xu, Y. Guo, W. Guo, X. Wang, C. Song, J. Song, L. Wang, K. M. Ho, and N. Wang, “Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-core/a-SiNx: H-shell nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5891–5896 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081114 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, J. Song, X. Wang, Y. Q. Guo, C. Song, Z. H. Zheng, X. L. Wu, and P. K. Chu, “Origin of strong white electroluminescence from dense Si nanodots embedded in silicon nitride,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 692–694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. G.

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “High-efficiency visible photoluminescence from amorphous silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3474–3476 (2003).

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3474–3476 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “High-efficiency visible photoluminescence from amorphous silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3474–3476 (2003).

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3474–3476 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Williamson, A.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wong, H.

H. Wong and V. A. Gritsenko, “Defects in silicon oxynitride gate dielectric films,” Microelectron. Reliab. 42(4-5), 597–605 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wong, J. I.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. L.

Wu, X. L.

Xu, J.

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Dong, K. Chen, D. Wang, W. Li, Z. Ma, J. Xu, and X. Huang, “A new luminescent defect state in low temperature grown amorphous SiNxOy thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 7(3–4), 828–831 (2010).

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er 3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

Yamada, A.

Y. Kurokawa, S. Tomita, S. Miyajima, A. Yamada, and M. Konagai, “Photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots in Si quantum dots/amorphous SiC superlattice,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(35), L833–L835 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and Q. Que, “Tailoring effect of enhanced local electric field from metal nanoparticles on electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4602504 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er 3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, M.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yi, J. H.

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z. H.

Zhu, F. R.

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, P.

X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (16)

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, X. Huang, J. Xu, and D. Feng, “Visible photoluminescence in crystallized amorphous Si:H/SiNx:H multiquantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(17), 2069–2071 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “High-efficiency visible photoluminescence from amorphous silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3474–3476 (2003).

Y. Q. Wang, Y. G. Wang, L. Cao, and Z. X. Cao, “silicon nanoparticles embedded in silicon nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3474–3476 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. R. Lin, C. J. Lin, and H. C. Kuo, “Improving carrier transport and light emission in a silicon-nanocrystal based MOS light-emitting diode on silicon nanopillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093122 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, H. Dong, D. Wang, K. Chen, H. Ding, X. Wang, W. Li, J. Xu, and Z. Ma, “Role of barrier layers in electroluminescence from SiN-based multilayer light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Cen, T. P. Chen, L. Ding, Y. Liu, J. I. Wong, M. Yang, Z. Liu, W. P. Goh, F. R. Zhu, and S. Fung, “Strong violet and green-yellow electroluminescence from silicon nitride thin films multiply implanted with Si ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041102 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Lin, Y. Pai, C. Lin, and C. Chen, “Comparison on the electroluminescence of Si-rich SiNx and SiOx based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 263514 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Kamyab, M. B. Yu. Rusli, L. Ding, and G.-Q. Lo, “Electroluminescence from amorphous-SiNx:H/SiO2 multilayers using lateral carrier injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061105 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, “Controlling defect and Si nanoparticle luminescence from silicon oxynitride films with CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093114 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, B. Qian, S. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Oxygen induced strong green light emission from low-temperature grown amorphous silicon nitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 221120 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, K. Chen, P. Han, H. Dong, X. Wang, D. Chen, W. Li, J. Xu, Z. Ma, and X. Huang, “Strong green-yellow electroluminescence from oxidized amorphous silicon nitride light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 093515 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, R. Huang, C. Song, Y. Guo, and J. Song, “Effect of barrier layers on electroluminescence from Si/SiOxNy multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081114 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Effects of excess silicon on the 1540 nm Er 3+ luminescence in silicon rich oxynitride films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Noma, K. S. Seol, H. Kato, M. Fujimaki, and Y. Ohki, “Origin of photoluminescence around 2.6–2.9 eV in silicon oxynitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(13), 1995–1997 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Dal Negro, J. H. Yi, L. C. Kimerling, S. Hamel, A. Williamson, and G. Galli, “Light emission from siliconrich nitride nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 183103 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

F. Wang, D. Li, D. Yang, and Q. Que, “Tailoring effect of enhanced local electric field from metal nanoparticles on electroluminescence of silicon-rich silicon nitride,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(3), 4602504 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Huang, Z. Lin, Z. Lin, C. Song, Y. Guo, X. Wang, and J. Song, “Suppression of hole overflow and enhancement of light emission efficiency in si quantum dots based silicon nitride light emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200306 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Mu, P. Zhang, J. Xu, S. Sun, J. Xu, W. Li, and K. Chen, “Direct-current and alternating-current driving Si quantum dots-based light emitting device,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. L. Wu and G. R. Lin, “Power gain modeling of Si quantum dots embedded in a SiOx waveguide amplifier with inhomogeneous broadened spontaneous emission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 3000109 (2013).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

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C. Tan, J. Zhang, X. Li, G. Liu, B. Tayo, and N. Tansu, “First-principle electronic properties of dilute-As GaNAs alloy for visible light emitters,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 272–279 (2013).
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P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “FDTD analysis on extraction efficiency of GaN light-emitting diodes with microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 317–323 (2013).
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X.-H. Li, P. Zhu, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes by using 2-D close-packed TiO2 microsphere arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(5), 324–332 (2013).
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H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in Ш-Nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 212–225 (2013).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

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Nanotechnology (1)

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Nat. Mater. (1)

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Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) PL spectra of silicon oxynitride samples fabricated at different oxygen flow rates: 0.6 sccm (S1), 1.0 sccm (S2), 2.0 sccm (S3), and 3.0 sccm (S4). Inset shows the photography of the samples under an excitation wavelength of 325 nm. (b) The integrated PL intensity of the samples as a function of oxygen flow rate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical bandgap and PL peak energy of silicon oxynitride samples as a function of oxygen flow rate. Inset shows the tauc plots of S1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PL peak energy versus the excitation wavelength for S1, S2, S3, and S4.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) FTIR spectra of silicon oxynitride samples fabricated at different oxygen flow rates, respectively. (b) Si, N and O concentration as a function of the oxygen flow rate. (c) Deconvoluted Si 2p XPS spectra for S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Room-temperature luminescence decay traces taken from different samples, respectively.

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