Abstract

The optimization of material gain in optically pumped dye-doped polymer thin films is an important task in the development of organic solid-state lasers. In this work, we present a theoretical model that accommodates the influence of concentration quenching on material gain and employ it to study the novel dye molecule 2-(4-(bis(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)amino)benzylidene)malononitrile (PMN) and the well-established dye molecule 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Polycarbonate was tested as an alternative host material for PMN. The material gain in these dye-doped polymer thin films was determined by the variable stripe length method. The inclusion of concentration quenching in the material gain expression is able to significantly reduce the overestimation of the gain efficiency inherent to a linear model.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Vembris, E. Zarins, and V. Kokars, “Stimulated emission and optical properties of pyranyliden fragment containing compounds in PVK matrix,” Optics & Laser Technol. 95, 74–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Amyot-Bourgeois, E. K. Keshmarzi, C. Hahn, R. N. Tait, and P. Berini, “Gain optimization, bleaching, and e-beam structuring of IR-140 doped PMMA and integration with plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Mater. Express 7, 3963 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. J. C. Kuehne and M. C. Gather, “Organic lasers: Recent developments on materials, device geometries, and fabrication techniques,” Chem. Rev. 116, 12823–12864 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bollgruen, U. Gleissner, T. Wolfer, C. Megnin, D. Mager, L. Overmeyer, J. G. Korvink, and T. Hanemann, “Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils,” Opt. Eng. 55, 107107 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Alamán, R. Alicante, J. Peña, and C. Sánchez-Somolinos, “Inkjet printing of functional materials for optical and photonic applications,” Materials 9, 910 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z. Zhao, O. Mhibik, M. Nafa, S. Chénais, and S. Forget, “High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051112 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. P. Green and A. R. Buckley, “Solid state concentration quenching of organic fluorophores in PMMA,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 1435–1440 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sekine, Y. Tsubata, T. Yamada, M. Kitano, and S. Doi, “Recent progress of high performance polymer OLED and OPV materials for organic printed electronics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 034203 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Diode-pumped, mechanically-flexible polymer DFB laser encapsulated by glass membranes,” Opt. Express 22, 24160–24168 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

K. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Jung, J.-G. Yook, and S.-G. Kim, “A highly sensitive and label free biosensing platform for wireless sensor node system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 362–367 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. S. Klimavicz, J. F. Mike, A. Bhuwalka, A. L. Tomlinson, and M. Jeffries-EL, “Synthesis of benzobisoxazole-based D-π-A-π-D organic chromophores with variable optical and electronic properties,” Pure Appl. Chem. 84, 991–1004 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chénais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033305 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

A. Costela, O. García, L. Cerdán, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Amplified spontaneous emission and optical gain measurements from pyrromethene 567-doped polymer waveguides and quasi-waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 7023 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Costela, O. García, L. Cerdán, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Amplified spontaneous emission and optical gain measurements from pyrromethene 567-doped polymer waveguides and quasi-waveguides: erratum,” Opt. Express 16, 7587 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Ishow, A. Brosseau, G. Clavier, K. Nakatani, P. Tauc, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, S. Neveu, O. Sandre, and A. Léaustic, “Multicolor emission of small molecule-based amorphous thin films and nanoparticles with a single excitation wavelength,” Chem. Mater. 20, 6597–6599 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. P. Mondal, “Minimizing photobleaching in fluorescence microscopy by depleting triplet states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. C. Mayer, S. R. Scully, B. E. Hardin, M. W. Rowell, and M. D. McGehee, “Polymer-based solar cells,” Mater. Today 10, 28–33 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Günes, H. Neugebauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1324–1338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

I. D. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Polymer lasers: Recent advances,” Mater. Today 7, 28–35 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. McKenna, J. Xue, A. Verdoni, M. Yetzbacher, R. Fan, and A. Mickelson, “Kinetic model of irreversible photobleaching of dye-doped polymer waveguide materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1294 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Lu, B. Zhong, and D. Ma, “Amplified spontaneous emission and gain from optically pumped films of dye-doped polymers,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5074 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Costela, I. García-Moreno, and R. Sastre, “Polymeric solid-state dye lasers: Recent developments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. : PCCP 5, 4745–4763 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Ma, A.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610–3616 (1989).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

S. Speiser, R. van der Werf, and J. Kommandeur, “Photoquenching: The dependence of the primary quantum yield of a monophotonic laser-induced photochemical process on the intensity and duration of the exciting pulse,” Chem. Phys. 1, 297–305 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (2)

I. Wieder, “Quenching of laser dye fluorescence by absorption from an excited singlet state,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 318–320 (1972).
[Crossref]

D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, “Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475–477 (1971).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alamán, J.

