Abstract

We report on the spectroscopic and laser characterization of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. Spectroscopic properties such as absorption and emission spectra as well as kinetics were studied, and parameters such as cross-sections and lifetimes were estimated. A vibronic band of NV0 with zero phonon line (ZPL) at 575 nm was detected under 532 nm pulsed excitation due to the photoionization of NV. Transmission of 532 nm pump pulses saturate around ∼10%, which is much smaller than the theoretical level. Δk/k0 kinetics revealed slow recovery of NV centers after photoionization under 532 nm pumping, which involved different relaxation channels depending on the probe beam wavelengths. Localization of the electrons in the metastable state of NV0 centers resulted in higher saturated transmission of 632 nm pump.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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2018 (2)

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Hacquebard and L. Childress, “Charge-state dynamics during excitation and depletion of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond,” Phys. Rev. A 97(6), 063408 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Fraczek, V. G. Savitski, M. Dale, B. G. Breeze, P. Diggle, M. Markham, A. Bennett, H. Dhillon, M. E. Newton, and A. J. Kemp, “Laser spectroscopy of NV- and NV0 colour centres in synthetic diamond,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2571–2585 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. J. Rogers, M. W. Doherty, M. S. Barson, S. Onoda, T. Ohshima, and N. B. Manson, “Singlet levels of the NV- centers in diamond,” New J. Phys. 17(1), 013048 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

H. C. Lu, Y. C. Peng, M. Y. Lin, S. L. Chou, J. I. Lo, and B. M. Cheng, “Photoluminescence of a CVD Diamond Excited with VUV Light from a Synchrotron,” Opt. Photonics J. 3(6), 25–28 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wratchup, “Photoinduced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. W. Dohetry, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

G. Liaugaudas, G. Davies, K. Suhling, R. U. Khan, and D. J. Evans, “Luminescence lifetimes of neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in synthetic diamond containing nitrogen,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24(43), 435503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

W. L. Yang, Z. Q. Yin, Y. Hu, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “High-fidelity quantum memory using nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble for hybrid quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 010301 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

V. M. Acosta, A. Jarmola, E. Bauch, and D. Budker, “Optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy singlet levels in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 201202 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

C. L. Degen, “Scanning magnetic field microscope with a diamond single-spin sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243111 (2008).
[Crossref]

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. L. Wee, Y. K. Tzeng, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Two-photon Excited Fluorescence of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Proton-Irradiated Type Ib Diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(38), 9379–9386 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. G. Vins and E. V. Pestryakov, “Color centers in diamond crystals: Their potential use in tunable and femtosecond lasers,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 15(4-8), 569–571 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. B. Manson and J. P. Harrison, “Photo-ionization of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 14(10), 1705–1710 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, A. Gruber, I. Popa, A. Nizovtsev, and S. Kilin, “Spectroscopy of Single N-V Centers in Diamond,” Single Mol. 2(4), 255–260 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, “Luminescence decay time of the 1.945 eV centre in type Ib diamond,” J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 16(11), 2177–2181 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

J. Walker, “Optical absorption and luminescence in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 42(10), 1605–1659 (1979).
[Crossref]

Acosta, V. M.

V. M. Acosta, A. Jarmola, E. Bauch, and D. Budker, “Optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy singlet levels in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 201202 (2010).
[Crossref]

Al-Mmoud, M.

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Antipov, S.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aslam, N.

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wratchup, “Photoinduced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bai, Z.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, G.K.

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barson, M. S.

L. J. Rogers, M. W. Doherty, M. S. Barson, S. Onoda, T. Ohshima, and N. B. Manson, “Singlet levels of the NV- centers in diamond,” New J. Phys. 17(1), 013048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bauch, E.

V. M. Acosta, A. Jarmola, E. Bauch, and D. Budker, “Optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy singlet levels in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 201202 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bennett, A.

Bourgeois, E.

E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bratschitsch, R.

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Breeze, B. G.

