Abstract

A new apatite phosphor Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ with bright long wavelength emission was synthesized by solid state reaction. The crystal structure and its photoluminescence properties were studied through X-ray diffraction refinement, excitation and emission spectra. Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ phosphor can be effectively excited by UV light and emit intense green emission band at 506 nm due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+. The concentration quenching as well as thermal quenching properties were also investigated in detail and were compared with the commercial green phosphor (LMS520B). In addition, a white LED lamp was fabricated by combining the optimized green-emitting Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ and the commercial red phosphor (ZYP630) with a GaN chip (365~370 nm). The Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color-rendering index (CRI) were found to be (0.347, 0.340), 4868 K and 84.6, respectively, and the luminous efficacy is measured to be 30.63 lm/W at room temperature with a forward-bias current of 200mA.

©2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The pioneering work by Nakamura and associates in solving the p-type doping and growths of high quality GaN materials revolutionized the development of III-Nitride light-emitting and lasers [1], and further development of LEDs has progressed at a rapid pace [2,3]. Recent progress has led to significant improvement in III-Nitride LEDs enabling the practical implementation of this technology serving as pump excitation sources in phosphor-converted white LEDs. Several key advances in InGaN-based LEDs were realized by engineering the active regions with improved radiative recombination rates [46], improvement in material quality [7,8], and nano/microphotonic structures for light extraction enhancement [9,10]. The progress in high performance sources in the deep/mid UV spectral regimes [1114] is also important for UV-excitation phosphor-converted LEDs [15]. Currently, white LEDs are attracting a great deal of attention in terms of their varieties advantages, such as high efficiency, compactness, long operational lifetime, and resultant energy savings, and the commercialization is expanding to high-volume applications, including general lighting and displays [16,17]. In phosphor converted white LEDs, phosphors are one of the important materials in lighting technology and have been widely investigated. Currently, the most dominant phosphor converted white LEDs is by combining a GaN-based LED chip and a yellow-emitting yttrium aluminum garnet YAG: Ce3+ phosphor [18]. However, such generated light color is not true because this system lacks of a red emitting component, which restricts their use in more vivid applications [19,20]. In order to obtain higher efficiency white LEDs with appropriate color temperature and higher color-rendering index, a new approach using near-ultraviolet (n-UV) or ultraviolet (UV) LED chips coated with blue/green/red tricolor phosphors was introduced [2125]. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new n-UV/UV excitable phosphors that can be effectively excited in the near ultraviolet range.

Apatite structure contains a large family of inorganic compounds and the oxyapatite structure compounds with a formula A2+xB8-x(SiO4)6-x(PO4)xO2 have been demonstrated to be very suitable for luminescent host due to their excellent luminescence properties and potential applications in solid-state lighting [26], typically, Yb3+ doped Ca8La2(PO4)6O2, Ce3+, Mn2+ co-doped Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 and Ce3+, Mn2+, Tb3+ co-doped Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 phosphors [27,28]. Till now, it has been recognized that Ce3+ are good activators for phosphors because their efficient luminescence due to the parity allowed 4f–5d transitions. However, the Ce3+ doped apatite phosphors and their relevant applications are confining and challenged although they have been widely investigated because the emission location of most Ce3+ doped apatite phosphors locates at shorter wavelength and emits either violet or blue light, such as Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2: Ce3+ (395 nm) [29], Ca5(PO4)3F: Ce3+ (432 nm) [30], Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2: Ce3+ (385 nm) [31], Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ (415 nm) [32] and Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O: Ce3+ [33], Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2:Ce3+ (392 nm) [34], etc. In contrast, there has been rare report and study on the Ce3+-doped apatite phosphor with longer emission wavelength, as a result, information on their applications is mostly unavailable. Consequently, it is significative and desirable to develop new apatite phosphors with long wavelength Ce3+ emission.

In addition, as is well known, the position of the lowest 5d band of Ce3+ is strongly influenced by host lattice selection and it often varies in color from ultraviolet to yellow, depending on the different types of crystal fields around them [35]. So in principle, it is realizable to obtain long wavelength emission in Ce3+ doped apatite phosphor by designing a suitable crystal structure. For the structure of oxyapatite A2+xB8-x(SiO4)6-x(PO4)xO2 compounds, there are two kinds of cationic sites labeled as M(I) and M(II), the six M(II) sites are preferentially occupied by the seven coordinated trivalent ions with Cs symmetry and next the bivalent ions; while the other four M(I) sites are usually occupied by bivalent ions or the remaining trivalent ions with nine coordination and C3 symmetry [36]. In our previous work, we have demonstrate that in Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2 oxyapatite phosphors, when Ce3+ occupy trivalent La3+ sites with seven coordination, it gives a blue emission and if Ce3+ ions enter the bivalent Ca2+ with nine or seven coordination, it can exhibit shorter (violet) or longer emission due to different crystal field environment [31]. Based on the above clues, in this work, we designed a new greening emitting phosphor Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ (SLCPO:Ce3+) with apatite structure. As expected, strong green emission is observed in it. We mainly report on its synthesis, crystal structure, the photoluminescence (PL) properties and thermal quenching properties as well as its potential application in white LEDs.