J. Alamán, R. Alicante, J. Peña, and C. Sánchez-Somolinos, “Inkjet printing of functional materials for optical and photonic applications,” Materials 9, 910 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alicante, R.

J. Alamán, R. Alicante, J. Peña, and C. Sánchez-Somolinos, “Inkjet printing of functional materials for optical and photonic applications,” Materials 9, 910 (2016).
[Crossref]

Amyot-Bourgeois, M.

Anderson, A.

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Audibert, J.-F.

I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bäumer, S.

S. Bäumer, Handbook of Plastic Optics(Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010).
[Crossref]

Beer, D.

D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

Bettotti, P.

L. Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bhuwalka, A.

J. S. Klimavicz, J. F. Mike, A. Bhuwalka, A. L. Tomlinson, and M. Jeffries-EL, “Synthesis of benzobisoxazole-based D-π-A-π-D organic chromophores with variable optical and electronic properties,” Pure Appl. Chem. 84, 991–1004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boj, P. G.

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bollgruen, P.

P. Bollgruen, U. Gleissner, T. Wolfer, C. Megnin, D. Mager, L. Overmeyer, J. G. Korvink, and T. Hanemann, “Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils,” Opt. Eng. 55, 107107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boudreau, M.

I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brosseau, A.

I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

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H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chénais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033305 (2009).
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C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Diode-pumped, mechanically-flexible polymer DFB laser encapsulated by glass membranes,” Opt. Express 22, 24160–24168 (2014).
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Z. Zhao, O. Mhibik, M. Nafa, S. Chénais, and S. Forget, “High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051112 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chénais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033305 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Forget and S. Chénais, Organic Solid-State Lasers, vol. 175 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 0342–4111 (SpringerBerlin Heidelberg, 2013).

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Furukawa, T.

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R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

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I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
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J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
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C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Diode-pumped, mechanically-flexible polymer DFB laser encapsulated by glass membranes,” Opt. Express 22, 24160–24168 (2014).
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J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
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Han, X.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
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P. Bollgruen, U. Gleissner, T. Wolfer, C. Megnin, D. Mager, L. Overmeyer, J. G. Korvink, and T. Hanemann, “Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils,” Opt. Eng. 55, 107107 (2016).
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A. C. Mayer, S. R. Scully, B. E. Hardin, M. W. Rowell, and M. D. McGehee, “Polymer-based solar cells,” Mater. Today 10, 28–33 (2007).
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Herrnsdorf, J.

C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Diode-pumped, mechanically-flexible polymer DFB laser encapsulated by glass membranes,” Opt. Express 22, 24160–24168 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
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J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

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H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chénais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033305 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Ishow, A. Brosseau, G. Clavier, K. Nakatani, P. Tauc, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, S. Neveu, O. Sandre, and A. Léaustic, “Multicolor emission of small molecule-based amorphous thin films and nanoparticles with a single excitation wavelength,” Chem. Mater. 20, 6597–6599 (2008).
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H. Ma, A.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
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L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
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J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
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K. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Jung, J.-G. Yook, and S.-G. Kim, “A highly sensitive and label free biosensing platform for wireless sensor node system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 362–367 (2013).
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Kim, K. J.

K. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Jung, J.-G. Yook, and S.-G. Kim, “A highly sensitive and label free biosensing platform for wireless sensor node system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 362–367 (2013).
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K. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Jung, J.-G. Yook, and S.-G. Kim, “A highly sensitive and label free biosensing platform for wireless sensor node system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 362–367 (2013).
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C. Sekine, Y. Tsubata, T. Yamada, M. Kitano, and S. Doi, “Recent progress of high performance polymer OLED and OPV materials for organic printed electronics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 034203 (2014).
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J. S. Klimavicz, J. F. Mike, A. Bhuwalka, A. L. Tomlinson, and M. Jeffries-EL, “Synthesis of benzobisoxazole-based D-π-A-π-D organic chromophores with variable optical and electronic properties,” Pure Appl. Chem. 84, 991–1004 (2012).
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P. Bollgruen, U. Gleissner, T. Wolfer, C. Megnin, D. Mager, L. Overmeyer, J. G. Korvink, and T. Hanemann, “Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils,” Opt. Eng. 55, 107107 (2016).
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A. J. C. Kuehne and M. C. Gather, “Organic lasers: Recent developments on materials, device geometries, and fabrication techniques,” Chem. Rev. 116, 12823–12864 (2016).
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I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
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C. Foucher, B. Guilhabert, J. Herrnsdorf, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Diode-pumped, mechanically-flexible polymer DFB laser encapsulated by glass membranes,” Opt. Express 22, 24160–24168 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
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Léaustic, A.