Budker, D.

E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. M. Acosta, A. Jarmola, E. Bauch, and D. Budker, “Optical properties of the nitrogen-vacancy singlet levels in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 82(20), 201202 (2010).
[Crossref]

chan, I. Y.

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. C.

T. L. Wee, Y. K. Tzeng, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Two-photon Excited Fluorescence of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Proton-Irradiated Type Ib Diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(38), 9379–9386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. M.

T. L. Wee, Y. K. Tzeng, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Two-photon Excited Fluorescence of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Proton-Irradiated Type Ib Diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(38), 9379–9386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B. M.

H. C. Lu, Y. C. Peng, M. Y. Lin, S. L. Chou, J. I. Lo, and B. M. Cheng, “Photoluminescence of a CVD Diamond Excited with VUV Light from a Synchrotron,” Opt. Photonics J. 3(6), 25–28 (2013).
[Crossref]

Childress, L.

L. Hacquebard and L. Childress, “Charge-state dynamics during excitation and depletion of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond,” Phys. Rev. A 97(6), 063408 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chou, S. L.

H. C. Lu, Y. C. Peng, M. Y. Lin, S. L. Chou, J. I. Lo, and B. M. Cheng, “Photoluminescence of a CVD Diamond Excited with VUV Light from a Synchrotron,” Opt. Photonics J. 3(6), 25–28 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cole, J. H.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
[Crossref]

Collins, A. T.

A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, “Luminescence decay time of the 1.945 eV centre in type Ib diamond,” J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 16(11), 2177–2181 (1983).
[Crossref]

Dale, M.

Davies, G.

G. Liaugaudas, G. Davies, K. Suhling, R. U. Khan, and D. J. Evans, “Luminescence lifetimes of neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in synthetic diamond containing nitrogen,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24(43), 435503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. C.

C. C. Davis, Laser and Electro-optics: Fundamental and Engineering (Cambridge University Press, 2014).

Degen, C. L.

C. L. Degen, “Scanning magnetic field microscope with a diamond single-spin sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 243111 (2008).
[Crossref]

Delaney, P.

M. W. Dohetry, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Deshazer, L. G.

Dhillon, H.

Diggle, P.

Doherty, M. W.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. J. Rogers, M. W. Doherty, M. S. Barson, S. Onoda, T. Ohshima, and N. B. Manson, “Singlet levels of the NV- centers in diamond,” New J. Phys. 17(1), 013048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dohetry, M. W.

M. W. Dohetry, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dräbenstedt, A.

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

Du, J. F.

W. L. Yang, Z. Q. Yin, Y. Hu, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “High-fidelity quantum memory using nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble for hybrid quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 010301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Evans, D. J.

G. Liaugaudas, G. Davies, K. Suhling, R. U. Khan, and D. J. Evans, “Luminescence lifetimes of neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in synthetic diamond containing nitrogen,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24(43), 435503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fann, W.

T. L. Wee, Y. K. Tzeng, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Two-photon Excited Fluorescence of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Proton-Irradiated Type Ib Diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(38), 9379–9386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, M.

W. L. Yang, Z. Q. Yin, Y. Hu, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “High-fidelity quantum memory using nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble for hybrid quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 010301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fleury, L.

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fraczek, E.

Gibson, B. C.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
[Crossref]

Greentree, A. D.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gruber, A.

F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, A. Gruber, I. Popa, A. Nizovtsev, and S. Kilin, “Spectroscopy of Single N-V Centers in Diamond,” Single Mol. 2(4), 255–260 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gruen, D.M.

O. A. Shenderova and D.M. Gruen, “Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond: Synthesis, Properties and Applications,” Elsevier, Oxford, UK (2012).

Gulka, M.

E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hacquebard, L.

L. Hacquebard and L. Childress, “Charge-state dynamics during excitation and depletion of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond,” Phys. Rev. A 97(6), 063408 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, C. C.

