Abstract

In this work, stable blue-green luminescent colloidal silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are fabricated by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a silicon target in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis have shown the formation of spherical silicon nanocrystals in the colloid with size range of 2-5 nm. Our results show that the DMSO stabilizes the silicon nanocrystals via oxide formations on the nanocrytals surfaces by a simple route of laser ablation and a schematic representation of the process is suggested. The colloid exhibits strong blue luminescent emissions in the spectral range of 455-465 nm when excited at wavelengths near the direct band gap of the silicon nanocrystal. The luminescent emission band shifts to longer wavelengths (green light) if the excitation wavelength increases toward the indirect band gap of the SiNCs. The oxidized SiNCs with quantum confinement effects are shown to be responsible for visible photoluminescence of the colloid. The observed blue-green emission of the colloid makes it a good candidate for display, solid-state lighting and biological luminescent based devices.

©2012 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Semiconductor nanocrystals exhibit novel interesting properties, in particular the visible photoluminescence (PL) that make them very attractive for intense research in nanotechnology. In recent years, the interest in synthesis of silicon nanocrystals has continuously grown due to the wide range of applications in fields of photonics [13], nanobiotechnology [4], electronics [5] and medicine [6]. Laser ablation in liquids has received much attention as an effective and simple technique for producing nanoparticles. Numerous studies have been reported related to synthesis of silicon nanocrystals [79] by irradiating intense laser light onto these materials dispersed in solvents. It has been shown in various studies that changing the surrounding solvent can provide different effects on the SiNCs such as stability, absorption spectrum, size distribution and surface chemistry [811]. This synthetic flexibility of physical and chemical properties is one of the reasons why SiNCs colloids are good candidates for luminescent based devices.

In the present study, our goal is to report the stable blue-green photoluminescence of colloidal silicon nanocrystals in dimethyl sulfoxide. This work shows that the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of silicon wafer in the DMSO has the following significances. It introduces a simple one-step route for fabricating 2-5 nm sized SiNCs with surface oxide layer which not require any aging. The DMSO can easily react with the silicon nanocrystal surface and generates a cage causing stabilization of the colloid. The SiNCs-DMSO colloidal sample exhibits good photoluminescence stability in the blue-green spectrum region. Due to the luminescent properties of silicon nanocrystals and good properties of the DMSO in biological systems, the SiNCs-DMSO colloid is a good candidate to be investigated as luminescent materials for many applications [1214]. The use of colloidal silicon nanocrystals has tremendous promise for achieving luminescence in the blue and green spectral regime, which is of great importance for, display and solid-state lighting applications. However, it is important to note that the state-of-the-art blue and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are based on III-Nitride technology [1518], and significant recent advances have been accomplished in III-Nitride device technologies [1923], resulting in high-efficiency blue and green LEDs.

First, we present the fabrication of colloidal silicon nanocrystals using nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of silicon wafer in the DMSO. Then, the colloid is characterized by linear absorption spectroscopy (UV-VIS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The photoluminescent mechanisms of colloid are studied and our results show that PL emission is affected by both the sizes and surface states of the SiNCs.

2. Experimental section

To fabricate the SiNCs colloid, a crystalline silicon wafer (n-type) is placed in an open glass vessel in 10 cm3 of the DMSO and irradiated with fundamental harmonic beam (1064 nm) of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser operating at 1 Hz with an 18 ns pulse width. The laser beam is focused by a lens having a focal length of 50 cm onto the wafer surface. The spatial profile of a laser pulse is Gaussian, with 300 µm (FW1/e2M) beam waist at the target. The silicon wafer is irradiated with laser fluence level of about 70 J/cm2 and the ablation is carried out for 2 hours. The prepared colloid has yellowish color (see Fig. 1 ) with silicon nanocrystals volume fraction of 2.1 × 10−4. The volume fraction,ϕV, of the nanocrytals colloid is defined by

ϕV=VSVS+VL
Where, VS is the volume of the particles and VL is the volume of the liquid. The volume of the particle is VS=m/ρ, ρ is the mass density and mis the mass of particles dispersed in the liquid. The nanostructure size and morphology are studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystal structure of the SiNCs are investigated by a Bruker D8ADVANCE X-ray diffractometer with high intensity Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.5406 Å). The optical absorption spectra of the colloids are measured using an UV-Vis spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, lamda 25). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (Bruker, IFS-66) is utilized to identify the surface composition of the SiNCs. The photoluminescence measurements of colloidal solutions are performed at room temperature and ambient atmosphere using a fluorophotometer (Perkin-Elmer, LS 45).