E. Ishow, A. Brosseau, G. Clavier, K. Nakatani, P. Tauc, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, S. Neveu, O. Sandre, and A. Léaustic, “Multicolor emission of small molecule-based amorphous thin films and nanoparticles with a single excitation wavelength,” Chem. Mater. 20, 6597–6599 (2008).
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I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
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I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
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K. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Jung, J.-G. Yook, and S.-G. Kim, “A highly sensitive and label free biosensing platform for wireless sensor node system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 362–367 (2013).
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Lee, J.-H.

K. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Jung, J.-G. Yook, and S.-G. Kim, “A highly sensitive and label free biosensing platform for wireless sensor node system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 362–367 (2013).
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Ma, D.

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
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Mager, D.

P. Bollgruen, U. Gleissner, T. Wolfer, C. Megnin, D. Mager, L. Overmeyer, J. G. Korvink, and T. Hanemann, “Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils,” Opt. Eng. 55, 107107 (2016).
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J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

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H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
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[Crossref]

McKendry,

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

McKenna, E.

Méallet-Renault, R.

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Megnin, C.

P. Bollgruen, U. Gleissner, T. Wolfer, C. Megnin, D. Mager, L. Overmeyer, J. G. Korvink, and T. Hanemann, “Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils,” Opt. Eng. 55, 107107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mhibik, O.

Z. Zhao, O. Mhibik, M. Nafa, S. Chénais, and S. Forget, “High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mickelson, A.

Mike, J. F.

J. S. Klimavicz, J. F. Mike, A. Bhuwalka, A. L. Tomlinson, and M. Jeffries-EL, “Synthesis of benzobisoxazole-based D-π-A-π-D organic chromophores with variable optical and electronic properties,” Pure Appl. Chem. 84, 991–1004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni and J. H. Eberly, Laser Physics (Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, 2010).
[Crossref]

Mondal, P. P.

P. P. Mondal, “Minimizing photobleaching in fluorescence microscopy by depleting triplet states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Morimoto, K.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morthier, G.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
[Crossref]

Muñoz-Mármol, R.

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nafa, M.

Z. Zhao, O. Mhibik, M. Nafa, S. Chénais, and S. Forget, “High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nakanotani, H.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakatani, K.

E. Ishow, A. Brosseau, G. Clavier, K. Nakatani, P. Tauc, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, S. Neveu, O. Sandre, and A. Léaustic, “Multicolor emission of small molecule-based amorphous thin films and nanoparticles with a single excitation wavelength,” Chem. Mater. 20, 6597–6599 (2008).
[Crossref]

Negro, L.

L. Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Neugebauer, H.

S. Günes, H. Neugebauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1324–1338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neveu, S.

E. Ishow, A. Brosseau, G. Clavier, K. Nakatani, P. Tauc, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, S. Neveu, O. Sandre, and A. Léaustic, “Multicolor emission of small molecule-based amorphous thin films and nanoparticles with a single excitation wavelength,” Chem. Mater. 20, 6597–6599 (2008).
[Crossref]

Numata, M.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Overmeyer, L.

P. Bollgruen, U. Gleissner, T. Wolfer, C. Megnin, D. Mager, L. Overmeyer, J. G. Korvink, and T. Hanemann, “Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils,” Opt. Eng. 55, 107107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pacifici, D.

L. Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pansu, R.

I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

L. Negro, P. Bettotti, M. Cazzanelli, D. Pacifici, and L. Pavesi, “Applicability conditions and experimental analysis of the variable stripe length method for gain measurements,” Opt. Commun. 229, 337–348 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peña, J.

J. Alamán, R. Alicante, J. Peña, and C. Sánchez-Somolinos, “Inkjet printing of functional materials for optical and photonic applications,” Materials 9, 910 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quintana, J. A.

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rabbani-Haghighi, H.

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chénais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rowell, M. W.