2. Experimental

2.1 Materials and synthesis

All the powder samples were synthesized using solid-state reaction. The starting materials were analytical-grade SrCO3 (A.R. 99.9%), CaCO3 (A.R. 99.9%), La2O3 (A.R. 99.9%), (NH4)2HPO4 (A.R. 99.9%) and CeO2 (A.R. 99.9%). The stoichiometric raw materials were ground thoroughly in an agate mortar for 1-2 h and subsequently heated to 1273K in a closed alumina crucible in air for 4h. Then the preheated mixture was ground again and fired to1623K for 6h in an alumina crucible under reducing atmosphere of N2-H2 (8%) in horizontal tube furnaces.

2.2 Measurements and characterization

The crystal structure of the synthesized samples was identified by using a Rigaku D/Max-2400 X-ray diffractometer (XRD) with Nifiltered Cu Kα radiation. The photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra of the samples were measured by using an FLS-920T fluorescence spectrophotometer equipped with a 450W Xe light source and double excitation monochromators. Thermal quenching was tested using a heating apparatus (TAP-02) in combination with PL equipment. All of the measurements were performed at room temperature.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 XRD Refinement

Fig. 1(a) plots the experimental, calculated, background and difference results of the XRD reference of SLCPO host at room temperature, obtained using Materials Studio (MS) program [37,38]. All the observed peaks satisfy the reflection condition and the final parameters of crystallography and refinement are shown in Table 1 . The results of the final refinement data indicate that the powder sample is crystallized in hexagonal symmetry with space group P63/m and in the apatite structure. The lattice parameters are a = b = 9.54307 Å, c = 7.03085 Å. A series of XRD patterns of Ce3+ doped SLCPO phosphors with different doping contents are illustrated in Fig. 1(b). No detectable impurity phase is observed in the obtained samples even at high doping concentration. The XRD profiles are well fitted with the calculated XRD patterns, indicating that the obtained samples are of single phase and the Ce3+ ions have been successfully incorporated in the SLCPO host lattice without changing the crystal structure.

 

Fig. 1 (a) The experimental, calculated, background and difference results of the XRD reference of SLCPO host; (b) XRD patterns of SLCPO:Ce3+ phosphors with different Ce3+ doping contents.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. The Final Parameters for Crystallography and Refinement

3.2 Photoluminescence properties

Figures 2(a) and 2(b) illustrate the PLE and PL spectra of Ce3+ doped SLCPO phosphor. When monitored at 506 nm, the PLE spectrum shows a broad band of 260 to 400 nm and has strong intensity around 360-370 nm, matching well with the UV-LED chips. The unresolved broad band is assigned to the transition between the ground-state 4f7 and the crystal-field split 4f65d configuration of Ce3+. Upon excitation of 352 nm, the SLCPO: Ce3+ phosphor exhibits an intense green luminescence and the corresponding emission spectrum consists of a broad emission band due to the electric-dipole-allowed transition from the 5d excited state to the 4f ground state of the Ce3+ [39]. In order to further investigated the luminescence properties, a series of Ce3+ with different doping content samples SLCPO:xCe3+ (0.04≤x≤0.14) are synthesized. As we can see from the inset of Fig. 2(b), with the increase of Ce3+ contents, the PL intensity was found to increase gradually until x˃0.08, reaching to the concentration quenching. That is, when the Ce3+ ions content increases, more and more Ce3+ ions pair or aggregate with others, efficient resonant energy transfer between Ce3+ ions and a fraction of migration to distant luminescent killer of quencher occur, leading to the luminescence quenching. With x increasing, the peak positions of the PL spectra were also found to move to the long wavelength, as shown in the inset. This can be explained as following: When La3+ ion is substituted and occupied by a smaller Ce3+ ion, the distance between Ce3+ and O2- becomes shorter. Since crystal field splitting is proportional to 1/R5 [40], this shorter Ce3+-O2- distance also increases the magnitude of crystal field, so that it results in lowering of the 5d band of Ce3+, which results in the red shift of the emission wavelengths. We also compared SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ with the commercial green phosphor and the result shows that the integral intensity of SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ is 78.6% of the commercial-green (com-green) phosphor (LMS520B). In addition, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ is measured to be about 150 nm and the broad emission band starts from blue region and extends to green even yellow region in the spectrum, while that of the commercial green phosphor (LMS520B) is measured to be about 70 nm and the spectrum only covers the green region, centered at 524 nm. This means, to realize the fabrication of white light LEDs lamp, we only need to mix SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ with a red phosphor instead of traditionally mixing three color phosphors. This cannot only effectively decrease the loss due to the reabsorption, but also can simplify the fabrication process greatly.