 

Fig. 1 Image of the SiNCs colloid prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of silicon wafer in the DMSO.

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3. Results and discussion

The morphology and size distribution of the silicon nanocrystals are studied by TEM and the measurements conducted just after laser ablation as shown in Fig. 2 . Average SiNCs radius is found to be about 3.5 nm, with a standard deviation of 1.5 nm. Figure 3 depicts the X-ray diffraction pattern of the SiNCs film which shows diamond crystalline structure with well-resolved diffraction peaks for the silicon (111), (220) and (311) planes. The result indicates that silicon nanocrystals are fabricated by laser ablation of a silicon target in the DMSO. The average size of SiNCs film is calculated about 13 nm by the Debey-scherer formula [24] using the line broadening of (220) reflection. It should be noticed that the 3.5 nm average size of SiNCs observed by TEM is associated with the colloidal sample. Apparently, in fabrication of the SiNCs film due to multiple coating and subsequently drying at the 200 °C resulted into aggregation of the silicon nanocrystals according to the XRD data.

 

Fig. 2 TEM image and size distribution of the SiNCs colloid prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of silicon wafer in the DMSO.

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Fig. 3 X-ray diffraction pattern of the SiNCs thin film which shows diffraction peaks for the silicon (111), (220) and (311) planes.

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Figure 4 shows comparison of UV-VIS optical absorption spectra of the fresh SiNCs colloid (solid curve) with one obtained after one month (dashed curve). The results indicate that the colloid absorption spectrum remains unchanged and the silicon nanocrystals agglomeration does not occur in the colloid. The UV-VIS absorption spectrum of the SiNCs colloid shows a gradual increase in the absorbance with decreasing the wavelength from the on-set wavelength of 475 nm (2.6 eV) which shows the absorption band edge of the indirect band gap of silicon nanocrystals. It should be pointed out that bulk silicon exhibits an indirect band gap of 1.1 eV and a direct band gap transition 3.4 eV [25]. The silicon nanocrystals direct band gap is obtained 332 nm (3.7 eV) using the method suggested in [26], for the nanocrystals average size of 3.5 nm the ΔΕg is calculated to be about 0.33 eV. This value is found to be in good agreement with the value of 355 nm (3.5 eV) which is obtained using the UV-VIS optical absorption spectrum of the SiNCs (see Fig. 4).

 

Fig. 4 Absorption spectrum of the colloidal SiNCs in the DMSO at different time after production. The absorption spectrum is remained stable for one month.

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Since the DMSO contains a large amount of water, it is expected that silicon nanocrystal after formation reacts with the water and produce oxide layer on its surface [27,28]. Interestingly, the UV-VIS optical absorption spectrum shows stability of the SiNCs colloid. This can be attributed to the interaction of water with silicon oxygen bond through hydrogen bonding. Then, water hydrogen bonds to the DMSO and generates a cage which causes stabilization of the SiNCs colloid. The formation of the Si-O-Si bond on the nanocrystals surfaces and presence of DMSO is analyzed by means of FTIR spectroscopy of the SiNCs powder, as shown in Fig. 5 . This spectrum shows pronounced bands located at 1100 and 804 cm−1 due to Si-O-Si stretching vibration, and the band observed at about 1027 cm−1 arises primarily from the S-O stretching vibration of the DMSO molecule, respectively [29,30]. However, as reported in [31], a Si = O double bond is more likely to be formed and may stabilize the interface, since it requires neither a large deformation energy nor an excess element. From all the presented data, we propose the following schematic representation of the interaction between the DMSO and SiNCs as shown in Fig. 6 .

 

Fig. 5 FTIR spectrum of the SiNCs powder, Shows the presence of the oxide layer on the surface of the silicon nanocrystal.

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Fig. 6 Surface chemistry of the SiNCs dispersed in the DMSO.

