Abstract

We synthesized green-emitting platinum (Pt) nanoclusters (excitation: 460 nm, emission: 520 nm) by reducing Pt ions from pre-equilibrated Pt/fourth-generation poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM (G4-OH)) complexes with a mild reductant. The structural characteristics of the resulting Pt nanoclusters, Pt8L8 (L = C2H2O2S), were determined by Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectroscopy. These nanoclusters possess a 28% quantum yield, which is higher than those of green-emitting Au and Ag nanoclusters. We also found that Pt nanoclusters have considerably low cytotoxicity and biocompatibility, and demonstrated that they could be used for biomedical imaging. This study provides the possibility to extend the photoluminescent wavelength of Pt nanoclusters to the near infrared region, which is ideal for biological imaging applications.

©2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The development of luminescent nanomaterials as fluorescent labels is an attractive research field owing to the promising application in biomedical imaging, biosensing, drug delivery, and disease diagnostic. Noble-metal nanoclusters [141], composed of several atoms, have been investigated as a new class of bioimaging probes. In particular, several groups have dedicated their efforts in developing series of fluorescent Au [13,15] and Ag [3,23,24] nanoclusters, which have emission wavelengths ranging from UV to near infrared (NIR) [9] light, for biomedical imaging [3,1519,3335] and biosensing [3,1114,2932]. Recently, fluorescent Pt nanoclusters have been also developed by our group [36], Kawasaki et al. [37], and X. L. Guével et al. [38]. In our previous paper, we reported the synthesis of blue-emitting Pt5 nanoclusters that have an 18% absolute quantum yield in water (excitation: 380 nm, emission: 470 nm) [36]. These Pt5 nanoclusters were prepared by reducing Pt/PAMAM (G4-OH) solution with NaBH4 at room temperature. The products were then purified from PAMAM (G4-OH) and other chemical species by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), resulting in atomically monodispersed Pt5 nanoclusters. We also showed these nanoclusters could be used for cellular imaging and have low cytotoxicity. However, their excitation by UV irradiation risks autofluorescence, phototoxity and strong light scattering. Therefore, we sought nanoclusters with longer wavelength emissions for bioimaging purposes. In this paper, we describe a new scheme for synthesizing green-emitting Pt nanoclusters by reducing Pt ions gradually from pre-equilibrated Pt/PAMAM (G4-OH) complexes using a milder reductant (trisodium citrate) than NaBH4. Importantly, based on Pt/PAMAM (G4-OH) complex absorbance measurements before reduction, we found our pre-equilibration method could trap more Pt ions in PAMAM (G4-OH) and prepared larger nanoclusters than previous methods [36].

2. Synthetic method

PAMAM (G4-OH) (Sigma-Aldrich) (0.25 µmol) was added to 5 mL of millipore water (18.2 MΩ) and then mixed with H2PtCl6 (Wako Pure Chemical Industries (Japan)) (0.5 M, 30 µL). The Pt ions are coordinated with the interior tertiary amines of the PAMAM dendrimers [42,43]. The reaction mixture was allowed to stand in the dark at 4°C to minimize Pt ion oxidization of the PAMAM dendrimers [42,43]. Since the ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) UV absorption at 250 nm indicates the complexation of Pt ions with PAMAM (G4-OH), we measured UV–Vis absorbance spectrum of the Pt/PAMAM (G4-OH) solution during incubation by using an UV-2450 spectrophotometer (SHIMAZDU) and quartz cell with 1 cm path length. The background spectrum was subtracted by using an identical cell filled with millipore water (18.2 MΩ).

Figure 1(a) illustrates the time evolution of absorbance at 250 nm. Although the LMCT band at 250 nm sharply decreased in the first 3 hours, it slowly increased thereafter, reaching its maximum in the first day (24 h). After that, the absorbance gradually decreased again. On the other hand, as shown in Fig. 1(b), the absorbance of PtCl62- at 262 nm [44] and that of PAMAM (G4-OH) at around 200 nm precipitously decreased in the first 3 hours, and slowly changed thereafter. In the first 3 hours, Pt(IV) ions interacted with the external tertiary amines of PAMAM (G4-OH) and were reduced to Pt(II) ions. This reaction corresponds to decrease in absorbance at 262 nm and 200 nm. When Pt(II) ions formed coordination bonds with theinternal tertiary amines of PAMAM (G4-OH), the absorbance of the LMCT band at 250 nm increased. Complexation of Pt(II) ions with PAMAM (G4-OH) reached the equilibrium after 24 hours. We believe the coordination bonds are broken when Pt(II) ions oxidize PAMAM (G4-OH). This result indicates that the number of Pt ions complexed with PAMAM dendrimers reaches the maximum approximately one day after the reaction started. Therefore, we decided that the reduction reaction started 24 hours after pre-equilibrating the Pt-PAMAM complex. We added a reductant (trisodium citrate (Wako Pure Chemical Industries (Japan)); 1 M, 300 µL) to the pre-equilibrated Pt/PAMAM (G4-OH) solution, and incubated this reaction mixture at 90°C for two weeks under continuous stirring to form nanoclusters [45]. No precipitates were observed after incubation. Then, ultracentrifugation (Optima MAX-XP Benchtop Ultracentrifuge, Beckman Coulter, Inc.; 100,000 G) was performed for 30 min at 4°C to remove Pt colloidal nanoparticles.