A. C. Mayer, S. R. Scully, B. E. Hardin, M. W. Rowell, and M. D. McGehee, “Polymer-based solar cells,” Mater. Today 10, 28–33 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sagara, Y.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuel,

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D.

I. D. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Polymer lasers: Recent advances,” Mater. Today 7, 28–35 (2004).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Somolinos, C.

J. Alamán, R. Alicante, J. Peña, and C. Sánchez-Somolinos, “Inkjet printing of functional materials for optical and photonic applications,” Materials 9, 910 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sandre, O.

E. Ishow, A. Brosseau, G. Clavier, K. Nakatani, P. Tauc, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, S. Neveu, O. Sandre, and A. Léaustic, “Multicolor emission of small molecule-based amorphous thin films and nanoparticles with a single excitation wavelength,” Chem. Mater. 20, 6597–6599 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sariciftci, N. S.

S. Günes, H. Neugebauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1324–1338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sastre, R.

Sastre-Santos, A.

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Scully, S. R.

A. C. Mayer, S. R. Scully, B. E. Hardin, M. W. Rowell, and M. D. McGehee, “Polymer-based solar cells,” Mater. Today 10, 28–33 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sekine, C.

C. Sekine, Y. Tsubata, T. Yamada, M. Kitano, and S. Doi, “Recent progress of high performance polymer OLED and OPV materials for organic printed electronics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 034203 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaklee, K. L.

K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, “Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475–477 (1971).
[Crossref]

Siove, A.

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chénais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Speiser, S.

S. Speiser, R. van der Werf, and J. Kommandeur, “Photoquenching: The dependence of the primary quantum yield of a monophotonic laser-induced photochemical process on the intensity and duration of the exciting pulse,” Chem. Phys. 1, 297–305 (1973).
[Crossref]

Tait, R. N.

Tanaka, H.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610–3616 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tauc, P.

E. Ishow, A. Brosseau, G. Clavier, K. Nakatani, P. Tauc, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, S. Neveu, O. Sandre, and A. Léaustic, “Multicolor emission of small molecule-based amorphous thin films and nanoparticles with a single excitation wavelength,” Chem. Mater. 20, 6597–6599 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tomlinson, A. L.

J. S. Klimavicz, J. F. Mike, A. Bhuwalka, A. L. Tomlinson, and M. Jeffries-EL, “Synthesis of benzobisoxazole-based D-π-A-π-D organic chromophores with variable optical and electronic properties,” Pure Appl. Chem. 84, 991–1004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsiminis, G.

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsubata, Y.

C. Sekine, Y. Tsubata, T. Yamada, M. Kitano, and S. Doi, “Recent progress of high performance polymer OLED and OPV materials for organic printed electronics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 034203 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsvirkun, V.

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, G. A.

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. D. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Polymer lasers: Recent advances,” Mater. Today 7, 28–35 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ulysse, C.

I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

van der Werf, R.

S. Speiser, R. van der Werf, and J. Kommandeur, “Photoquenching: The dependence of the primary quantum yield of a monophotonic laser-induced photochemical process on the intensity and duration of the exciting pulse,” Chem. Phys. 1, 297–305 (1973).
[Crossref]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610–3616 (1989).
[Crossref]

Vázquez, C.

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vembris, A.

A. Vembris, E. Zarins, and V. Kokars, “Stimulated emission and optical properties of pyranyliden fragment containing compounds in PVK matrix,” Optics & Laser Technol. 95, 74–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

Verdoni, A.

Villalvilla, J. M.

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weber, J.

D. Beer and J. Weber, “Photobleaching of organic laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 5, 307–309 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wieder, I.

I. Wieder, “Quenching of laser dye fluorescence by absorption from an excited singlet state,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 318–320 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wolfer, T.

P. Bollgruen, U. Gleissner, T. Wolfer, C. Megnin, D. Mager, L. Overmeyer, J. G. Korvink, and T. Hanemann, “Ink-jet printed fluorescent materials as light sources for planar optical waveguides on polymer foils,” Opt. Eng. 55, 107107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

Yamada, T.

C. Sekine, Y. Tsubata, T. Yamada, M. Kitano, and S. Doi, “Recent progress of high performance polymer OLED and OPV materials for organic printed electronics,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 034203 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, T.

H. Nakanotani, T. Higuchi, T. Furukawa, K. Masui, K. Morimoto, M. Numata, H. Tanaka, Y. Sagara, T. Yasuda, and C. Adachi, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4016 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yetzbacher, M.