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The origin of the photoluminescence in silicon nanocrystals has been shown to be consistent with the general perception of quantum confinement effects. Recently, it has been reported that the surface chemistry plays an important role in the luminescence process of the silicon nanocrystals, especially the presence of oxide on the nanocrystal surface [3034]. Here, the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a silicon target in the DMSO has been used to produce silicon nanocrystals with Si = O surface states. This may contribute as radiative centers in photoluminescent process. The photoluminescent property of the SiNCs colloid is investigated at two different excitation wavelength ranges, one about the silicon nanocrystals direct band gap (350-375 nm) and the other one is about the silicon nanocrystal indirect band gap (400-475 nm). This may allow us to understand the PL emission mechanisms of the SiNCs colloid.

Figure 7 depicts the room temperature PL emission spectrum of the colloidal silicon nanocrystals in the DMSO. The PL exhibits prominent blue-green emissions in the range of 455-520 nm at different applied excitation wavelengths ranging from 350 to 475 nm. Figure 8 shows comparison of PL emission spectra of the fresh SiNCs colloid (solid curve) with one obtained after one month (dashed curve) at excitation wavelengths of 375 and 435 nm. The results indicate photoluminescence stability of the colloid for both blue and green spectrum regions. By increasing the applied excitation wavelength above the 475 nm, the colloid does not show any significant PL emission. Note that the UV-VIS absorption spectra of the SiNCs colloid shows a gradual increase in the absorbance with decreasing the wavelength from the on-set wavelength of 475 nm which shows the absorption band edge of the indirect band gap of the SiNCs (see Fig. 4). These results indicate that the silicon nanocrystals play major role in absorption of light in PL process of the colloid, since by using the excitation wavelength above the silicon nanocrystals absorption band edge, no significant PL intensity has been observed.

 

Fig. 7 PL emission spectrum of the colloidal SiNCs in the DMSO at different excitation wavelength range (a) 350-375 nm and (b) 400-475 nm.

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Fig. 8 Stability of PL emission spectrum of the colloidal SiNCs in the DMSO is obtained at the excitation wavelengths of (a) 375 nm and (b) 435 nm.

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Figure 7(b) indicates that by increasing the excitation wavelength within the range of 400 t0 475 nm, the PL emission band shows red-shift from the 475 to 520 nm. In addition, at longer applied excitation wavelengths, the PL emission peak intensity also decreases. This may be attributed to the size distribution of the silicon nanocrystals [26], because at longer excitation wavelength only the larger particles that have a smaller bandgap will contribute to the emission photons. Similarly, at a shorter excitation wavelength the PL emission is related to contributions of smaller nanocrystals dispersed in the colloid. In presence of silicon nanocrystals in the DMSO, quantum confinement effects start to play an important role and can fully alter the luminescence properties of the colloid [35,36]. When the carriers are confined in the nanocrystals the wave function of an electron and a hole can partially overlap even in an indirect bandgap semiconductor such as silicon, giving rise to quasi-direct transitions and thus increasing the probability of a radiative recombination of the pair of carriers. Thus, the quantum confinement effect is dominant mechanism for photoluminescent of the SiNCs colloid at excitation wavelengths about the indirect band gap of silicon nanocrystals.

The strong blue-light emission is observed at about 455-465 nm while using an excitation wavelength range of 350-375 nm (see Fig. 7(a)). It should be pointed out that this excitation wavelength range is located near the direct band gap of the silicon nanocrytals. The observed blue-light emission cannot be simply ascribed to the quantum confinement effect of the silicon nanocrystals with size rang 2-5 nm. Because the blue emission via the direct electron-hole recombination across the г- г direct band gap occurs for silicon nanocrystals with a diameter below 2 nm [30]. Note that the colloid contains a few numbers of SiNCs with a diameter less than 2 nm as shown in the insert part of Fig. 2. Thus, the contribution of these nanocrystals may not only describe the strong blue emission of the colloid. In addition, we have not observed any pronounced blue emission peak shift with changing the excitation wavelength from 350 to 375 nm. This also confirms that the quantum confinement effect is not the only mechanism for the strong blue emission of the SiNCs colloid. Some oxide-related defects might be formed within the surface oxide layer of the SiNCs which might act as the radiative centers for the recombination of electron-hole pairs giving rise to the strong blue-light emission [3034]. At about 500 nm, a shoulder on the peak of blue emission is also observed which is attributed to the quantum confinement effect (see Fig. 7(a)). It seems that at excitation wavelength range near the direct band gap, the luminescent mechanisms are originated from both of the quantum confinement effect and the oxide surface states /defects of the SiNCs.