 

Fig. 1 (a) Time evolution of absorbance for Pt/PAMAM (G4-OH) complexation at 250 nm. (b) UV-Vis spectra showing the complexation of Pt ions with PAMAM (G4-OH): the absorbance at 250 nm corresponds to the LMCT band. The left and right arrows show the decrease in the absorbance of PAMAM (G4-OH) at around 200 nm and that of PtCl62- at 262 nm, respectively.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Purification

After ultracentrifugation, mercaptoacetic acid (Wako Pure Chemical Industries (Japan)) (0.1 M, 3.0 µL) was added to the supernatant (300 µL) to replace PAMAM (G4-OH) (50 µM) with mercaptoacetic acid in the Pt nanocluster complex. The reaction mixture was allowed to stand at room temperature for 3 days. The PAMAM (G4-OH)/mercaptoacetic acid molar ratio was set to 1:20. The supernatant to which mercaptoacetic acid was added was separated into four fractions by using size-exclusion HPLC (Fig. 2(a) ). We used the HPLC system with the same condition as our previous work [36]. After collecting the fractions, we measured the excitation-emission matrices spectra with a spectrofluorophotometer (RF-5300PC, SHIMAZDU). The first broad fraction (fraction 1), eluted from 28 min to 38 min during the retention time, showed no fluorescence (data not shown). While the second fraction (fraction 2) had fluorescence at around 420 nm (Fig. 2(b)), the third fraction (fraction 3) emitted fluorescence at around 420 nm and 520 nm (Fig. 2(c)). The fourth fraction (fraction 4) exhibited a single fluorescent component at around 520 nm (Fig. 2(d)).

 

Fig. 2 (a) Size-exclusion HPLC chromatogram of the supernatant to which mercaptoacetic acid was added after centrifugation. HPLC was monitored by UV absorption at 290 nm (red line) and fluorescence at 520 nm (green line). Excitation-emission matrices spectra of fraction 2 (b), 3 (c) and 4 (d). (e) Excitation (blue line) and emission spectra (green line) of the Pt8 nanoclusters in water. (f) Fluorescent image of the Pt8 nanoclusters in water under UV (365 nm) irradiation.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Characterization

Furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (AA-6700F (SHIMAZDU)) was implemented with the 266 nm line for the fractions 2 to 4. We found only Pt to be present in fraction 3 (5.74 mg/L) and 4 (1.64 mg/L), while we did not detect Pt in fraction 2.

ESI mass spectrometry was then performed to determine the molecular weight of the chemical constituents in the fraction 4 by using LTQ XL (Thermo Fisher Scientific K.K.). The fraction 4 was dissolved in a 50% (v/v) water/methanol solution for measurement [28]. As shown in Fig. 3 , the main peak was detected at m/z = 2353.22, which is assigned to [Pt8L8 + 3Na + 4H]- (L = C2H2O2S). From the results, we found that the synthesized nanoclusters composed eight platinum atoms and that they were monodispersed. The fluorescent peaks (excitation: 460 nm, emission: 520 nm) observed in Fig. 2(c) and Fig. 2(d) originate from Pt nanoclusters, while the peaks (excitation: 330 nm, emission: 420 nm) observed in Fig. 2(b) and Fig. 2(c) are attributed to PAMAM (G4-OH), of which fluorescence was reported in [36] and [46]. We deduce from these results that fraction 4 contains Pt8L8 whereas fraction 3 contains Pt8 nanoclusters enclosed in PAMAM (G4-OH). Finally, Pt8 nanoclusters were found to have longer wavelength emissions than Pt5 nanoclusters [36].

 

Fig. 3 ESI mass spectrum of Pt nanoclusters. The peak, m/z = 2353.22, is assigned to [Pt8L8 + 3Na + 4H]- (L = C2H2O2S), and shows Pt nanoclusters consist of eight platinum atoms.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Then, we evaluated the fluorescent lifetime of these Pt nanoclusters using fluorescent lifetime measurement system. Femtosecond pulses from a regenerative amplifier (Libra HE, Coherent) were led to an optical parametric amplifier (OPerA Solo, Coherent), which generates 60 fs pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate. The beam was directed to two BBO crystals to generate a third harmonic pulse with a wavelength of 460 nm. The excitation light was softly focused onto samples placed in 1 cm cuvettes. The power density of the excitation beam was set to ~5 μJ/cm2, which is sufficiently low to avoid any saturation effects. Time-resolved spectra were obtained using a photon-counting streak camera (C4780, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan) through a 25-cm monochromator (250is, Chromex). The measured fluorescence lifetime of green-fluorescence Pt nanoclusters was 6.5 ± 0.5 ns (Fig. 4 ), which was obtained by single exponential fitting. The fluorescence decay curve matches well to the single exponential decaying function, which indicates that the synthesized Pt nanoclusters have single molecular structure. Next, we evaluated the photobleaching characteristic of the Pt8 nanoclusters by observing decay in fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity decay was measured and fitted by a single exponential function, F(t) = F0exp(-t/Td) (t: irradiation time, F0: fluorescence intensity at t = 0, Td: decay time which corresponds to F(Td)/F0 = 1/e). Decay time of Pt8 nanoclusters was 125 min, while that of organic fluorophore (1,1′-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyamine iodide (DiI)), which is well-known as a high resistant fluorophore to photobreaching, was 50 min. We found that the Pt8 nanoclusters were less subject to photobleaching than DiI. Furthermore, we examined the absolute quantum yield (QY) of the Pt nanoclusters with a QY measurement system (C10027, Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan). The Pt8 nanoclusters exhibited a QY of 28% in water, which betters the 18% QY of Pt5 [36]. This value also exceeds those of other green-emitting nanoclusters such as Au (QY = 25%, em = 510 nm) [1,2] and Ag (QY = 16%, em = 520 nm) nanoclusters [23]. We consider that the molecular structure of Pt nanoclusters and ligands affect their electronic properties, which might result in broadening of excitation/emission spectra and high QY. In order to elucidate their luminescence mechanism in detail, we will perform molecular orbital calculation in future.