 

Fig. 2 (a) The PLE spectrum of SLCPO: 0.04Ce3+ phosphor monitored at 506 nm. (b) The PL spectra of SLCPO: xCe3+ (0.04≤x≤0.14) phosphors at 352 nm excitation; the inset shows the content dependent PL intensity and peak positions of SLCPO:xCe3+ phosphors.

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3.3 Thermal quenching properties

The thermal quenching property is one of the important technological parameters for phosphors used in solid-state lighting as it has considerable influence on the light output and color rendering index. The temperature dependent emission spectra for SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ excited at 352 nm were measured and illustrated in Fig. 3(a) . As we can see, both the intensity of the SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ phosphor and the com-green phosphor decrease gradually as the temperature increases and the thermo stability of SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ is found to be inferior compared with the com-green phosphor. When the temperature increases to 150 °C, the PL intensity of SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ dropped to 25% of its initial intensity while that of the com-green phosphor decreases to 60% (Fig. 3(b), upper left). The integral intensity (brightness) also decreases much for both of the two phosphors (Fig. 3(b), bottom right). The observation can be rationalized by the fact that increasing temperature has increased the population of higher vibration levels, the density of phonons and the probability of non-radiative transfer (energy migration to defects). For the application in high power solid-state lighting devices, the thermal quenching property has to be enhanced and this part work is now underway. In addition, a slight blueshift of the emission band is observed as the temperature increases. To account for this observation it should be considered that thermally active phonon-assisted excitation from the lower energy sublevel to the higher energy sublevel in excited states of Ce3+ in the configuration coordinate diagram occurs [41]. The temperature dependent Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates (x, y) of SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ and the com-green phosphor are also calculated and illustrated in Fig. 3(b). With increasing temperature, the CIE chromaticity coordinates of SLCPO: 0.08Ce3+ shift gradually from green region to greenish region and the corresponding CIE coordinates changed from (0.282, 0.392) at 20 °C to (0.249, 0.334) at 200 °C, as shown in Fig. 4 . The change of the CIE chromaticity coordinates is supported by the blueshift of emission spectra with increasing temperature.

 

Fig. 3 (a) The temperature dependent emission spectra for SLCPO:0.08Ce3+ under 352 nm excitation. (b) The temperature dependent PL intensity, integral intensity and CIE coordinates of Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:0.08Ce3+compared with the com-green phosphor (LMS520B).

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Fig. 4 The temperature dependent CIE coordinates of SLCPO: Ce3+ and the EL spectrum of the WLED lamp fabricated by coating SLCPO: Ce3+ phosphor and commercial red phosphor (ZYP630) on a GaN chip (365~370 nm).

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3.4 Electroluminescence (EL) of SLCPO: Ce3+ and fabrication of LED lamps

As is known to all, the CRI of WLEDs fabricated with blue InGaN chips and YAG:Ce phosphors is low due to the lack of a red component and it is reported that it could be improved by incorporating some other activators such as Pr3+, Tb3+ [42], or mixing other phosphors such as Sr3SiO5:Eu [43] and CdS:Cu/ZnS quantum dots [44]. The optical properties of various WLEDs are listed in Table 2 . In order to further investigate the potential application of SLCPO: Ce3+ in n-UV white LEDs, the electroluminescent spectrum of GaN (365~370 nm) chip with a green emitting SLCPO: Ce3+ phosphor and commercial red phosphor (ZYP630) was measured and shown in Fig. 4. The CIE coordinates (x, y), correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) of the generated white light were measured to be (0.347, 0.340), 4868 K and 84.6, respectively, and the luminous efficacy is 30.63 lm/W under a forward-bias current of 200 mA at room temperature. From Table 2 we can see, the current obtained data is better than not only those of the WLEDs fabricated by combining a yellow YAG:Ce3+ phosphor with a blue InGaN chip but also the improved WLEDs by incorporating Tb3+ or Pr3+. The inset displays the photographs of the fabricated white LED and the emission color of the white LED lamp. These results demonstrate that SLCPO: Ce3+ is a potential green phosphor for applications in white LEDs.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Optical Properties of Various WLEDs