4. Conclusion

The silicon nanocrystals with average size 3.5 nm are fabricated by laser ablation of a silicon wafer in the DMSO. The colloid remains stable and a schematic presentation for interaction of the DMSO and the SiNCs is suggested. We have investigated the luminescent properties of the SiNCs colloid and stable blue-green emission is observed. Our results suggest that the green photoluminescent emission of colloid is due to the quantum confinement size effect of the silicon nanocrystals. The observation of strong blue emission of the colloid is originated from the quantum confinement effect and the oxide surface states /defects of the SiNCs. The observation of stable blue-green luminescent of the SiNCs-DMSO colloid makes it a good candidate for many applications such as lighting, sensing and biological imaging.

References and links

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2. K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1952–1956 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1585–1590 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011). [CrossRef]  

6. N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. R. Karimzadeh, J. Z. Anvari, and N. Mansour, “Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of silicon in liquids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 949–955 (2009). [CrossRef]  

8. K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011). [CrossRef]  

9. V. Švrček, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, and N. Koshizaki, “Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by ns pulsed laser ablation in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213113 (2006). [CrossRef]  

10. D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000). [CrossRef]  

12. Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly (acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004). [CrossRef]  

13. M. J. Sailor and E. J. Lee, “Surface chemistry of luminescent silicon nanocrystallites,” Adv. Mater. 9(10), 783–793 (1997). [CrossRef]  

14. M. Yao, Y. Li, M. Hossu, A. G. Joly, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, and W. Chen, “Luminescence of lanthanide-dimethyl sulfoxide compound solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(30), 9352–9359 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-mettallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011). [CrossRef]  

16. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009). [CrossRef]  

17. E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011). [CrossRef]  

18. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011). [CrossRef]  

19. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012). [CrossRef]  

20. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011). [CrossRef]  

22. C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011). [CrossRef]  

23. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011). [CrossRef]  

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27. X. Chen, B. Minofar, P. Jungwirth, and H. C. Allen, “Interfacial molecular organization at aqueous solution surfaces of atmospherically relevant dimethyl sulfoxide and methanesulfonic Acid using sum frequency spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(47), 15546–15553 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. J. T. Cabral, A. Luzar, J. Teixeira, and M. C. Bellissent-Funel, “Water dynamics in DMSO-water mixture,” Physica B 276–278, 508–509 (2000). [CrossRef]  

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30. S. W. Lin and D. H. Chen, “Synthesis of water-soluble blue photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with oxide surface passivation,” Small 5(1), 72–76 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic states and Luminescence in porous silicon quantum dots: the role of oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999). [CrossRef]  

32. X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003). [CrossRef]  

33. X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003). [CrossRef]  

34. S. Yang, W. Li, B. Cao, H. Zeng, and W. Cai, “Origin of blue emission from silicon nanoparticles:direct transition and interface recombination,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21056–21062 (2011). [CrossRef]  

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36. P. F. Trwoga, A. J. Kenyon, and C. W. Pitt, “Modeling the contribution of quantum confinement to luminescence from silicon nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(7), 3789–3794 (1998). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1952–1956 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1585–1590 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. Karimzadeh, J. Z. Anvari, and N. Mansour, “Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of silicon in liquids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 949–955 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. Švrček, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, and N. Koshizaki, “Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by ns pulsed laser ablation in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213113 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly (acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. J. Sailor and E. J. Lee, “Surface chemistry of luminescent silicon nanocrystallites,” Adv. Mater. 9(10), 783–793 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Yao, Y. Li, M. Hossu, A. G. Joly, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, and W. Chen, “Luminescence of lanthanide-dimethyl sulfoxide compound solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(30), 9352–9359 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-mettallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice-Hall, 2001).
  25. J. P. Wilcoxon, G. A. Samara, and P. N. Provencio, “Optical and electronic properties of Si nanoclusters synthesized in inverse micelles,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2704–2714 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Pradhan, S. Chen, J. Zou, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “Photoconductivity of Langmuir-blodgett monolayers of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(34), 13292–13298 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  27. X. Chen, B. Minofar, P. Jungwirth, and H. C. Allen, “Interfacial molecular organization at aqueous solution surfaces of atmospherically relevant dimethyl sulfoxide and methanesulfonic Acid using sum frequency spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(47), 15546–15553 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. J. T. Cabral, A. Luzar, J. Teixeira, and M. C. Bellissent-Funel, “Water dynamics in DMSO-water mixture,” Physica B 276–278, 508–509 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. Huang, A. Dong, and W. S. Caughey, “Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, and ethylene glycol on secondary structures of cytochrome c and lysozyme as observed by infrared spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 84(4), 387–392 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. S. W. Lin and D. H. Chen, “Synthesis of water-soluble blue photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with oxide surface passivation,” Small 5(1), 72–76 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic states and Luminescence in porous silicon quantum dots: the role of oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  32. X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  33. X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Yang, W. Li, B. Cao, H. Zeng, and W. Cai, “Origin of blue emission from silicon nanoparticles:direct transition and interface recombination,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21056–21062 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. P. F. Trwoga, A. J. Kenyon, and C. W. Pitt, “Modeling the contribution of quantum confinement to luminescence from silicon nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(7), 3789–3794 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (14)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Yao, Y. Li, M. Hossu, A. G. Joly, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, and W. Chen, “Luminescence of lanthanide-dimethyl sulfoxide compound solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(30), 9352–9359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-mettallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1952–1956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1585–1590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, W. Li, B. Cao, H. Zeng, and W. Cai, “Origin of blue emission from silicon nanoparticles:direct transition and interface recombination,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21056–21062 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