T. L. Wee, Y. K. Tzeng, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Two-photon Excited Fluorescence of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Proton-Irradiated Type Ib Diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(38), 9379–9386 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanke, T.

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G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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M. W. Dohetry, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
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E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
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T. L. Wee, Y. K. Tzeng, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Two-photon Excited Fluorescence of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Proton-Irradiated Type Ib Diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(38), 9379–9386 (2007).
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W. L. Yang, Z. Q. Yin, Y. Hu, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “High-fidelity quantum memory using nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble for hybrid quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 010301 (2011).
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Jarmola, A.

E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
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J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
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M. W. Dohetry, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
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G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, A. Gruber, I. Popa, A. Nizovtsev, and S. Kilin, “Spectroscopy of Single N-V Centers in Diamond,” Single Mol. 2(4), 255–260 (2001).
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J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, “Luminescence decay time of the 1.945 eV centre in type Ib diamond,” J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 16(11), 2177–2181 (1983).
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Khan, R. U.

G. Liaugaudas, G. Davies, K. Suhling, R. U. Khan, and D. J. Evans, “Luminescence lifetimes of neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in synthetic diamond containing nitrogen,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24(43), 435503 (2012).
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Kilin, S.

F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, A. Gruber, I. Popa, A. Nizovtsev, and S. Kilin, “Spectroscopy of Single N-V Centers in Diamond,” Single Mol. 2(4), 255–260 (2001).
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G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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Kitzler, O.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
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G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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Lau, D. W. M.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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Leitenstorfer, A.

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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G. Liaugaudas, G. Davies, K. Suhling, R. U. Khan, and D. J. Evans, “Luminescence lifetimes of neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in synthetic diamond containing nitrogen,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24(43), 435503 (2012).
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M. A. Prelas and L.-T. S. Lin, “Laser modes in diamond,” Conference paper: Wide Band Gap Electronic Materials, Springer, Dordrecht, 187–206 (1995).

Lin, M. Y.

H. C. Lu, Y. C. Peng, M. Y. Lin, S. L. Chou, J. I. Lo, and B. M. Cheng, “Photoluminescence of a CVD Diamond Excited with VUV Light from a Synchrotron,” Opt. Photonics J. 3(6), 25–28 (2013).
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H. C. Lu, Y. C. Peng, M. Y. Lin, S. L. Chou, J. I. Lo, and B. M. Cheng, “Photoluminescence of a CVD Diamond Excited with VUV Light from a Synchrotron,” Opt. Photonics J. 3(6), 25–28 (2013).
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Lolesov, R.

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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Lu, H. C.

H. C. Lu, Y. C. Peng, M. Y. Lin, S. L. Chou, J. I. Lo, and B. M. Cheng, “Photoluminescence of a CVD Diamond Excited with VUV Light from a Synchrotron,” Opt. Photonics J. 3(6), 25–28 (2013).
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Lux, O.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
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L. J. Rogers, M. W. Doherty, M. S. Barson, S. Onoda, T. Ohshima, and N. B. Manson, “Singlet levels of the NV- centers in diamond,” New J. Phys. 17(1), 013048 (2015).
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M. W. Dohetry, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
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N. B. Manson and J. P. Harrison, “Photo-ionization of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 14(10), 1705–1710 (2005).
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Markham, M.

McCallum, J. C.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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McGuinness, L. P.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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McKay, A.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mildren, R. P.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
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R. P. Mildren and A. Sabella, “Highly efficient diamond Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2811–2813 (2009).
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Nesladek, M.

E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
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Neumann, P.

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wratchup, “Photoinduced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
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Newton, M. E.

Nizovtsev, A.