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, a new green emitting phosphor Ce3+ doped Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2 was synthesized via a solid state reaction and the crystal structure was investigated by XRD refinement with apatite structure. When excited by UV light, Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2: Ce3+ phosphors show intense green light predominates at 506 nm, due to the 5d-4f transition of Ce3+. The integral intensity of the optimal Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2: Ce3+ phosphor is 78.6% of the commercial green phosphor (LMS520B). Thermal quenching properties were also studied in detail. The white emitting UV LED lamp with mixed phosphors of Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2: Ce3+ and the commercial red phosphor (ZYP630) was fabricated and shows excellent CIE (0.347, 0.340), low CCT (4868K) and high CRI (84.6), respectively. These results indicate that the present Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2: Ce3+ enriches the emission color of Ce3+ doped apatite phosphors and can serve as a good candidate for UV white LEDs.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 50925206) and Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20120211130003).

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References

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  1. S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y.-K. Ee, “III-Nitride Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251112 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061111 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. K. K. Shaat, H. C. Swart, and O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, “Synthesis and characterization of white light emitting CaxSr1-xAl2O4: Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphor for solid state lighting,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(7), 962–968 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, Y. S. Luo, X. J. Wang, and J. H. Zhang, “Enriching red emission of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ by codoping Pr3+ and Cr3+ for improving color rendering of white LEDs,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25177–25182 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. W. R. Liu, C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and R. S. Liu, “ZnB2O4:Bi3+,Eu3+: a highly efficient, red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2946–2951 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. A. Setlur, W. J. Heward, Y. Gao, A. M. Srivastava, R. G. Chandran, and M. V. Shankar, “Crystal Chemistry and Luminescence of Ce3+-Doped Lu2CaMg2(Si,Ge)3O12 and Its Use in LED Based Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3314–3322 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(1), 92–102 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and S. S. Yi, “Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III),” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 443–451 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Chen, W. Zhang, Z. Lin, and Q. Ling, “White-light hydrotalcite-like compound emission from the incorporation of red-, green-, and blue-emitting metal complexes,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(1), 105–113 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. B. M. J. Smets, “Phosphors based on rare-earths, a new era in fluorescent lighting,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 16(3-4), 283–299 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+-coactivated Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 through energy transfer and modulation of excitation: potential single-phase white/yellow-emitting phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13334–13344 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. Lin and Q. Su, “Luminescence and Energy Transfer of Rare-earth-metal Ions in Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2,” J. Mater. Chem. 5(8), 1151–1154 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. Zhu, Y. H. Wang, Z. P. Ci, B. L. Liu, Y. R. Shi, and S. Y. Xin, “Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2:Ce3+,Mn2+: A Color-Tunable Phosphor with Efficient Energy Transfer for White-Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(8), J236–J242 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Wen, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, and B. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O: Ce3+, Tb3+ white phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 129(3), 1171–1175 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  34. H. Yokota, M. Yoshida, H. Ishibashi, T. Yano, H. Yamamoto, and S. Kikkawa, “Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(3), 800–804 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  35. G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  36. W. P. Chen, H. B. Liang, B. Han, J. P. Zhong, and Q. Su, “Emitting-Color Tunable Phosphors Sr3GaO4F:Ce3+ at Ultraviolet Light and Low-Voltage Electron Beam Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(39), 17194–17199 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  37. R. A. Young, The Rietveld Method, IUCr Monographies of Crystallography 5 (Oxford University Press, 1993).
  38. H. Miura, T. Ushio, K. Nagai, D. Fujimoto, Z. Lepp, H. Takahashi, and R. Tamura, “Crystallization of a Desired Metastable Polymorph by Pseudoseeding, Crystal Structure Solution from Its Powder X-ray Diffraction Data, and Confirmation of Polymorphic Transition,” Cryst. Growth Des. 3(6), 959–965 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  39. T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, P. Demchenko, A. Voloshinovskii, and P. Dorenbos, “Luminescence properties of Ce3+-doped LiGdP4O12 upon vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(44), 445901 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 21(4), 171–219 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  41. S. Shionoya and W. M. Yen, Phosphor Handbook, Laser & Optical Science & Technology Series (CRC Press, 1998).
  42. H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  43. H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 715–720 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  44. X. Wang, X. Yan, W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (8)

Y. Zhang, L. Wu, M. Ji, B. Wang, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “Structure and photoluminescence properties of KSr4(BO3)3:Eu3+ red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(1), 92–102 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Li, H. K. Yang, B. K. Moon, B. C. Choi, J. H. Jeong, K. Jang, H. S. Lee, and S. S. Yi, “Tunable photoluminescence properties of Eu(II)- and Sm(III)-coactivated Ca9Y(PO4)7 and energy transfer between Eu(II) and Sm(III),” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 443–451 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061111 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. K. K. Shaat, H. C. Swart, and O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, “Synthesis and characterization of white light emitting CaxSr1-xAl2O4: Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphor for solid state lighting,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(7), 962–968 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, X. Yan, W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (12)