X. Chen, B. Minofar, P. Jungwirth, and H. C. Allen, “Interfacial molecular organization at aqueous solution surfaces of atmospherically relevant dimethyl sulfoxide and methanesulfonic Acid using sum frequency spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(47), 15546–15553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

S. W. Lin and D. H. Chen, “Synthesis of water-soluble blue photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with oxide surface passivation,” Small 5(1), 72–76 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Karimzadeh, J. Z. Anvari, and N. Mansour, “Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of silicon in liquids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 949–955 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pradhan, S. Chen, J. Zou, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “Photoconductivity of Langmuir-blodgett monolayers of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(34), 13292–13298 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. Švrček, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, and N. Koshizaki, “Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by ns pulsed laser ablation in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213113 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly (acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Cabral, A. Luzar, J. Teixeira, and M. C. Bellissent-Funel, “Water dynamics in DMSO-water mixture,” Physica B 276–278, 508–509 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. P. Wilcoxon, G. A. Samara, and P. N. Provencio, “Optical and electronic properties of Si nanoclusters synthesized in inverse micelles,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2704–2714 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic states and Luminescence in porous silicon quantum dots: the role of oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. F. Trwoga, A. J. Kenyon, and C. W. Pitt, “Modeling the contribution of quantum confinement to luminescence from silicon nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(7), 3789–3794 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. J. Sailor and E. J. Lee, “Surface chemistry of luminescent silicon nanocrystallites,” Adv. Mater. 9(10), 783–793 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. Huang, A. Dong, and W. S. Caughey, “Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, and ethylene glycol on secondary structures of cytochrome c and lysozyme as observed by infrared spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 84(4), 387–392 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abarques, R.

K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Abderrafi, K.

K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Allan, G.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic states and Luminescence in porous silicon quantum dots: the role of oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[Crossref]

Allen, H. C.

X. Chen, B. Minofar, P. Jungwirth, and H. C. Allen, “Interfacial molecular organization at aqueous solution surfaces of atmospherically relevant dimethyl sulfoxide and methanesulfonic Acid using sum frequency spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(47), 15546–15553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alsharif, N. H.

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anthony, R.

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1952–1956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anvari, J. Z.

R. Karimzadeh, J. Z. Anvari, and N. Mansour, “Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of silicon in liquids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 949–955 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bellissent-Funel, M. C.

J. T. Cabral, A. Luzar, J. Teixeira, and M. C. Bellissent-Funel, “Water dynamics in DMSO-water mixture,” Physica B 276–278, 508–509 (2000).
[Crossref]

Berger, C. E. M.

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biser, J. M.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cabral, J. T.

J. T. Cabral, A. Luzar, J. Teixeira, and M. C. Bellissent-Funel, “Water dynamics in DMSO-water mixture,” Physica B 276–278, 508–509 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

S. Yang, W. Li, B. Cao, H. Zeng, and W. Cai, “Origin of blue emission from silicon nanoparticles:direct transition and interface recombination,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21056–21062 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, B.

