Abstract

We study polarity reversal in terahertz pulses generated from p-doped Si(001) surfaces with different doping levels. The azimuthal dependence of both terahertz emission and second-harmonic generation caused by the bulk electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole process is measured to determine the contributions of optical rectification and the surface depletion field direction, respectively. By comparing the penetration depth of the excitation laser and the depletion field strength on Si surfaces, we show that competition between the photo-Dember effect and surface field accelerations causes the polarity reversal.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  27. J. L. W. Siders, S. A. Trugman, F. H. Garzon, R. J. Houlton, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz emission from YBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films via bulk electric-quadrupole-magnetic-dipole optical rectification,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 633–638 (2000).
  28. P. H. Neethling, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Stafast, “Femtosecond laser diagnostics of the built-in electric field across the p+-Si/SiO2 interface and its ultrafast shielding,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(22), 223704 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  35. K. Liu, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from n-type GaAs with Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs surface layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 3651–3653 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yao, L. Zhang, C. He, Q. Zhao, J. Bai, and X. Xu, “Terahertz surface emission from layered MoS2 crystal: competition between surface optical rectification and surface photocurrent surge,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(1), 481–488 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  38. H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic reflection from silicon surfaces and its relation to structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51(21), 1983–1986 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  39. T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B 47(7), 3842–3849 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  40. I. Catalano, A. Cingolani, C. Arnone, and S. Riva-Sanseverino, “Optical rectification and Photon Drag in p-type InAs at 10.6 μm,” Solid State Commun. 37(2), 183–185 (1981).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  43. J. Dadap, X. Hu, M. Anderson, M. Downer, and J. Lowell, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53(12), R7607–R7609 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  44. W. Füssel, M. Schmidt, H. Angermann, G. Mende, and H. Flietner, “Defects at the Si/SiO2 interface: Their nature and behaviour in technological processes and stress,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 377(2-3), 177–183 (1996).
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    [Crossref]

2018 (5)

Y. Zhang, Q. Guo, S. Zheng, X. Zhong, G. Zhong, D. Zhang, C. Ren, C. Tan, Z. Lu, Y. Zhang, Y. Tang, J. Wang, and J. Yuan, “Surface-step-terrace tuned second-order nonlinear optical coefficients of epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(43), 11679–11685 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Q. Guo, X. Zhong, Y. Chu, H. Lu, G. Zhong, J. Jiang, C. Tan, M. Liao, Z. Lu, D. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Yuan, and Y. Zhou, “Characterization of domain distributions by second harmonic generation in ferroelectrics,” npj Comput. Mater. 4(1), 39 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Yao, L. Zhu, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, W. Du, Z. Lei, A. Soni, and X. Xu, “Interface properties probed by active THz surface emission in graphene/SiO2/Si heterostructures,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(41), 35599–35606 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Si, Y. Huang, Q. Zhao, L. Zhu, L. Zhang, Z. Yao, and X. Xu, “Terahertz surface emission from layered semiconductor WSe2,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 448, 416–423 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, L. Zhu, Z. Yao, L. Zhang, C. He, Q. Zhao, J. Bai, and X. Xu, “Terahertz surface emission from layered MoS2 crystal: competition between surface optical rectification and surface photocurrent surge,” J. Phys. Chem. C 122(1), 481–488 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

U. Blumröder, H. Hempel, K. Füchsel, P. Hoyer, A. Bingel, R. Eichberger, T. Unold, and S. Nolte, “Investigating subsurface damages in semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor solar cells with THz spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(5), 1600590 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Mochizuki, A. Ito, J. Mitchell, H. Nakanishi, K. Tanahashi, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, K. Shirasawa, and H. Takato, “Probing the surface potential of oxidized silicon by assessing terahertz emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(16), 163502 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Staude and J. Schilling, “Metamaterial-inspired silicon nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 11(5), 274–284 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

S. Y. Hamh, S.-H. Park, S.-K. Jerng, J. H. Jeon, S. H. Chun, J. H. Jeon, S. J. Kahng, K. Yu, E. J. Choi, S. Kim, S.-H. Choi, N. Bansal, S. Oh, J. Park, B.-W. Kho, J. S. Kim, and J. S. Lee, “Surface and interface states of Bi2Se3 thin films investigated by optical second-harmonic generation and terahertz emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051609 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, “All-dielectric metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 23–36 (2016).
[Crossref]

P.-C. Heisel, W. Ndebeka, P. Neethling, W. Paa, E. Rohwer, C. Steenkamp, and H. Stafast, “Free charge carrier absorption in silicon at 800 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 122(3), 60 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

U. Blumröder, M. Steglich, F. Schrempel, P. Hoyer, and S. Nolte, “THz emission from argon implanted silicon surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi B 252(1), 105–111 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Sakai, I. Kawayama, H. Nakanishi, and M. Tonouchi, “Visualization of GaN surface potential using terahertz emission enhanced by local defects,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13860 (2015).
[Crossref]