 

Fig. 4 Fluorescence lifetime of Pt8 nanoclusters: the fluorescence lifetime of Pt8 nanoclusters was obtained by single exponential fitting (6.5 ± 0.5 ns).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

5. Application to bioimaging

We investigated the feasibility of our green-emitting Pt nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for cellular imaging. In this study, we employed human epithelial carcinoma HeLa cells (DS Pharma Biomedical Co., Ltd.) in which chemokine receptors are highly expressed [47]. We conjugated Pt8L8 with an anti-chemokine receptor (anti-CXCR4-Ab) antibody (BioLegend, Inc.) by using Protein A (Thermo Fisher Scientific K.K.) as the adapter protein [36,48,49]. Conjugation protocol was described in our previous work [36]. HeLa cells were labeled with Pt nanoclusters in cell culture medium for 5 min prior to cell imaging. As we did not observe any change on their fluorescence properties, Pt nanoclusters exhibited stability in cell culture medium. Confocal fluorescent imaging was performed with FV1000 (Olympus) microscope using an oil immersion objective lens (40×, N.A. = 1.30), a 473 nm excitation laser and an appropriate emission filter (490-540 nm). Figure 5(a) shows a confocal fluorescent image of HeLa cells labeled with Pt8 nanoclusters. Green fluorescence (520 nm) was observed on the cellular membranes of HeLa cells treated with Pt8 nanoclusters. Conversely, no fluorescent signal was detected in a control sample labeled without the Pt8 nanoclusters (Fig. 5(b)). Therefore, the observed fluorescence in the presence of Pt8 nanoclusters is not autofluorescence from the HeLa cell. In addition, we investigated the cytotoxity of Pt8 nanoclusters in living HeLa cells by the same cell viability test as our previous work [36]. After HeLa cells were incubated with Pt8 nanoclusters (100 nM) for 48 h, we found that more than 97% of cells were alive. This value was comparable to that for the control sample without Pt8 nanoclusters. These results showed that Pt8 nanoclusters have very low cytotoxicity, and verify that Pt8 nanoclusters are relatively harmless fluorescent probes that can be used for the long-term imaging of living cells.

 

Fig. 5 Laser confocal fluorescent microscopic image overlaid with differential interference contrast images of living HeLa cells labeled with (a) and without (b) (Pt8L8)-(ProteinA)-(anti-CXCR4-Ab).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

6. Conclusion and discussion

We synthesized green-emitting Pt8 nanoclusters (excitation: 460 nm, emission: 520 nm) that achieved a 28% QY. A key to this method is the pre-equilibration of the Pt ions with PAMAM dendrimers, which promotes the formation of coordination bonds between the Pt ions and the tertiary amines groups of the PAMAM dendrimers and the number of Pt ions trapped in the PAMAM dendrimers increases. Since the number of the tertiary amines groups are increased by using a higher generation of dendrimer, more Pt ions can be coordinated with the higher generation of PAMAM dendrimers. Therefore, synthesis of larger Pt nanoclusters opens the door to realize longer wavelength photoluminescence with such a higher generation of dendrimer. Protein such as bovine serum albmin (BSA) [6] and ferritins [19] can be also another candidate for a molecular template to prepare larger Pt nanoclusters, because they possess a nanometer-sized cavity and have already been utilized to synthesis red- and NIR-emitting Au nanoclusters. Using this method, we expect to extend the photoluminescent wavelength of Pt nanoclusters to NIR region, which is often preferable for in vivo imaging experiments. NIR-emission is especially suitable for whole body imaging application, disease diagnostics and clinical setting, where low background autofluorescence and deep penetration depth are desirable characteristics. We will also demonstrate the feasibility of Pt nanoclusters as a probe for high resolution microscopy such as two photon excitation microscopy and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy in future.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Osaka University Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences Global COE program. One of the authors, Y. Inouye, gratefully acknowledges financial support by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 24360026 from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The authors thank Dr. P. Karagiannis for checking the manuscript, Dr. M. Murakami for ESI mass spectrometry, Dr. T. Fukumoto for furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and Prof. K. Namba and Dr. T. Kato for allowing us to use their ultracentrifugation system.

References and links

1. J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. L. Shang, S. Dong, and G. U. Nienhaus, “Ultra-small fluorescent metal nanoclusters: synthesis and biological applications,” Nano Today 6(4), 401–418 (2011). [CrossRef]  

4. J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, “High quantum yield blue emission from water-soluble Au8 nanodots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(26), 7780–7781 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. H. Duan and S. Nie, “Etching colloidal gold nanocrystals with hyperbranched and multivalent polymers: a new route to fluorescent and water-soluble atomic clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(9), 2412–2413 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Protein-directed synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 888–889 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. Y. Shishino, T. Yonezawa, K. Kawai, and H. Nishihara, “Molten matrix sputtering synthesis of water-soluble luminescent Au nanoparticles with a large Stokes shift,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(38), 7211–7213 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. X. Le Guével, B. Hötzer, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “NIR-emitting fluorescent gold nanoclusters doped in silica nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2974–2981 (2011). [CrossRef]  

10. Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007). [CrossRef]  

11. Z. Yuan, M. Peng, Y. He, and E. S. Yeung, “Functionalized fluorescent gold nanodots: synthesis and application for Pb2+ sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11981–11983 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Highly selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ based on fluorescence quenching of Au nanoclusters by Hg2+-Au+ interactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(6), 961–963 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. Y.-C. Shiang, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Gold nanodot-based luminescent sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (23): 3437–3439 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

16. C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. W. Guo, J. Yuan, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “Highly sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for single nucleotide mutation identification,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(3), 932–934 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. T. Udaya Bhaskara Rao and T. Pradeep, “Luminescent Ag7 and Ag8 clusters by interfacial synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49(23), 3925–3929 (2010). [CrossRef]  

27. H. Xu and K. S. Suslick, “Water-soluble fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1078–1082 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. W. Guo, J. Yuan, and E. Wang, “Strand exchange reaction modulated fluorescence “off-on” switching of hybridized DNA duplex stabilized silver nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 10930–10932 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. G.-Y. Lan, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Silver nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(8), 1257–1259 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. J. Yu, S. A. Patel, and R. M. Dickson, “In vitro and intracellular production of peptide-encapsulated fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(12), 2028–2030 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. J. Yu, S. Choi, and R. M. Dickson, “Shuttle-based fluorogenic silver-cluster biolabels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(2), 318–320 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