S. Yang, W. Li, B. Cao, H. Zeng, and W. Cai, “Origin of blue emission from silicon nanoparticles:direct transition and interface recombination,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21056–21062 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Caughey, W. S.

P. Huang, A. Dong, and W. S. Caughey, “Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, and ethylene glycol on secondary structures of cytochrome c and lysozyme as observed by infrared spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 84(4), 387–392 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, H. M.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chao, Y.

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. H.

S. W. Lin and D. H. Chen, “Synthesis of water-soluble blue photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with oxide surface passivation,” Small 5(1), 72–76 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

S. Pradhan, S. Chen, J. Zou, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “Photoconductivity of Langmuir-blodgett monolayers of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(34), 13292–13298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

M. Yao, Y. Li, M. Hossu, A. G. Joly, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, and W. Chen, “Luminescence of lanthanide-dimethyl sulfoxide compound solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(30), 9352–9359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, B. Minofar, P. Jungwirth, and H. C. Allen, “Interfacial molecular organization at aqueous solution surfaces of atmospherically relevant dimethyl sulfoxide and methanesulfonic Acid using sum frequency spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(47), 15546–15553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Y.

X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K. Y.

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1952–1956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chirvony, V. S.

K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, B. J.

X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. S.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, D. Y.

X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Datta, H. K.

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delerue, C.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic states and Luminescence in porous silicon quantum dots: the role of oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

Dong, A.

P. Huang, A. Dong, and W. S. Caughey, “Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, and ethylene glycol on secondary structures of cytochrome c and lysozyme as observed by infrared spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 84(4), 387–392 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doty, R. C.

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ee, Y.-K.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Erogbogbo, F.

F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fauchet, P. M.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic states and Luminescence in porous silicon quantum dots: the role of oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[Crossref]

Franzò, G.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García Calzada, R.

K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Giorgio, S.

L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gongalsky, M. B.

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V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
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K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1952–1956 (2011).
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V. Švrček, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, and N. Koshizaki, “Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by ns pulsed laser ablation in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213113 (2006).
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X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
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Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
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Li, Y. L.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
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Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly (acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
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M. Yao, Y. Li, M. Hossu, A. G. Joly, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, and W. Chen, “Luminescence of lanthanide-dimethyl sulfoxide compound solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(30), 9352–9359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, Y. Li, M. Hossu, A. G. Joly, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, and W. Chen, “Luminescence of lanthanide-dimethyl sulfoxide compound solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(30), 9352–9359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. H.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
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X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
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D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1585–1590 (2011).
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D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
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D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
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R. Karimzadeh, J. Z. Anvari, and N. Mansour, “Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of silicon in liquids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 949–955 (2009).
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L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
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V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
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K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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X. Chen, B. Minofar, P. Jungwirth, and H. C. Allen, “Interfacial molecular organization at aqueous solution surfaces of atmospherically relevant dimethyl sulfoxide and methanesulfonic Acid using sum frequency spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(47), 15546–15553 (2010).
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Nagai, T.

V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
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L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
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D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1585–1590 (2011).
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L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
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L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitt, C. W.

P. F. Trwoga, A. J. Kenyon, and C. W. Pitt, “Modeling the contribution of quantum confinement to luminescence from silicon nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(7), 3789–3794 (1998).
[Crossref]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Pradhan, S.

S. Pradhan, S. Chen, J. Zou, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “Photoconductivity of Langmuir-blodgett monolayers of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(34), 13292–13298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
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Priolo, F.

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
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J. P. Wilcoxon, G. A. Samara, and P. N. Provencio, “Optical and electronic properties of Si nanoclusters synthesized in inverse micelles,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2704–2714 (1999).
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Puzzo, D. P.

D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1585–1590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rangel, E.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
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Roy, I.

F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
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Ruckenstein, E.

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly (acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Safarov, V. I.

L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sailor, M. J.

M. J. Sailor and E. J. Lee, “Surface chemistry of luminescent silicon nanocrystallites,” Adv. Mater. 9(10), 783–793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Samara, G. A.

J. P. Wilcoxon, G. A. Samara, and P. N. Provencio, “Optical and electronic properties of Si nanoclusters synthesized in inverse micelles,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2704–2714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

V. Švrček, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, and N. Koshizaki, “Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by ns pulsed laser ablation in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sentis, M.