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Wen, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, and B. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O: Ce3+, Tb3+ white phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 129(3), 1171–1175 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yokota, M. Yoshida, H. Ishibashi, T. Yano, H. Yamamoto, and S. Kikkawa, “Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(3), 800–804 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+-coactivated Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 through energy transfer and modulation of excitation: potential single-phase white/yellow-emitting phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13334–13344 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, Y. H. Wang, Z. P. Ci, B. L. Liu, Y. R. Shi, and S. Y. Xin, “Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2:Ce3+,Mn2+: A Color-Tunable Phosphor with Efficient Energy Transfer for White-Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(8), J236–J242 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, and Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A930–A936 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (8)

C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y.-K. Ee, “III-Nitride Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, Y. S. Luo, X. J. Wang, and J. H. Zhang, “Enriching red emission of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ by codoping Pr3+ and Cr3+ for improving color rendering of white LEDs,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25177–25182 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. R. Liu, C. C. Lin, Y. C. Chiu, Y. T. Yeh, S. M. Jang, and R. S. Liu, “ZnB2O4:Bi3+,Eu3+: a highly efficient, red-emitting phosphor,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2946–2951 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. P. Chen, H. B. Liang, B. Han, J. P. Zhong, and Q. Su, “Emitting-Color Tunable Phosphors Sr3GaO4F:Ce3+ at Ultraviolet Light and Low-Voltage Electron Beam Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(39), 17194–17199 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, P. Demchenko, A. Voloshinovskii, and P. Dorenbos, “Luminescence properties of Ce3+-doped LiGdP4O12 upon vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(44), 445901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 715–720 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. A. Setlur, W. J. Heward, Y. Gao, A. M. Srivastava, R. G. Chandran, and M. V. Shankar, “Crystal Chemistry and Luminescence of Ce3+-Doped Lu2CaMg2(Si,Ge)3O12 and Its Use in LED Based Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3314–3322 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

H. Miura, T. Ushio, K. Nagai, D. Fujimoto, Z. Lepp, H. Takahashi, and R. Tamura, “Crystallization of a Desired Metastable Polymorph by Pseudoseeding, Crystal Structure Solution from Its Powder X-ray Diffraction Data, and Confirmation of Polymorphic Transition,” Cryst. Growth Des. 3(6), 959–965 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. D. Rack and P. H. Holloway, “The structure, device physics, and material properties of thin film electroluminescent displays,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 21(4), 171–219 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Lin and Q. Su, “Luminescence and Energy Transfer of Rare-earth-metal Ions in Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2,” J. Mater. Chem. 5(8), 1151–1154 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

B. M. J. Smets, “Phosphors based on rare-earths, a new era in fluorescent lighting,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 16(3-4), 283–299 (1987).
[Crossref]

(Bert) Hintzen, H. T.

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boulon, G.

G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brenier, A.

G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
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S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
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Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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Chandran, R. G.

A. A. Setlur, W. J. Heward, Y. Gao, A. M. Srivastava, R. G. Chandran, and M. V. Shankar, “Crystal Chemistry and Luminescence of Ce3+-Doped Lu2CaMg2(Si,Ge)3O12 and Its Use in LED Based Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3314–3322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, H.

Chen, H. C.

Chen, K. J.

Chen, W. P.

W. P. Chen, H. B. Liang, B. Han, J. P. Zhong, and Q. Su, “Emitting-Color Tunable Phosphors Sr3GaO4F:Ce3+ at Ultraviolet Light and Low-Voltage Electron Beam Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(39), 17194–17199 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. J.

Cheng, Z. Y.

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+-coactivated Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 through energy transfer and modulation of excitation: potential single-phase white/yellow-emitting phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13334–13344 (2011).
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Choi, B. C.

Ci, Z. P.

G. Zhu, Y. H. Wang, Z. P. Ci, B. L. Liu, Y. R. Shi, and S. Y. Xin, “Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2:Ce3+,Mn2+: A Color-Tunable Phosphor with Efficient Energy Transfer for White-Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(8), J236–J242 (2011).
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G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
[Crossref]

Collombet, A.

G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
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M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
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E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061111 (2012).
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Demchenko, P.

T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, P. Demchenko, A. Voloshinovskii, and P. Dorenbos, “Luminescence properties of Ce3+-doped LiGdP4O12 upon vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(44), 445901 (2009).
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Denault, K. A.

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

Dorenbos, P.

T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, P. Demchenko, A. Voloshinovskii, and P. Dorenbos, “Luminescence properties of Ce3+-doped LiGdP4O12 upon vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(44), 445901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ee, Y. K.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ee, Y.-K.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y.-K. Ee, “III-Nitride Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Francesco Pecora, E.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, D.