Yook, J.-G.

K. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Jung, J.-G. Yook, and S.-G. Kim, “A highly sensitive and label free biosensing platform for wireless sensor node system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 362–367 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zarins, E.

A. Vembris, E. Zarins, and V. Kokars, “Stimulated emission and optical properties of pyranyliden fragment containing compounds in PVK matrix,” Optics & Laser Technol. 95, 74–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao, O. Mhibik, M. Nafa, S. Chénais, and S. Forget, “High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhong, B.

Zink-Lorre, N.

R. Muñoz-Mármol, N. Zink-Lorre, J. M. Villalvilla, P. G. Boj, J. A. Quintana, C. Vázquez, A. Anderson, M. J. Gordon, A. Sastre-Santos, F. Fernández-Lázaro, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Influence of blending ratio and polymermatrix on the lasing properties of perylenediimide dyes,” The J. Phys. Chem. C 122, 24896–24906 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zyss, J.

I. Gozhyk, M. Boudreau, H. R. Haghighi, N. Djellali, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, A. Brosseau, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, S. Gauvin, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Gain properties of dye-doped polymer thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 92, 214202 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Gozhyk, G. Clavier, R. Méallet-Renault, M. Dvorko, R. Pansu, J.-F. Audibert, A. Brosseau, C. Lafargue, V. Tsvirkun, S. Lozenko, S. Forget, S. Chénais, C. Ulysse, J. Zyss, and M. Lebental, “Polarization properties of solid-state organic lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 043817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Ma, A.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14, 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

H. Rabbani-Haghighi, S. Forget, S. Chénais, A. Siove, M.-C. Castex, and E. Ishow, “Laser operation in nondoped thin films made of a small-molecule organic red-emitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, O. Mhibik, M. Nafa, S. Chénais, and S. Forget, “High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 051112 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. P. Mondal, “Minimizing photobleaching in fluorescence microscopy by depleting triplet states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013902 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Wieder, “Quenching of laser dye fluorescence by absorption from an excited singlet state,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 318–320 (1972).
[Crossref]

K. L. Shaklee and R. F. Leheny, “Direct determination of optical gain in semiconductor crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 475–477 (1971).
[Crossref]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

K. J. Kim, H.-J. Lee, J.-H. Lee, H.-I. Jung, J.-G. Yook, and S.-G. Kim, “A highly sensitive and label free biosensing platform for wireless sensor node system,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 50, 362–367 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (1)

E. Ishow, A. Brosseau, G. Clavier, K. Nakatani, P. Tauc, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, S. Neveu, O. Sandre, and A. Léaustic, “Multicolor emission of small molecule-based amorphous thin films and nanoparticles with a single excitation wavelength,” Chem. Mater. 20, 6597–6599 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Speiser, R. van der Werf, and J. Kommandeur, “Photoquenching: The dependence of the primary quantum yield of a monophotonic laser-induced photochemical process on the intensity and duration of the exciting pulse,” Chem. Phys. 1, 297–305 (1973).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (2)

S. Günes, H. Neugebauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Conjugated polymer-based organic solar cells,” Chem. Rev. 107, 1324–1338 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. C. Kuehne and M. C. Gather, “Organic lasers: Recent developments on materials, device geometries, and fabrication techniques,” Chem. Rev. 116, 12823–12864 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” IEEE Photonics J. 4, 920–930 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3610–3616 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser & Photonics Rev. (1)