L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shibata, Y.

V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, Y.

V. Švrček, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, and N. Koshizaki, “Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by ns pulsed laser ablation in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, W. D.

X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
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Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suárez, I.

K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Švrcek, V.

V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Švrček, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, and N. Koshizaki, “Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by ns pulsed laser ablation in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Swihart, M. T.

F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Talukdar, S. S.

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tan, D.

D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-mettallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Teixeira, J.

J. T. Cabral, A. Luzar, J. Teixeira, and M. C. Bellissent-Funel, “Water dynamics in DMSO-water mixture,” Physica B 276–278, 508–509 (2000).
[Crossref]

Timoshenko, V. Y.

K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
[Crossref]

Trwoga, P. F.

P. F. Trwoga, A. J. Kenyon, and C. W. Pitt, “Modeling the contribution of quantum confinement to luminescence from silicon nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(7), 3789–3794 (1998).
[Crossref]

Turkevych, I.

V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
[Crossref]

Varanasi, S. S.

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vinci, R. P.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. B.

D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1585–1590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilcoxon, J. P.

J. P. Wilcoxon, G. A. Samara, and P. N. Provencio, “Optical and electronic properties of Si nanoclusters synthesized in inverse micelles,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2704–2714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wolkin, M. V.

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic states and Luminescence in porous silicon quantum dots: the role of oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. H.

X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G. X.

F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, W. Li, B. Cao, H. Zeng, and W. Cai, “Origin of blue emission from silicon nanoparticles:direct transition and interface recombination,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21056–21062 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, M.

M. Yao, Y. Li, M. Hossu, A. G. Joly, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, and W. Chen, “Luminescence of lanthanide-dimethyl sulfoxide compound solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(30), 9352–9359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yong, K. T.

F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

S. Yang, W. Li, B. Cao, H. Zeng, and W. Cai, “Origin of blue emission from silicon nanoparticles:direct transition and interface recombination,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21056–21062 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-mettallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-mettallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, K. J.

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, J.

S. Pradhan, S. Chen, J. Zou, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “Photoconductivity of Langmuir-blodgett monolayers of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(34), 13292–13298 (2008).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Erogbogbo, K. T. Yong, I. Roy, G. X. Xu, P. N. Prasad, and M. T. Swihart, “Biocompatible luminescent silicon quantum dots for imaging of cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(5), 873–878 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. J. Sailor and E. J. Lee, “Surface chemistry of luminescent silicon nanocrystallites,” Adv. Mater. 9(10), 783–793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-mettallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Švrček, T. Sasaki, Y. Shimizu, and N. Koshizaki, “Blue luminescent silicon nanocrystals prepared by ns pulsed laser ablation in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 213113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

R. Karimzadeh, J. Z. Anvari, and N. Mansour, “Nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of silicon in liquids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(4), 949–955 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes on nano-patterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-Nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. D. Holmes, K. J. Ziegler, R. C. Doty, L. E. Pell, K. P. Johnston, and B. A. Korgel, “Highly luminescent silicon nanocrystals with discrete optical transitions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(16), 3743–3748 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

P. F. Trwoga, A. J. Kenyon, and C. W. Pitt, “Modeling the contribution of quantum confinement to luminescence from silicon nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(7), 3789–3794 (1998).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lu, Y. H. Wu, B. J. Cho, M. H. Liu, D. Y. Dai, and W. D. Song, “Mechanisms of photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals formed by pulsed-laser deposition in argon and oxygen ambient,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(10), 6311–6319 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Patrone, D. Nelson, V. I. Safarov, M. Sentis, W. Marine, and S. Giorgio, “Photoluminescene of silicon nanoclusters with reduced size dispersion produced by laser ablation,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(8), 3829–3837 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

P. Huang, A. Dong, and W. S. Caughey, “Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, and ethylene glycol on secondary structures of cytochrome c and lysozyme as observed by infrared spectroscopy,” J. Pharm. Sci. 84(4), 387–392 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

X. Chen, B. Minofar, P. Jungwirth, and H. C. Allen, “Interfacial molecular organization at aqueous solution surfaces of atmospherically relevant dimethyl sulfoxide and methanesulfonic Acid using sum frequency spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 114(47), 15546–15553 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yao, Y. Li, M. Hossu, A. G. Joly, Z. Liu, Z. Liu, and W. Chen, “Luminescence of lanthanide-dimethyl sulfoxide compound solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(30), 9352–9359 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (4)