L.-G. Zhu, B. Kubera, K. Fai Mak, and J. Shan, “Effect of Surface States on Terahertz Emission from the Bi2Se3 Surface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10308 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

N. M. Terlinden, V. Vandalon, R. H. E. C. Bosch, and W. M. M. E. Kessels, “Second-harmonic intensity and phase spectroscopy as a sensitive method to probe the space-charge field in Si(100) covered with charged dielectrics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A 32(2), 021103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

H. Park, B. Choi, A. Steigerwald, K. Varga, and N. Tolk, “Annealing effect in boron-induced interface charge traps in Si/SiO2 systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(2), 023711 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. H. Neethling, E. G. Rohwer, and H. Stafast, “Femtosecond laser diagnostics of the built-in electric field across the p+-Si/SiO2 interface and its ultrafast shielding,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(22), 223704 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Xu, F. Hu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Effect of inhomogeneity and plasmons on terahertz radiation from GaAs(100) surface coated with rough Au film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 285, 853–857 (2013).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

H. Park, J. Qi, Y. Xu, K. Varga, S. Weiss, B. Rogers, G. Lüpke, and N. Tolk, “Characterization of boron charge traps at the interface of Si/SiO2 using second harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 062102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Scheidt, E. Rohwer, P. Neethling, H. Von Bergmann, and H. Stafast, “Ionization and shielding of interface states in native p+-Si/SiO2 probed by electric field induced second harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(8), 083712 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

E. Estacio, H. Sumikura, H. Murakami, M. Tani, N. Sarukura, M. Hangyo, C. Ponseca Jr, R. Pobre, R. Quiroga, and S. Ono, “Magnetic-field-induced fourfold azimuthal angle dependence in the terahertz radiation power of (100)InAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151915 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. An, R. Carriles, and M. Downer, “Absolute phase and amplitude of second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility components at Si(001) interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 241307 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Reid and R. Fedosejevs, “Terahertz emission from (100) InAs surfaces at high excitation fluences,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011906 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Ristić, A. Prijić, and Z. Prijić, “Dependence of static dielectric constant of silicon on resistivity at room temperature,” Serbian J. Electr. Eng. 1(2), 237–247 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. Liu, A. Krotkus, K. Bertulis, J. Xu, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz radiation from n-type GaAs with Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs surface layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(5), 3651–3653 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. T. Wilson, Y. Jiang, R. Carriles, and M. C. Downer, “Second-harmonic amplitude and phase spectroscopy by use of broad-bandwidth femtosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(12), 2548 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

J. L. W. Siders, S. A. Trugman, F. H. Garzon, R. J. Houlton, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz emission from YBa2Cu3O7−δ thin films via bulk electric-quadrupole-magnetic-dipole optical rectification,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 633–638 (2000).

D. Lim, M. C. Downer, J. G. Ekerdt, N. Arzate, B. S. Mendoza, V. I. Gavrilenko, and R. Q. Wu, “Optical second harmonic spectroscopy of boron-reconstructed Si(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(15), 3406–3409 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. G. Mihaychuk, N. Shamir, and H. M. van Driel, “Multiphoton photoemission and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation as probes of charge transfer across the Si/SiO2 interface,” Phys. Rev. B 59(3), 2164–2173 (1999).
[Crossref]

O. Aktsipetrov, A. Fedyanin, A. Melnikov, E. Mishina, A. Rubtsov, M. Anderson, P. Wilson, M. Ter Beek, X. Hu, J. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8924–8938 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. Chen, S. Machida, and Y. Yamanoto, “Simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase in surface second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 23(9), 676 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, G. Lüpke, M. Di Ventra, S. Pantelides, J. Gilligan, N. Tolk, I. Kizilyalli, P. Roy, G. Margaritondo, and G. Lucovsky, “Coupled electron-hole dynamics at the Si/SiO2 interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(19), 4224–4227 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

R. Stolle, G. Marowsky, E. Schwarzberg, and G. Berkovic, “Phase measurements in nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. B 63(5), 491–498 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Bloch, J. G. Mihaychuk, and H. M. Van Driel, “Electron Photoinjection from Silicon to Ultrathin SiO2 Films via Ambient Oxygen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(5), 920–923 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Dadap, X. Hu, M. Anderson, M. Downer, and J. Lowell, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53(12), R7607–R7609 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. Füssel, M. Schmidt, H. Angermann, G. Mende, and H. Flietner, “Defects at the Si/SiO2 interface: Their nature and behaviour in technological processes and stress,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 377(2-3), 177–183 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. Meyer, G. Lüpke, U. Emmerichs, F. Wolter, H. Kurz, C. H. Bjorkman, and G. Lucovsky, “Electronic transitions at Si(111)/SiO2 and Si(111)/Si3N4 interfaces studied by optical second-harmonic spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(15), 3001–3004 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B 47(7), 3842–3849 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

X. C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(1), 326–338 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

J. Sipe, D. Moss, and H. Van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second-and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35(3), 1129–1141 (1987).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic reflection from silicon surfaces and its relation to structural symmetry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51(21), 1983–1986 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

I. Catalano, A. Cingolani, C. Arnone, and S. Riva-Sanseverino, “Optical rectification and Photon Drag in p-type InAs at 10.6 μm,” Solid State Commun. 37(2), 183–185 (1981).
[Crossref]

Aktsipetrov, O.