36. S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

38. X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012). [CrossRef]  

39. H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

40. W. Wei, Y. Lu, W. Chen, and S. Chen, “One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(7), 2060–2063 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

41. M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

42. M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008). [CrossRef]  

43. Y. Gu, P. Sanders, and H. J. Ploehn, “Quantitative analysis of Pt-PAMAM ligand exchange reactions: time and concentration effects,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 356(1-3), 10–15 (2010). [CrossRef]  

44. C. H. Gammons, “Experimental investigations of the hydrothermal geochemistry of platinum and palladium: V. equilibria between platinum metal, Pt(II), and Pt(IV) chloride complexes at 25 to 300 °C,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60(10), 1683–1694 (1996). [CrossRef]  

45. Blue-emitting species were produced in the same manner using a stronger reductant (NaBH4) rather than trisodium citrate. No green photoluminescence were observed from the species.

46. W. I. Lee, Y. Bae, and A. J. Bard, “Strong blue photoluminescence and ECL from OH-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the absence of gold nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(27), 8358–8359 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

47. A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

48. Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

49. T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. Shang, S. Dong, and G. U. Nienhaus, “Ultra-small fluorescent metal nanoclusters: synthesis and biological applications,” Nano Today 6(4), 401–418 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, “High quantum yield blue emission from water-soluble Au8 nanodots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(26), 7780–7781 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Duan and S. Nie, “Etching colloidal gold nanocrystals with hyperbranched and multivalent polymers: a new route to fluorescent and water-soluble atomic clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(9), 2412–2413 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Protein-directed synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 888–889 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Shishino, T. Yonezawa, K. Kawai, and H. Nishihara, “Molten matrix sputtering synthesis of water-soluble luminescent Au nanoparticles with a large Stokes shift,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(38), 7211–7213 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. X. Le Guével, B. Hötzer, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “NIR-emitting fluorescent gold nanoclusters doped in silica nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2974–2981 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. Z. Yuan, M. Peng, Y. He, and E. S. Yeung, “Functionalized fluorescent gold nanodots: synthesis and application for Pb2+ sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11981–11983 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Highly selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ based on fluorescence quenching of Au nanoclusters by Hg2+-Au+ interactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(6), 961–963 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y.-C. Shiang, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Gold nanodot-based luminescent sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (23): 3437–3439 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).
  16. C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. Guo, J. Yuan, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “Highly sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for single nucleotide mutation identification,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(3), 932–934 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. Udaya Bhaskara Rao and T. Pradeep, “Luminescent Ag7 and Ag8 clusters by interfacial synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49(23), 3925–3929 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Xu and K. S. Suslick, “Water-soluble fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1078–1082 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. W. Guo, J. Yuan, and E. Wang, “Strand exchange reaction modulated fluorescence “off-on” switching of hybridized DNA duplex stabilized silver nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 10930–10932 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. G.-Y. Lan, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Silver nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. J. Yu, S. A. Patel, and R. M. Dickson, “In vitro and intracellular production of peptide-encapsulated fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(12), 2028–2030 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. Yu, S. Choi, and R. M. Dickson, “Shuttle-based fluorogenic silver-cluster biolabels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(2), 318–320 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  39. H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. W. Wei, Y. Lu, W. Chen, and S. Chen, “One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(7), 2060–2063 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  43. Y. Gu, P. Sanders, and H. J. Ploehn, “Quantitative analysis of Pt-PAMAM ligand exchange reactions: time and concentration effects,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 356(1-3), 10–15 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  44. C. H. Gammons, “Experimental investigations of the hydrothermal geochemistry of platinum and palladium: V. equilibria between platinum metal, Pt(II), and Pt(IV) chloride complexes at 25 to 300 °C,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60(10), 1683–1694 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  45. Blue-emitting species were produced in the same manner using a stronger reductant (NaBH4) rather than trisodium citrate. No green photoluminescence were observed from the species.
  46. W. I. Lee, Y. Bae, and A. J. Bard, “Strong blue photoluminescence and ECL from OH-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the absence of gold nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(27), 8358–8359 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (17)

H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wei, Y. Lu, W. Chen, and S. Chen, “One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(7), 2060–2063 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shang, S. Dong, and G. U. Nienhaus, “Ultra-small fluorescent metal nanoclusters: synthesis and biological applications,” Nano Today 6(4), 401–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yuan, M. Peng, Y. He, and E. S. Yeung, “Functionalized fluorescent gold nanodots: synthesis and application for Pb2+ sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11981–11983 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Le Guével, B. Hötzer, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “NIR-emitting fluorescent gold nanoclusters doped in silica nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2974–2981 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, J. Yuan, and E. Wang, “Strand exchange reaction modulated fluorescence “off-on” switching of hybridized DNA duplex stabilized silver nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 10930–10932 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (11)

G.-Y. Lan, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Silver nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, J. Yuan, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “Highly sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for single nucleotide mutation identification,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(3), 932–934 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Udaya Bhaskara Rao and T. Pradeep, “Luminescent Ag7 and Ag8 clusters by interfacial synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49(23), 3925–3929 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Xu and K. S. Suslick, “Water-soluble fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1078–1082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Highly selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ based on fluorescence quenching of Au nanoclusters by Hg2+-Au+ interactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(6), 961–963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shishino, T. Yonezawa, K. Kawai, and H. Nishihara, “Molten matrix sputtering synthesis of water-soluble luminescent Au nanoparticles with a large Stokes shift,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(38), 7211–7213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gu, P. Sanders, and H. J. Ploehn, “Quantitative analysis of Pt-PAMAM ligand exchange reactions: time and concentration effects,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 356(1-3), 10–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Protein-directed synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 888–889 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Shiang, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Gold nanodot-based luminescent sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (23): 3437–3439 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, S. Choi, and R. M. Dickson, “Shuttle-based fluorogenic silver-cluster biolabels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(2), 318–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Duan and S. Nie, “Etching colloidal gold nanocrystals with hyperbranched and multivalent polymers: a new route to fluorescent and water-soluble atomic clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(9), 2412–2413 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, S. A. Patel, and R. M. Dickson, “In vitro and intracellular production of peptide-encapsulated fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(12), 2028–2030 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. I. Lee, Y. Bae, and A. J. Bard, “Strong blue photoluminescence and ECL from OH-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the absence of gold nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(27), 8358–8359 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, “High quantum yield blue emission from water-soluble Au8 nanodots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(26), 7780–7781 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