K. Abderrafi, R. García Calzada, M. B. Gongalsky, I. Suárez, R. Abarques, V. S. Chirvony, V. Y. Timoshenko, R. Ibáñez, and J. P. Martínez-Pastor, “Silicon nanocrystals produced by nanosecond laser ablation in an organic liquid,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5147–5151 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Švrček, D. Mariotti, T. Nagai, Y. Shibata, I. Turkevych, and M. Kondo, “Photovoltaic applications of silicon nanocrystal based nanostructures induced by nanosecond laser fragmentation in liquid media,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(12), 5084–5093 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Pradhan, S. Chen, J. Zou, and S. M. Kauzlarich, “Photoconductivity of Langmuir-blodgett monolayers of silicon nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(34), 13292–13298 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, W. Li, B. Cao, H. Zeng, and W. Cai, “Origin of blue emission from silicon nanoparticles:direct transition and interface recombination,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 21056–21062 (2011).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

X. Li, Y. He, S. S. Talukdar, and M. T. Swihart, “Process for preparing macroscopic quantities of brightly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles with emission spanning the visible spectrum,” Langmuir 19(20), 8490–8496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

K. Y. Cheng, R. Anthony, U. R. Kortshagen, and R. J. Holmes, “High-efficiency silicon nanocrystal light-emitting devices,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 1952–1956 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Puzzo, E. J. Henderson, M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, G. A. Ozin, and Z. Lu, “Visible colloidal nanocrystal silicon light-emitting diode,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1585–1590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. F. Li and E. Ruckenstein, “Water-soluble poly (acrylic acid) grafted luminescent silicon nanoparticles and their use as fluorescent biological staining labels,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1463–1467 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

L. Pavesi, L. Dal Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, “Optical gain in silicon nanocrystals,” Nature 408(6811), 440–444 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Tan, Z. Ma, B. Xu, Y. Dai, G. Ma, M. He, Z. Jin, and J. Qiu, “Surface passivated silicon nanocrystals with stable luminescence synthesized by femtosecond laser ablation in solution,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(45), 20255–20261 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. P. Wilcoxon, G. A. Samara, and P. N. Provencio, “Optical and electronic properties of Si nanoclusters synthesized in inverse micelles,” Phys. Rev. B 60(4), 2704–2714 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. V. Wolkin, J. Jorne, P. M. Fauchet, G. Allan, and C. Delerue, “Electronic states and Luminescence in porous silicon quantum dots: the role of oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(1), 197–200 (1999).
[Crossref]

Physica B (1)

J. T. Cabral, A. Luzar, J. Teixeira, and M. C. Bellissent-Funel, “Water dynamics in DMSO-water mixture,” Physica B 276–278, 508–509 (2000).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, and J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Small (2)

N. H. Alsharif, C. E. M. Berger, S. S. Varanasi, Y. Chao, B. R. Horrocks, and H. K. Datta, “Alkyl-capped silicon nanocrystals lack cytotoxicity and have enhanced intracellular accumulation in malignant cells via cholesterol-dependent endocytosis,” Small 5(2), 221–228 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Lin and D. H. Chen, “Synthesis of water-soluble blue photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with oxide surface passivation,” Small 5(1), 72–76 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

B. D. Cullity and S. R. Stock, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Prentice-Hall, 2001).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Image of the SiNCs colloid prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of silicon wafer in the DMSO.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 TEM image and size distribution of the SiNCs colloid prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of silicon wafer in the DMSO.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 X-ray diffraction pattern of the SiNCs thin film which shows diffraction peaks for the silicon (111), (220) and (311) planes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption spectrum of the colloidal SiNCs in the DMSO at different time after production. The absorption spectrum is remained stable for one month.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 FTIR spectrum of the SiNCs powder, Shows the presence of the oxide layer on the surface of the silicon nanocrystal.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Surface chemistry of the SiNCs dispersed in the DMSO.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PL emission spectrum of the colloidal SiNCs in the DMSO at different excitation wavelength range (a) 350-375 nm and (b) 400-475 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Stability of PL emission spectrum of the colloidal SiNCs in the DMSO is obtained at the excitation wavelengths of (a) 375 nm and (b) 435 nm.

Equations (1)

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ϕ V = V S V S + V L

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