F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, A. Gruber, I. Popa, A. Nizovtsev, and S. Kilin, “Spectroscopy of Single N-V Centers in Diamond,” Single Mol. 2(4), 255–260 (2001).
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Ohshima, T.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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L. J. Rogers, M. W. Doherty, M. S. Barson, S. Onoda, T. Ohshima, and N. B. Manson, “Singlet levels of the NV- centers in diamond,” New J. Phys. 17(1), 013048 (2015).
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Onoda, S.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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L. J. Rogers, M. W. Doherty, M. S. Barson, S. Onoda, T. Ohshima, and N. B. Manson, “Singlet levels of the NV- centers in diamond,” New J. Phys. 17(1), 013048 (2015).
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Peng, Y. C.

H. C. Lu, Y. C. Peng, M. Y. Lin, S. L. Chou, J. I. Lo, and B. M. Cheng, “Photoluminescence of a CVD Diamond Excited with VUV Light from a Synchrotron,” Opt. Photonics J. 3(6), 25–28 (2013).
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V. G. Vins and E. V. Pestryakov, “Color centers in diamond crystals: Their potential use in tunable and femtosecond lasers,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 15(4-8), 569–571 (2006).
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Popa, I.

F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, A. Gruber, I. Popa, A. Nizovtsev, and S. Kilin, “Spectroscopy of Single N-V Centers in Diamond,” Single Mol. 2(4), 255–260 (2001).
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M. A. Prelas and L.-T. S. Lin, “Laser modes in diamond,” Conference paper: Wide Band Gap Electronic Materials, Springer, Dordrecht, 187–206 (1995).

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Reineck, P.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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Rogers, L. J.

L. J. Rogers, M. W. Doherty, M. S. Barson, S. Onoda, T. Ohshima, and N. B. Manson, “Singlet levels of the NV- centers in diamond,” New J. Phys. 17(1), 013048 (2015).
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R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
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R. P. Mildren and A. Sabella, “Highly efficient diamond Raman laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2811–2813 (2009).
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Sarang, S.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
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Schmidt, H. K.

K. D. Jamison and H. K. Schmidt, “Doped diamond laser,” U.S. Patent 5504767 (1996).

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G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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Siyushev, P.

E. Bourgeois, A. Jarmola, P. Siyushev, M. Gulka, J. Hruby, F. Jelezko, D. Budker, and M. Nesladek, “Photoelectric detection of electron spin resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8577 (2015).
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Spence, D. J.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
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Suhling, K.

G. Liaugaudas, G. Davies, K. Suhling, R. U. Khan, and D. J. Evans, “Luminescence lifetimes of neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers in synthetic diamond containing nitrogen,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 24(43), 435503 (2012).
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Thomaz, M. F.

A. T. Collins, M. F. Thomaz, and M. I. B. Jorge, “Luminescence decay time of the 1.945 eV centre in type Ib diamond,” J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 16(11), 2177–2181 (1983).
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Tietz, C.

F. Jelezko, C. Tietz, A. Gruber, I. Popa, A. Nizovtsev, and S. Kilin, “Spectroscopy of Single N-V Centers in Diamond,” Single Mol. 2(4), 255–260 (2001).
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A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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Tisler, J.

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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Tzeng, Y. K.

T. L. Wee, Y. K. Tzeng, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Two-photon Excited Fluorescence of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Proton-Irradiated Type Ib Diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(38), 9379–9386 (2007).
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Vidal, X.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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Vins, V. G.

V. G. Vins and E. V. Pestryakov, “Color centers in diamond crystals: Their potential use in tunable and femtosecond lasers,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 15(4-8), 569–571 (2006).
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Volz, T.

J. Jeske, D. W. M. Lau, X. Vidal, L. P. McGuinness, P. Reineck, B. C. Johnson, M. W. Doherty, J. C. McCallum, S. Onoda, F. Jelezko, T. Ohshima, T. Volz, J. H. Cole, B. C. Gibson, and A. D. Greentree, “Stimulated emission from nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14000 (2017).
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von Borczyskowski, C.

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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Waldherr, G.