H. Miura, T. Ushio, K. Nagai, D. Fujimoto, Z. Lepp, H. Takahashi, and R. Tamura, “Crystallization of a Desired Metastable Polymorph by Pseudoseeding, Crystal Structure Solution from Its Powder X-ray Diffraction Data, and Confirmation of Polymorphic Transition,” Cryst. Growth Des. 3(6), 959–965 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, T.

G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

A. A. Setlur, W. J. Heward, Y. Gao, A. M. Srivastava, R. G. Chandran, and M. V. Shankar, “Crystal Chemistry and Luminescence of Ce3+-Doped Lu2CaMg2(Si,Ge)3O12 and Its Use in LED Based Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3314–3322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Geng, D. L.

M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+-coactivated Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 through energy transfer and modulation of excitation: potential single-phase white/yellow-emitting phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13334–13344 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, B.

W. P. Chen, H. B. Liang, B. Han, J. P. Zhong, and Q. Su, “Emitting-Color Tunable Phosphors Sr3GaO4F:Ce3+ at Ultraviolet Light and Low-Voltage Electron Beam Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(39), 17194–17199 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. D.

Heward, W. J.

A. A. Setlur, W. J. Heward, Y. Gao, A. M. Srivastava, R. G. Chandran, and M. V. Shankar, “Crystal Chemistry and Luminescence of Ce3+-Doped Lu2CaMg2(Si,Ge)3O12 and Its Use in LED Based Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3314–3322 (2006).
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J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
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Huang, S. S.

C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
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Huang, S.-C.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
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Hung, C. W.

Im, W. B.

H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
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Ishibashi, H.

H. Yokota, M. Yoshida, H. Ishibashi, T. Yano, H. Yamamoto, and S. Kikkawa, “Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(3), 800–804 (2011).
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Jang, E.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
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Jang, H.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
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Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 715–720 (2009).
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H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
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Jang, K.

Jang, S. M.

Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 715–720 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
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Jeong, J. H.

Jewell, J.

J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
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Ji, M.

Jun, S.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
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Kang, X. J.

M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
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Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Polarization property of deep-ultraviolet light emission from C-plane AlN/GaN short-period superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251112 (2011).
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H. Yokota, M. Yoshida, H. Ishibashi, T. Yano, H. Yamamoto, and S. Kikkawa, “Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(3), 800–804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. S.

H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, Y.

Kumnorkaew, P.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Lebbou, K.

G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. C.

H. S. Jang, W. B. Im, D. C. Lee, D. Y. Jeon, and S. S. Kim, “Enhancement of red spectral emission intensity of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor via Pr co-doping and Tb substitution for the application to white LEDs,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 371–377 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. S.

Lee, J.

G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lepp, Z.

H. Miura, T. Ushio, K. Nagai, D. Fujimoto, Z. Lepp, H. Takahashi, and R. Tamura, “Crystallization of a Desired Metastable Polymorph by Pseudoseeding, Crystal Structure Solution from Its Powder X-ray Diffraction Data, and Confirmation of Polymorphic Transition,” Cryst. Growth Des. 3(6), 959–965 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, G. G.

M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+-coactivated Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 through energy transfer and modulation of excitation: potential single-phase white/yellow-emitting phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13334–13344 (2011).
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Li, H.

Li, W.

X. Wang, X. Yan, W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
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Li, X. H.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y.-K. Ee, “III-Nitride Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lian, H. Z.

M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, H. B.

W. P. Chen, H. B. Liang, B. Han, J. P. Zhong, and Q. Su, “Emitting-Color Tunable Phosphors Sr3GaO4F:Ce3+ at Ultraviolet Light and Low-Voltage Electron Beam Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(39), 17194–17199 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. C.

Lin, J.

M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+-coactivated Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 through energy transfer and modulation of excitation: potential single-phase white/yellow-emitting phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13334–13344 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
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Liu, B.

Y. Wen, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, and B. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O: Ce3+, Tb3+ white phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 129(3), 1171–1175 (2011).
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G. Zhu, Y. H. Wang, Z. P. Ci, B. L. Liu, Y. R. Shi, and S. Y. Xin, “Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2:Ce3+,Mn2+: A Color-Tunable Phosphor with Efficient Energy Transfer for White-Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(8), J236–J242 (2011).
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Liu, R. S.

Liu, W. R.

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S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
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Moustakas, T. D.

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J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
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Paiella, R.

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S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
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G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
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G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+-coactivated Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 through energy transfer and modulation of excitation: potential single-phase white/yellow-emitting phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13334–13344 (2011).
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C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
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S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
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S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. (Bert) Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+: An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
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Shalapska, T.