O. Aktsipetrov, A. Fedyanin, A. Melnikov, E. Mishina, A. Rubtsov, M. Anderson, P. Wilson, M. Ter Beek, X. Hu, J. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8924–8938 (1999).
[Crossref]

An, Y.

Y. An, R. Carriles, and M. Downer, “Absolute phase and amplitude of second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility components at Si(001) interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 241307 (2007).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M.

O. Aktsipetrov, A. Fedyanin, A. Melnikov, E. Mishina, A. Rubtsov, M. Anderson, P. Wilson, M. Ter Beek, X. Hu, J. Dadap, and M. C. Downer, “dc-electric-field-induced and low-frequency electromodulation second-harmonic generation spectroscopy of Si(001)-SiO2 interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 60(12), 8924–8938 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Dadap, P. Wilson, M. Anderson, M. Downer, and M. Ter Beek, “Femtosecond carrier-induced screening of dc electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation at the Si(001)-SiO2 interface,” Opt. Lett. 22(12), 901–903 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Dadap, X. Hu, M. Anderson, M. Downer, and J. Lowell, “Optical second-harmonic electroreflectance spectroscopy of a Si(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor structure,” Phys. Rev. B 53(12), R7607–R7609 (1996).
[Crossref]

Angermann, H.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Optical diagram of the experimental setup. HR: high-resistance silicon; BPF: band pass filter (@400 $\pm$ 10 $nm$ ); P: polarizer; PMT: photomultiplier tube; WP: Wollaston prism. (b) Sketch of a Si (001) sample. $\theta$ is the angle of incidence and $\phi$ is the azimuthal angle of the samples.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) $p$ -polarized THz waves generated from wafer-A, wafer-B and p-InAs with the pump intensity of 1.5 ${\textrm {GW}}/{\textrm{cm}}^2$ . The THz amplitude from the p-InAs surface is divided by 700. (b) $p$ -polarized THz amplitude peak from wafer-A as a function of the pump intensity.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The azimuthal dependence of peak-to-peak amplitude for $p$ -polarized THz waves pumped by $p$ - (PP) and $s$ -polarized (SP) laser pulses. The red circles (PP) and blue squares (SP) are the experimental data. The red solid line and blue dashed line are fitting of Eqs. (2) and (3), respectively. (b) The azimuthal dependence of peak-to-peak amplitude for $s$ -polarized THz waves pumped by $p$ - (PS) and $s$ -polarized (SS) laser pulses. The green circles (PS) and pink squares (SS) are the experimental data. The green solid line and pink dashed line are fitting results. The pumping intensity in (a) and (b) is 1.5 ${\textrm {GW}}/{\textrm {cm}}^2$ .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The azimuthal dependence of $p$ -polarized SHG intensity from wafer-A and wafer-B under $p$ -polarized laser pumping. The red circles are experimental data and the red dashed line is fitting for wafer-A. The blue squares are experimental data and the blue solid line is fitting for wafer-B. (b) The azimuthal dependence of $p$ -polarized peak-to-peak THz amplitude from wafer-A and wafer-B under $p$ -polarized laser pumping. The red diamonds are experimental data and the red dashed line is fitting of Eq. (2) for wafer-A. The blue triangles are experimental data and the blue solid line is fitting of Eq. (2) for wafer-B. The pumping intensity in (a) and (b) is 1.5 ${\textrm {GW}}/{\textrm {cm}}^2$ .

Equations (8)

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P NL ( r , Ω ) = P BD ( r , Ω ) + P BQ ( r , Ω )
E pp THz = a 1 J diff t + b 1 J drift t + c 1 cos ( 4 ϕ ) + d 1 E DF
E sp THz = a 2 J diff t + b 2 J drift t + c 2 cos ( 4 ϕ ) + d 2 E DF
E ps THz = c 3 sin ( 4 ϕ )
E ss THz = c 4 sin ( 4 ϕ )
I ( 2 ω ) | χ ( 2 ) + χ ( 3 ) E DF | 2 ( I ( ω ) ) 2
w = 2 ϵ ϵ 0 V q N A
n p0 = n i exp ( E Fb E i k 0 T )

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