J. Herrnsdorf, Y. Wang, McKendry, J. D. Jonathan, Z. Gong, D. Massoubre, B. Guilhabert, G. Tsiminis, G. A. Turnbull, Samuel, D. W. Ifor, N. Laurand, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Micro-led pumped polymer laser: A discussion of future pump sources for organic lasers,” Laser & Photonics Rev. 7, 1065–1078 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Molecular structure of (a) 2-(4-(bis(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)amino)benzylidene)malononitrile (PMN), and (b) 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical setup to generate a high intensity pump stripe on the sample surface. The intermediate image is used to add a variable slit (VS) minimizing Fresnel diffraction for variable stripe length (VSL) gain measurements. In this VSL setup no cylindrical lens is needed because the emission characteristics of the high power 450 nm multimode laser diode directly results in a narrow pump stripe. The light emitted from the sample edge is coupled into a multimode fiber and detected by a silicon photodiode (Si PD). A 500 nm long pass (LP) filter suppresses spurious pump light coupled into the fiber. Alignment of the pump stripe to the sample edge and fiber is achieved by inspection through a 550 nm LP filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Temporal pump power characteristics of the laser diode driven by a pulsed current source. (b) Spatial intensity profile of the pump stripe. The optical setup suppresses Fresnel diffraction resulting in a sharp truncation of the pump stripe. Weak side lobes occur due to the emission characteristics of the LD pump source.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic drawing of the fiber-coupled variable stripe length (VSL) method to measure modal gain. The pump stripe has a length L and width W. The solid angle of the fluorescence emission at position ( x , z ) subtended by the pump stripe outputfacet is denoted with Ω ( x , z ).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized absorbance and emission spectra for PMN ( 2.0 wt.%) in PC, and PMN ( 2.0 wt.%) and DCM ( 1.0 wt.%) in PMMA. Excitation wavelength for fluorescence emission spectra was set to 450 nm, corresponding to the operation wavelength ofthe pump laser diode used in gain measurements.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Dependence of fluorescence intensity on distance of excitation stripe from the sample edge. The pump stripe was orientated parallel to the sample edge to minimize the influence of the fiber NA on the measurement. Dashed lines present exponential fit to the data. (b) Derived losses α = Γ α mat + α mod from shifting excitation stripe measurements. Dashed lines present a linear fit to the loss.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Dependence of internal material gain gint on dye mass fraction for different dye-doped thin film polymers: (a) PMN:PMMA, PMN:PC, (b) DCM:PMMA. Measurements were carried out at 150 kW cm−2 pump intensity and 35 ns pulse width. Graphs include best fits to the proposed concentration quenching gain model, shown as dashed lines.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Dependence of modal gmod on doping concentration of DCM embedded in polystyrene (PS). Modal gain data were taken from the work of Lu et al. [38]. Excitation was performed at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse width of 8 ns. The dashed line represents the best fit of the proposed concentration quenching gain model. Adapted with permission from [38], The Optical Society (OSA).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Normalized ASE intensity obtained from VSL gain measurements of 1.0 wt.% DCM in PMMA for different pump intensities relative to 150 kW cm−2 at 35 ns pulse width. (b) Dependence of internal gain Γ g int on the pump intensity. The slope of a linear fit to the measured data yields the gain efficiency Γ K.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Concentration quenching parameters derived from gain measurements.

Equations (26)

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I fl , eff ( z ) = W / 2 W / 2 I fl ( x , z ) Ω ( x , z ) 2 π γ ( x , z ) d x ,
I fl , eff ( z ) 1 z + z 0
d I ASE d z = g mod I ASE + I fl , eff ( z )
I ASE ( L ) = A exp  ( g mod ( L + z 0 ) ) [ Ei ( g mod ( L + z 0 ) ) Ei ( g mod z 0 ) ] ,
Ei ( z ) = z exp  ( t ) t d t .
I ASE ( L ) = A g mod ( e g mod L 1 ) ,
g mod = Γ g mat α mod ,
g mat = g int α mat .
g mod = Γ g int α ,
α = Γ α mat + α mod
η QY ( N ) = η 0 ( 1 e β 1 / 3 ( N 1 / 3 N 0 1 / 3 ) ) ,
η QY ( N ) = τ f ( N ) τ rad ,
τ f ( N ) = 1 k R + k NR + k CQ ( N )
d S 1 d t = σ abs I p S 0 ( 1 τ f + σ em I ) S 1 = 0
S 0 + S 1 = 1
S 1 = τ f σ abs I p 1 + τ f ( σ em I + σ abs I p ) τ f σ abs I p .
g int = σ em Δ N .
g int ( N ) σ em S 1 N = η QY ( N ) τ rad σ em σ abs I p N .
g int ( N ) = η 0 ( 1 e β 1 / 3 ( N 1 / 3 N 0 1 / 3 ) ) τ rad σ em σ abs I p N .
w N M ρ N A ,
g int ( w ) = K ( w ) I p
K ( w ) = w ρ N A M η 0 ( 1 e β 1 3 ( w 1 3 w 0 1 3 ) ) τ rad σ em σ abs .
g mod ( w ) = Γ g int α
= Γ K ( w ) I p α .
α ( w ) = w 9.25 cm 1 1.4 wt . % ,
K = σ em σ abs N τ f h ν ,

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