T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, P. Demchenko, A. Voloshinovskii, and P. Dorenbos, “Luminescence properties of Ce3+-doped LiGdP4O12 upon vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(44), 445901 (2009).
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M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
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G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+-coactivated Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2 through energy transfer and modulation of excitation: potential single-phase white/yellow-emitting phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(35), 13334–13344 (2011).
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G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
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Shankar, M. V.

A. A. Setlur, W. J. Heward, Y. Gao, A. M. Srivastava, R. G. Chandran, and M. V. Shankar, “Crystal Chemistry and Luminescence of Ce3+-Doped Lu2CaMg2(Si,Ge)3O12 and Its Use in LED Based Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3314–3322 (2006).
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Shi, Y. R.

G. Zhu, Y. H. Wang, Z. P. Ci, B. L. Liu, Y. R. Shi, and S. Y. Xin, “Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2:Ce3+,Mn2+: A Color-Tunable Phosphor with Efficient Energy Transfer for White-Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(8), J236–J242 (2011).
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J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
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E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061111 (2012).
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X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
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Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
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A. A. Setlur, W. J. Heward, Y. Gao, A. M. Srivastava, R. G. Chandran, and M. V. Shankar, “Crystal Chemistry and Luminescence of Ce3+-Doped Lu2CaMg2(Si,Ge)3O12 and Its Use in LED Based Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3314–3322 (2006).
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T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, P. Demchenko, A. Voloshinovskii, and P. Dorenbos, “Luminescence properties of Ce3+-doped LiGdP4O12 upon vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(44), 445901 (2009).
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Takahashi, H.

H. Miura, T. Ushio, K. Nagai, D. Fujimoto, Z. Lepp, H. Takahashi, and R. Tamura, “Crystallization of a Desired Metastable Polymorph by Pseudoseeding, Crystal Structure Solution from Its Powder X-ray Diffraction Data, and Confirmation of Polymorphic Transition,” Cryst. Growth Des. 3(6), 959–965 (2003).
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H. Miura, T. Ushio, K. Nagai, D. Fujimoto, Z. Lepp, H. Takahashi, and R. Tamura, “Crystallization of a Desired Metastable Polymorph by Pseudoseeding, Crystal Structure Solution from Its Powder X-ray Diffraction Data, and Confirmation of Polymorphic Transition,” Cryst. Growth Des. 3(6), 959–965 (2003).
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X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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H. Miura, T. Ushio, K. Nagai, D. Fujimoto, Z. Lepp, H. Takahashi, and R. Tamura, “Crystallization of a Desired Metastable Polymorph by Pseudoseeding, Crystal Structure Solution from Its Powder X-ray Diffraction Data, and Confirmation of Polymorphic Transition,” Cryst. Growth Des. 3(6), 959–965 (2003).
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Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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T. Shalapska, G. Stryganyuk, P. Demchenko, A. Voloshinovskii, and P. Dorenbos, “Luminescence properties of Ce3+-doped LiGdP4O12 upon vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray excitation,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(44), 445901 (2009).
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Wang, C. H.

Wang, L.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Yan, W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
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Wang, X. J.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wen, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, and B. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O: Ce3+, Tb3+ white phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 129(3), 1171–1175 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. H.

G. Zhu, Y. H. Wang, Z. P. Ci, B. L. Liu, Y. R. Shi, and S. Y. Xin, “Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2:Ce3+,Mn2+: A Color-Tunable Phosphor with Efficient Energy Transfer for White-Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(8), J236–J242 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. Jewell, D. Simeonov, S.-C. Huang, Y.-L. Hu, S. Nakamura, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Double embedded photonic crystals for extraction of guided light in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(17), 171105 (2012).
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Y. Wen, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, and B. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O: Ce3+, Tb3+ white phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 129(3), 1171–1175 (2011).
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R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
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Wu, L.

Xiao, F.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
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G. Zhu, Y. H. Wang, Z. P. Ci, B. L. Liu, Y. R. Shi, and S. Y. Xin, “Ca5La5(SiO4)3(PO4)3O2:Ce3+,Mn2+: A Color-Tunable Phosphor with Efficient Energy Transfer for White-Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(8), J236–J242 (2011).
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Yamamoto, H.

H. Yokota, M. Yoshida, H. Ishibashi, T. Yano, H. Yamamoto, and S. Kikkawa, “Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(3), 800–804 (2011).
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Yan, X.

X. Wang, X. Yan, W. Li, and K. Sun, “Doped quantum dots for white-light-emitting diodes without reabsorption of multiphase phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 24(20), 2742–2747 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, D. M.

M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
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Yang, H. K.

Yano, T.