C. H. Gammons, “Experimental investigations of the hydrothermal geochemistry of platinum and palladium: V. equilibria between platinum metal, Pt(II), and Pt(IV) chloride complexes at 25 to 300 °C,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60(10), 1683–1694 (1996).
[Crossref]

Amatore, C.

C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, G. J.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoku, Y.

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arakawa, R.

H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, Y.

W. I. Lee, Y. Bae, and A. J. Bard, “Strong blue photoluminescence and ECL from OH-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the absence of gold nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(27), 8358–8359 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Y.

Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bard, A. J.

W. I. Lee, Y. Bae, and A. J. Bard, “Strong blue photoluminescence and ECL from OH-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the absence of gold nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(27), 8358–8359 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrera, J. L.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bier, M. E.

Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanco, C.

B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bongiorno, A.

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchanan, M. E.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burda, C.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buttrey, D. J.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Catron, D.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W.-H.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Chang, H.-T.

G.-Y. Lan, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Silver nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Shiang, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Gold nanodot-based luminescent sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (23): 3437–3439 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, H.-W.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W. H.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Chen, C.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.-N.

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, N.-T.

S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

W. Wei, Y. Lu, W. Chen, and S. Chen, “One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(7), 2060–2063 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S. F.

Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

W. Wei, Y. Lu, W. Chen, and S. Chen, “One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(7), 2060–2063 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-T.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chien, Y.-C.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

J. Yu, S. Choi, and R. M. Dickson, “Shuttle-based fluorogenic silver-cluster biolabels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(2), 318–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, P.-T.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crooks, R. M.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Liu, Z.

Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickson, R. M.

J. Yu, S. Choi, and R. M. Dickson, “Shuttle-based fluorogenic silver-cluster biolabels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(2), 318–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, S. A. Patel, and R. M. Dickson, “In vitro and intracellular production of peptide-encapsulated fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(12), 2028–2030 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, “High quantum yield blue emission from water-soluble Au8 nanodots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(26), 7780–7781 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Díez, I.

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Q.

W. Guo, J. Yuan, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “Highly sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for single nucleotide mutation identification,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(3), 932–934 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, S.

L. Shang, S. Dong, and G. U. Nienhaus, “Ultra-small fluorescent metal nanoclusters: synthesis and biological applications,” Nano Today 6(4), 401–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, H.

H. Duan and S. Nie, “Etching colloidal gold nanocrystals with hyperbranched and multivalent polymers: a new route to fluorescent and water-soluble atomic clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(9), 2412–2413 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyer, R. B.

Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frenkel, A. I.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fujimori, H.

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gammons, C. H.

C. H. Gammons, “Experimental investigations of the hydrothermal geochemistry of platinum and palladium: V. equilibria between platinum metal, Pt(II), and Pt(IV) chloride complexes at 25 to 300 °C,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60(10), 1683–1694 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gao, N.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, X.

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, N.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldmann, A. S.

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, P. Sanders, and H. J. Ploehn, “Quantitative analysis of Pt-PAMAM ligand exchange reactions: time and concentration effects,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 356(1-3), 10–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

W. Guo, J. Yuan, and E. Wang, “Strand exchange reaction modulated fluorescence “off-on” switching of hybridized DNA duplex stabilized silver nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 10930–10932 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, J. Yuan, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “Highly sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for single nucleotide mutation identification,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(3), 932–934 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Y.

Z. Yuan, M. Peng, Y. He, and E. S. Yeung, “Functionalized fluorescent gold nanodots: synthesis and application for Pb2+ sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11981–11983 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Homey, B.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hötzer, B.

X. Le Guével, B. Hötzer, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “NIR-emitting fluorescent gold nanoclusters doped in silica nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2974–2981 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hsiang, J.-C.

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, J.-K.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiao, Y.-H.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, J.-T.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Huang, C. Z.

Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-C.

G.-Y. Lan, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Silver nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Shiang, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Gold nanodot-based luminescent sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (23): 3437–3439 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyotanishi, M.

M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikkala, O.

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inada, M.

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isomura, Y.

M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwasaki, Y.

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, R.

Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, T.

S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, G.

X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Le Guével, B. Hötzer, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “NIR-emitting fluorescent gold nanoclusters doped in silica nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2974–2981 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kawai, K.

Y. Shishino, T. Yonezawa, K. Kawai, and H. Nishihara, “Molten matrix sputtering synthesis of water-soluble luminescent Au nanoparticles with a large Stokes shift,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(38), 7211–7213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawasaki, H.

H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knecht, M. R.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kosaka, Y.

H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulmala, S.

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, C.-W.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, G.-Y.

G.-Y. Lan, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Silver nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanni, E.

Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Guével, X.

X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Le Guével, B. Hötzer, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “NIR-emitting fluorescent gold nanoclusters doped in silica nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2974–2981 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-H.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Lee, W. I.

W. I. Lee, Y. Bae, and A. J. Bard, “Strong blue photoluminescence and ECL from OH-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the absence of gold nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(27), 8358–8359 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, J.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J. K.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Li, T.

L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.-J.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, Q. G.

Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-A. J.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.-L.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, L.-W.

S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-Quintela, M. A.

B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

W. Wei, Y. Lu, W. Chen, and S. Chen, “One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(7), 2060–2063 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ly, D.

Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinez, J. S.

J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martinho, J. M. G.

B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McClanahan, T.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, J.

S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohar, A.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, A.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, A. H. E.

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, E.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Myers, V. S.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Myoujin, Y.

H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narushima, T.

H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicovich, P. R.

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, G.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

H. Duan and S. Nie, “Etching colloidal gold nanocrystals with hyperbranched and multivalent polymers: a new route to fluorescent and water-soluble atomic clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(9), 2412–2413 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nienhaus, G. U.

L. Shang, S. Dong, and G. U. Nienhaus, “Ultra-small fluorescent metal nanoclusters: synthesis and biological applications,” Nano Today 6(4), 401–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nishihara, H.

Y. Shishino, T. Yonezawa, K. Kawai, and H. Nishihara, “Molten matrix sputtering synthesis of water-soluble luminescent Au nanoparticles with a large Stokes shift,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(38), 7211–7213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Obora, Y.

M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, S. A.

J. Yu, S. A. Patel, and R. M. Dickson, “In vitro and intracellular production of peptide-encapsulated fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(12), 2028–2030 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, M.

Z. Yuan, M. Peng, Y. He, and E. S. Yeung, “Functionalized fluorescent gold nanodots: synthesis and application for Pb2+ sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11981–11983 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Y.-K.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petkov, V.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Petty, J. T.

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, “High quantum yield blue emission from water-soluble Au8 nanodots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(26), 7780–7781 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ploehn, H. J.

Y. Gu, P. Sanders, and H. J. Ploehn, “Quantitative analysis of Pt-PAMAM ligand exchange reactions: time and concentration effects,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 356(1-3), 10–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pradeep, T.

T. Udaya Bhaskara Rao and T. Pradeep, “Luminescent Ag7 and Ag8 clusters by interfacial synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49(23), 3925–3929 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pusa, M.

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pyrz, W. D.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ras, R. H. A.

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards, C. I.

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivas, J.

B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, M. J.

B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanders, P.

Y. Gu, P. Sanders, and H. J. Ploehn, “Quantitative analysis of Pt-PAMAM ligand exchange reactions: time and concentration effects,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 356(1-3), 10–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Santiago González, B.

B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, M.

X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Le Guével, B. Hötzer, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “NIR-emitting fluorescent gold nanoclusters doped in silica nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2974–2981 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shang, L.

L. Shang, S. Dong, and G. U. Nienhaus, “Ultra-small fluorescent metal nanoclusters: synthesis and biological applications,” Nano Today 6(4), 401–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sharma, J.

J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, J.-L.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Shen, Y.

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Shiang, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Gold nanodot-based luminescent sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (23): 3437–3439 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, C.-W.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shishino, Y.

Y. Shishino, T. Yonezawa, K. Kawai, and H. Nishihara, “Molten matrix sputtering synthesis of water-soluble luminescent Au nanoparticles with a large Stokes shift,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(38), 7211–7213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soto, H.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spies, C.

X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sum, S.-P.

S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.-J.

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suslick, K. S.

H. Xu and K. S. Suslick, “Water-soluble fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1078–1082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, S.-I.

S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, K.-C.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Temirov, J. P.

Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tian, D.

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, X.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiwari, D. K.

S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trouillet, V.

X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tzeng, Y.-L.

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Udaya Bhaskara Rao, T.

T. Udaya Bhaskara Rao and T. Pradeep, “Luminescent Ag7 and Ag8 clusters by interfacial synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49(23), 3925–3929 (2010).
[Crossref]

Verástegui, E.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vosch, T.

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vu, D. M.

Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wagner, S. N.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, A.

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, E.

W. Guo, J. Yuan, and E. Wang, “Strand exchange reaction modulated fluorescence “off-on” switching of hybridized DNA duplex stabilized silver nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 10930–10932 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, J. Yuan, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “Highly sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for single nucleotide mutation identification,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(3), 932–934 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-H.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Wang, L.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.-M.

C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.-W.

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T. M.

T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, W.

W. Wei, Y. Lu, W. Chen, and S. Chen, “One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(7), 2060–2063 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Y.

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weir, M. G.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Werner, J. H.

J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-T.

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Highly selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ based on fluorescence quenching of Au nanoclusters by Hg2+-Au+ interactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(6), 961–963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Protein-directed synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 888–889 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

H. Xu and K. S. Suslick, “Water-soluble fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1078–1082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, H.

M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.-S.

S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.-H.

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, H.

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yeh, H.-C.

J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, H.-I.

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

Yeung, E. S.

Z. Yuan, M. Peng, Y. He, and E. S. Yeung, “Functionalized fluorescent gold nanodots: synthesis and application for Pb2+ sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11981–11983 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ying, J. Y.

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Highly selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ based on fluorescence quenching of Au nanoclusters by Hg2+-Au+ interactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(6), 961–963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Protein-directed synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 888–889 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yonezawa, T.

H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shishino, T. Yonezawa, K. Kawai, and H. Nishihara, “Molten matrix sputtering synthesis of water-soluble luminescent Au nanoparticles with a large Stokes shift,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(38), 7211–7213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, H.

J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, K.

T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, S. Choi, and R. M. Dickson, “Shuttle-based fluorogenic silver-cluster biolabels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(2), 318–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, S. A. Patel, and R. M. Dickson, “In vitro and intracellular production of peptide-encapsulated fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(12), 2028–2030 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

W. Guo, J. Yuan, and E. Wang, “Strand exchange reaction modulated fluorescence “off-on” switching of hybridized DNA duplex stabilized silver nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 10930–10932 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, J. Yuan, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “Highly sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for single nucleotide mutation identification,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(3), 932–934 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, W.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, M. Peng, Y. He, and E. S. Yeung, “Functionalized fluorescent gold nanodots: synthesis and application for Pb2+ sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11981–11983 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhen, S. J.

Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, “High quantum yield blue emission from water-soluble Au8 nanodots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(26), 7780–7781 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Highly selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ based on fluorescence quenching of Au nanoclusters by Hg2+-Au+ interactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(6), 961–963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Protein-directed synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 888–889 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, C.

Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.-J.

H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zlotnik, A.

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Xu and K. S. Suslick, “Water-soluble fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Adv. Mater. 22(10), 1078–1082 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

Z. De Liu, S. F. Chen, C. Z. Huang, S. J. Zhen, and Q. G. Liao, “Light scattering sensing detection of pathogens based on the molecular recognition of immunoglobulin with cell wall-associated protein A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 599(2), 279–286 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. (1)

T. Udaya Bhaskara Rao and T. Pradeep, “Luminescent Ag7 and Ag8 clusters by interfacial synthesis,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49(23), 3925–3929 (2010).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (6)

I. Díez, M. Pusa, S. Kulmala, H. Jiang, A. Walther, A. S. Goldmann, A. H. E. Müller, O. Ikkala, and R. H. A. Ras, “Color tunability and electrochemiluminescence of silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(12), 2122–2125 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, S. A. Patel, and R. M. Dickson, “In vitro and intracellular production of peptide-encapsulated fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46(12), 2028–2030 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, S. Choi, and R. M. Dickson, “Shuttle-based fluorogenic silver-cluster biolabels,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(2), 318–320 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-I. Tanaka, J. Miyazaki, D. K. Tiwari, T. Jin, and Y. Inouye, “Fluorescent platinum nanoclusters: synthesis, purification, characterization, and application to bioimaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(2), 431–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang, J. Li, C. Amatore, Y. Chen, H. Jiang, and X.-M. Wang, “Gold nanoclusters and graphene nanocomposites for drug delivery and imaging of cancer cells,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(49), 11644–11648 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-L. Liu, H.-T. Wu, Y.-H. Hsiao, C.-W. Lai, C.-W. Shih, Y.-K. Peng, K.-C. Tang, H.-W. Chang, Y.-C. Chien, J.-K. Hsiao, J.-T. Cheng, and P.-T. Chou, “Insulin-directed synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters: preservation of insulin bioactivity and versatility in cell imaging,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(31), 7056–7060 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. Zheng, P. R. Nicovich, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent noble-metal quantum dots,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 409–431 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (16)

Y. Shishino, T. Yonezawa, K. Kawai, and H. Nishihara, “Molten matrix sputtering synthesis of water-soluble luminescent Au nanoparticles with a large Stokes shift,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(38), 7211–7213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lin, N.-T. Chen, S.-P. Sum, L.-W. Lo, and C.-S. Yang, “Ligand exchanged photoluminescent gold quantum dots functionalized with leading peptides for nuclear targeting and intracellular imaging,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (39): 4762–4764 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, M. Peng, Y. He, and E. S. Yeung, “Functionalized fluorescent gold nanodots: synthesis and application for Pb2+ sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11981–11983 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Jiang, C. Burda, and J.-J. Zhu, “Rapid sonochemical synthesis of highly luminescent non-toxic AuNCs and Au@AgNCs and Cu (II) sensing,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(14), 4237–4239 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Highly selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg2+ based on fluorescence quenching of Au nanoclusters by Hg2+-Au+ interactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(6), 961–963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Shiang, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Gold nanodot-based luminescent sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (23): 3437–3439 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, M. Inada, and Y. Iwasaki, “Surfactant-free solution synthesis of fluorescent platinum subnanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(21), 3759–3761 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Deng, Z. Zhou, J. Li, T. Li, and S. Dong, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for the turn-on detection of Hg2+ ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 11065–11067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, J. Yuan, and E. Wang, “Strand exchange reaction modulated fluorescence “off-on” switching of hybridized DNA duplex stabilized silver nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(39), 10930–10932 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sharma, H.-C. Yeh, H. Yoo, J. H. Werner, and J. S. Martinez, “Silver nanocluster aptamers: in situ generation of intrinsically fluorescent recognition ligands for protein detection,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2294–2296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-Y. Lan, C.-C. Huang, and H.-T. Chang, “Silver nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for selective and sensitive detection of copper ions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, Y. Wang, Y. Wei, R. Liu, H. Zhu, Y. Cui, Y. Zhao, and X. Gao, “Ag cluster-aptamer hybrid: specifically marking the nucleus of live cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(43), 11960–11962 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Shen, D. Sun, H. Zhang, D. Tian, J. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhu, “Fabrication of a dispersible graphene/gold nanoclusters hybrid and its potential application in electrogenerated chemiluminescence,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(42), 11733–11735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-M. Fang, J. Song, J. Li, Y.-W. Wang, H.-H. Yang, J.-J. Sun, and G.-N. Chen, “Electrogenerated chemiluminescence from Au nanoclusters,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(8), 2369–2371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hyotanishi, Y. Isomura, H. Yamamoto, H. Kawasaki, and Y. Obora, “Surfactant-free synthesis of palladium nanoclusters for their use in catalytic cross-coupling reactions,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(20), 5750–5752 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kawasaki, Y. Kosaka, Y. Myoujin, T. Narushima, T. Yonezawa, and R. Arakawa, “Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of copper nanocrystals without using additional protective agents,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 47(27), 7740–7742 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. R. Knecht, M. G. Weir, V. S. Myers, W. D. Pyrz, H. Ye, V. Petkov, D. J. Buttrey, A. I. Frenkel, and R. M. Crooks, “Synthesis and characterization of Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticle: effect of the template on nanoparticle formation,” Chem. Mater. 20(16), 5218–5228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. (1)

Y. Gu, P. Sanders, and H. J. Ploehn, “Quantitative analysis of Pt-PAMAM ligand exchange reactions: time and concentration effects,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 356(1-3), 10–15 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (1)