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wratchup, “Photoinduced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
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T. L. Wee, Y. K. Tzeng, C. C. Han, H. C. Chang, W. Fann, J. H. Hsu, K. M. Chen, and Y. C. Yu, “Two-photon Excited Fluorescence of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Proton-Irradiated Type Ib Diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(38), 9379–9386 (2007).
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Williams, R. J.

R. J. Williams, O. Kitzler, Z. Bai, S. Sarang, H. Jasbeer, A. McKay, S. Antipov, A. Sabella, O. Lux, D. J. Spence, and R. P. Mildren, “High Power Diamond Raman Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–14 (2018).
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Wojcik, A.

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
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Wrachtrup, J.

M. W. Dohetry, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.K. Balasubramanian, I. Y. chan, R. Lolesov, M. Al-Mmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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Wratchup, J.

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wratchup, “Photoinduced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
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Yang, W. L.

W. L. Yang, Z. Q. Yin, Y. Hu, M. Feng, and J. F. Du, “High-fidelity quantum memory using nitrogen-vacancy center ensemble for hybrid quantum computation,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 010301 (2011).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Relative position of energy levels of NV and NV0 centers in the band gap of diamond (indicated by double-sided arrow lines). Absorption and decay mechanism of NV and NV0 energy levels showing two-step photoionization along with the possible transitions (shown by single-sided arrow lines).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a). Absorption spectrum of CVD grown diamond sample. (b) Inset graph shows measured transmission spectrum of the sample without correction for Fresnel reflection (c). The emission spectra measured under CW (red solid curve) and pulsed (blue dashed curve) 532 nm excitation. Under pulsed excitation some of NV centers are photoionized to NV0.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. PL kinetics of NV centers in diamond under 532 nm pulsed excitation (i) at 576 nm (near the ZPL of NV0 centers), (ii) at 638 nm (near the ZPL of NV centers), (iii) at 700 nm (near the peak of emission band), (iv) at 830 nm (near the tail of PL spectrum).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Variation of a 532 nm pump beam transmission through the sample as a function of a pump energy fluence (i) calculated using Frantz-Nodvik equation (blue dashed line) and (ii) measured (red dotted curve).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the pump probe experiment.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Signal measured at probe wavelengths (a) 632 nm and (b) 670 nm, respectively, using (i) 532 nm pump beam and probe beam simultaneously, (ii) probe beam only (after blocking the 532 nm pump beam), and (iii) 532 nm pump beam only (after blocking the probe beam) which represents PL signal at the probe wavelength.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Comparison of evolution of Δk/k0 kinetics under 532 nm pumping at probe wavelengths (i) at 632 nm and (ii) at 670 nm.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The dependence of 632 nm pump transmission through the sample as a function of a pump energy fluence (i) calculated using Frantz-Nodvik equation (blue dashed line) and (ii) measured from the experiment (red dotted curve).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Illustration of the energy levels of NV0 and NV centers and corresponding population densities and cross-sections used to describe the proposed model of saturation and pump-probe experiments.

Equations (7)

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σem(ν0,em)=c2A218πn2ν0,em2gem(ν0,em)
σab(ν0,ab)=g2g1c2A218πn2ν0,ab2gab(ν0,ab)
T=EsEinln[1+(eEinEs1)T0]
{n˙(G0)=Ipσab(G0)n(G0)+Ipσem(E0)n(E0)n˙(G)=Ipσab(G)n(G)+Ipσem(E)n(E)n˙(E0)=Ipσab(G0)n(G0)Ipσem(E0)n(E0)Ipσio(E0)n(E0)n˙(E)=Ipσab(G)n(G)Ipσem(E)n(E)Ipσio(E)n(E)n˙(M0)=Ipσio(E)n(E)Ipσio(M0)n(M0)Ipσio(M)n(M)n˙(M)=Ipσio(E0)n(E0)+Ipσio(M0)n(M0)+Ipσio(M)n(M)
n(G0)=n(G)=n(E0)=n(E)=0
n(M)=n(M0)[σio(M0)/σio(M0)σio(M)σio(M)]
n(M0)+n(M)=Ntotal

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