H. Yokota, M. Yoshida, H. Ishibashi, T. Yano, H. Yamamoto, and S. Kikkawa, “Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(3), 800–804 (2011).
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Ye, S.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
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Yeh, Y. T.

Yi, S. S.

Yin, J.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061111 (2012).
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Yokota, H.

H. Yokota, M. Yoshida, H. Ishibashi, T. Yano, H. Yamamoto, and S. Kikkawa, “Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(3), 800–804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, M.

H. Yokota, M. Yoshida, H. Ishibashi, T. Yano, H. Yamamoto, and S. Kikkawa, “Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(3), 800–804 (2011).
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G. Boulon, A. Collombet, A. Brenier, M. Cohen-Adad, A. Yoshikawa, K. Lebbou, J. Lee, and T. Fukuda, “Structural and Spectroscopic Characterization of Nominal Yb3+:Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 Oxyapatite Single Crystal Fibers Grown by the Micro-Pulling-Down Method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(4), 263–270 (2001).
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Young, E. C.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu. Nikiforov, A.

E. Francesco Pecora, W. Zhang, A. Yu. Nikiforov, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, J. Yin, R. Paiella, L. Dal Negro, and T. D. Moustakas, “Sub-250 nm room-temperature optical gain from AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells with strong band-structure potential fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 061111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. M.

C. M. Zhang, S. S. Huang, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, M. M. Shang, C. Peng, and J. Lin, “Tunable luminescence in Ce3+, Mn2+ -codoped calcium fluorapatite through combining emissions and modulation of excitation: a novel strategy to white light emission,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(32), 6674–6680 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

Y. Wen, Y. Wang, F. Zhang, and B. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable Ca4Y6(SiO4)6O: Ce3+, Tb3+ white phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 129(3), 1171–1175 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y.-K. Ee, “III-Nitride Photonics,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(2), 241–248 (2010).
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G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, M. M. Shang, Y. Zhang, C. Peng, Z. Y. Cheng, and J. Lin, “Color Tuning Luminescence of Ce3+/Mn2+/Tb3+-Triactivated Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 via Energy Transfer: Potential Single-Phase White-Light-Emitting Phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(44), 21882–21892 (2011).
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J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
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W. P. Chen, H. B. Liang, B. Han, J. P. Zhong, and Q. Su, “Emitting-Color Tunable Phosphors Sr3GaO4F:Ce3+ at Ultraviolet Light and Low-Voltage Electron Beam Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(39), 17194–17199 (2009).
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H. S. Jang, Y. H. Won, and D. Y. Jeon, “Improvement of electroluminescent property of blue LED coated with highly luminescent yellow-emitting phosphors,” Appl. Phys. B 95(4), 715–720 (2009).
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Chem. Mater. (1)

A. A. Setlur, W. J. Heward, Y. Gao, A. M. Srivastava, R. G. Chandran, and M. V. Shankar, “Crystal Chemistry and Luminescence of Ce3+-Doped Lu2CaMg2(Si,Ge)3O12 and Its Use in LED Based Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3314–3322 (2006).
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X. H. Li, R. Song, Y. K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes With Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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Y. K. Ee, X. H. Li, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Abbreviated MOVPE nucleation of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned sapphire,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(8), 1311–1315 (2010).
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M. M. Shang, G. G. Li, D. L. Geng, D. M. Yang, X. J. Kang, Y. Zhang, H. Z. Lian, and J. Lin, “Blue Emitting Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+/Eu2+ Phosphors with High Color Purity and Brightness for White LED: Soft-Chemical Synthesis, Luminescence, and Energy Transfer Properties,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(18), 10222–10231 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The experimental, calculated, background and difference results of the XRD reference of SLCPO host; (b) XRD patterns of SLCPO:Ce3+ phosphors with different Ce3+ doping contents.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The PLE spectrum of SLCPO: 0.04Ce3+ phosphor monitored at 506 nm. (b) The PL spectra of SLCPO: xCe3+ (0.04≤x≤0.14) phosphors at 352 nm excitation; the inset shows the content dependent PL intensity and peak positions of SLCPO:xCe3+ phosphors.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The temperature dependent emission spectra for SLCPO:0.08Ce3+ under 352 nm excitation. (b) The temperature dependent PL intensity, integral intensity and CIE coordinates of Sr4La2Ca4(PO4)6O2:0.08Ce3+compared with the com-green phosphor (LMS520B).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The temperature dependent CIE coordinates of SLCPO: Ce3+ and the EL spectrum of the WLED lamp fabricated by coating SLCPO: Ce3+ phosphor and commercial red phosphor (ZYP630) on a GaN chip (365~370 nm).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The Final Parameters for Crystallography and Refinement

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical Properties of Various WLEDs

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