C. H. Gammons, “Experimental investigations of the hydrothermal geochemistry of platinum and palladium: V. equilibria between platinum metal, Pt(II), and Pt(IV) chloride complexes at 25 to 300 °C,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 60(10), 1683–1694 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (9)

W. Wei, Y. Lu, W. Chen, and S. Chen, “One-pot synthesis, photoluminescence, and electrocatalytic properties of subnanometer-sized copper clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(7), 2060–2063 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. I. Lee, Y. Bae, and A. J. Bard, “Strong blue photoluminescence and ECL from OH-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the absence of gold nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(27), 8358–8359 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. I. Richards, S. Choi, J.-C. Hsiang, Y. Antoku, T. Vosch, A. Bongiorno, Y.-L. Tzeng, and R. M. Dickson, “Oligonucleotide-stabilized Ag nanocluster fluorophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5038–5039 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Guo, J. Yuan, Q. Dong, and E. Wang, “Highly sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters in hybridized DNA duplexes for single nucleotide mutation identification,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(3), 932–934 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wu, E. Lanni, W. Chen, M. E. Bier, D. Ly, and R. Jin, “High yield, large scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Ag7 clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(46), 16672–16674 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, H. Yang, Y. Yuan, X. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Guo, L. Xu, J. Lei, N. Gao, G. J. Anderson, X.-J. Liang, C. Chen, Y. Zhao, and G. Nie, “Controlling assembly of paired gold clusters within apoferritin nanoreactor for in vivo kidney targeting and biomedical imaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(22), 8617–8624 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, J. T. Petty, and R. M. Dickson, “High quantum yield blue emission from water-soluble Au8 nanodots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(26), 7780–7781 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Duan and S. Nie, “Etching colloidal gold nanocrystals with hyperbranched and multivalent polymers: a new route to fluorescent and water-soluble atomic clusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(9), 2412–2413 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xie, Y. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, “Protein-directed synthesis of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(3), 888–889 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

X. Le Guével, B. Hötzer, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “NIR-emitting fluorescent gold nanoclusters doped in silica nanoparticles,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(9), 2974–2981 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Med. Biol. Eng. (1)

C.-A. J. Lin, C.-H. Lee, J.-T. Hsieh, H.-H. Wang, J. K. Li, J.-L. Shen, W.-H. Chan, H.-I. Yeh, and W. H. Chang, “Synthesis of fluorescent metallic nanoclusters toward biomedical application: recent progress and present challenges,” J. Med. Biol. Eng. 29(6), 276–283 (2009).

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

Y. Bao, C. Zhong, D. M. Vu, J. P. Temirov, R. B. Dyer, and J. S. Martinez, “Nanoparticle-free synthesis of fluorescent gold nanoclusters at physiological temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(33), 12194–12198 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Le Guével, V. Trouillet, C. Spies, G. Jung, and M. Schneider, “Synthesis of yellow-emitting platinum nanoclusters by ligand etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(10), 6047–6051 (2012).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

H. Kawasaki, H. Yamamoto, H. Fujimori, R. Arakawa, Y. Iwasaki, and M. Inada, “Stability of the DMF-protected Au nanoclusters: photochemical, dispersion, and thermal properties,” Langmuir 26(8), 5926–5933 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Biosyst. (1)

T. Jin, D. K. Tiwari, S.-I. Tanaka, Y. Inouye, K. Yoshizawa, and T. M. Watanabe, “Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells,” Mol. Biosyst. 6(11), 2325–2331 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (1)

B. Santiago González, M. J. Rodríguez, C. Blanco, J. Rivas, M. A. López-Quintela, and J. M. G. Martinho, “One step synthesis of the smallest photoluminescent and paramagnetic PVP-protected gold atomic clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4217–4221 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Today (1)

L. Shang, S. Dong, and G. U. Nienhaus, “Ultra-small fluorescent metal nanoclusters: synthesis and biological applications,” Nano Today 6(4), 401–418 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

A. Müller, B. Homey, H. Soto, N. Ge, D. Catron, M. E. Buchanan, T. McClanahan, E. Murphy, W. Yuan, S. N. Wagner, J. L. Barrera, A. Mohar, E. Verástegui, and A. Zlotnik, “Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis,” Nature 410(6824), 50–56 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Zheng, C. Zhang, and R. M. Dickson, “Highly fluorescent, water-soluble, size-tunable gold quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(7), 077402 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Blue-emitting species were produced in the same manner using a stronger reductant (NaBH4) rather than trisodium citrate. No green photoluminescence were observed from the species.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Time evolution of absorbance for Pt/PAMAM (G4-OH) complexation at 250 nm. (b) UV-Vis spectra showing the complexation of Pt ions with PAMAM (G4-OH): the absorbance at 250 nm corresponds to the LMCT band. The left and right arrows show the decrease in the absorbance of PAMAM (G4-OH) at around 200 nm and that of PtCl62- at 262 nm, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Size-exclusion HPLC chromatogram of the supernatant to which mercaptoacetic acid was added after centrifugation. HPLC was monitored by UV absorption at 290 nm (red line) and fluorescence at 520 nm (green line). Excitation-emission matrices spectra of fraction 2 (b), 3 (c) and 4 (d). (e) Excitation (blue line) and emission spectra (green line) of the Pt8 nanoclusters in water. (f) Fluorescent image of the Pt8 nanoclusters in water under UV (365 nm) irradiation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 ESI mass spectrum of Pt nanoclusters. The peak, m/z = 2353.22, is assigned to [Pt8L8 + 3Na + 4H]- (L = C2H2O2S), and shows Pt nanoclusters consist of eight platinum atoms.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fluorescence lifetime of Pt8 nanoclusters: the fluorescence lifetime of Pt8 nanoclusters was obtained by single exponential fitting (6.5 ± 0.5 ns).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Laser confocal fluorescent microscopic image overlaid with differential interference contrast images of living HeLa cells labeled with (a) and without (b) (Pt8L8)-(ProteinA)-(anti-CXCR4-Ab).

Metrics