Abstract

We put forward a theoretical analysis of the optical properties of an asymmetric nanoring array on a gold metal layer. We show that for normal incidence, the spectrum of the symmetric system is characterized by a general dipolar ring resonance. For the asymmetric nanoring with an offset inner surface, obviously both dark monopolar and quadrupolar ring resonances can be generated under a normal incidence, which depends sensitively on the asymmetry of the structure. Meanwhile, the symmetry breaking of the structure provides the desirable near-field characteristics for biosensing. As a result, monopolar and multipolar modes reveal ultrahigh refractive sensitivities as large as 792 nm/RIU and 742 nm/RIU, respectively. Furthermore, due to their subradiant features, the resulting FOM is 72 RIU−1 for the monopolar mode and the record high value of 137.4 RIU−1 for the quadrupolar mode in a wide refractive index range of 1.33-1.38. These results indicate that an asymmetric ring system could be promising for biosensing applications with high performance.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. B. Špačková, P. Wrobel, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanostructures: a review,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2380–2408 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Huang, and H. Xu, “Reduced linewidth multipolar plasmon resonances in metal nanorods and related applications,” Nanoscale 5(15), 6985–6991 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Y. H. Fu, J. B. Zhang, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Generating and manipulating higher order Fano resonances in dual-disk ring plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5130–5137 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. Chuntonov and G. Haran, “Effect of symmetry breaking on the mode structure of trimeric plasmonic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(40), 19488–19495 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Liang, W. Peng, L. Li, S. Qian, and Q. Wang, “Tunable plasmonic resonances based on elliptical annular aperture arrays on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3909–3912 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. L. Li, Y. Liang, W. Peng, and Y. Liu, “Fano-like resonances in the binary elliptical nanoring resonator array,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2131–2139 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4–6), 262–266 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Liang, W. Peng, and Y. Liu, “Fano-like resonances in the binary elliptical nanoring resonator array,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2131–2139 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

B. Špačková, P. Wrobel, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanostructures: a review,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2380–2408 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, W. Peng, L. Li, S. Qian, and Q. Wang, “Tunable plasmonic resonances based on elliptical annular aperture arrays on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3909–3912 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Huang, and H. Xu, “Reduced linewidth multipolar plasmon resonances in metal nanorods and related applications,” Nanoscale 5(15), 6985–6991 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

Y. H. Fu, J. B. Zhang, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Generating and manipulating higher order Fano resonances in dual-disk ring plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5130–5137 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

L. Chuntonov and G. Haran, “Effect of symmetry breaking on the mode structure of trimeric plasmonic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(40), 19488–19495 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4–6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, A.

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, T. A.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4–6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocková, M.

B. Špačková, P. Wrobel, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanostructures: a review,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2380–2408 (2016).
[Crossref]

Busson, M. P.

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cetin, A. E.

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

S. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Huang, and H. Xu, “Reduced linewidth multipolar plasmon resonances in metal nanorods and related applications,” Nanoscale 5(15), 6985–6991 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chuntonov, L.

L. Chuntonov and G. Haran, “Effect of symmetry breaking on the mode structure of trimeric plasmonic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(40), 19488–19495 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eksioglu, Y.

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
[Crossref]

Etezadi, D.

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, J. A.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. H. Fu, J. B. Zhang, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Generating and manipulating higher order Fano resonances in dual-disk ring plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5130–5137 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galarreta, B. C.

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gallinet, B.

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hafner, J. H.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4–6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haran, G.

L. Chuntonov and G. Haran, “Effect of symmetry breaking on the mode structure of trimeric plasmonic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(40), 19488–19495 (2011).
[Crossref]

Harris, N.

K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

B. Špačková, P. Wrobel, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanostructures: a review,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2380–2408 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

S. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Huang, and H. Xu, “Reduced linewidth multipolar plasmon resonances in metal nanorods and related applications,” Nanoscale 5(15), 6985–6991 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Käll, M.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ku, J. C.

K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kundu, J.

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larsson, E. M.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4–6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lassiter, B.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lassiter, J. B.

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H.

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, Y. Liang, W. Peng, and Y. Liu, “Fano-like resonances in the binary elliptical nanoring resonator array,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2131–2139 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, W. Peng, L. Li, S. Qian, and Q. Wang, “Tunable plasmonic resonances based on elliptical annular aperture arrays on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3909–3912 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, Y.

L. Li, Y. Liang, W. Peng, and Y. Liu, “Fano-like resonances in the binary elliptical nanoring resonator array,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2131–2139 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, W. Peng, L. Li, S. Qian, and Q. Wang, “Tunable plasmonic resonances based on elliptical annular aperture arrays on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3909–3912 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Long, Z.

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, M.

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Y. H. Fu, J. B. Zhang, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Generating and manipulating higher order Fano resonances in dual-disk ring plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5130–5137 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manoharan, V. N.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirkin, C. A.

K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nehl, C. L.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4–6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osberg, K. D.

K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozel, T.

K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, W.

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Liang, W. Peng, and Y. Liu, “Fano-like resonances in the binary elliptical nanoring resonator array,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2131–2139 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, W. Peng, L. Li, S. Qian, and Q. Wang, “Tunable plasmonic resonances based on elliptical annular aperture arrays on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3909–3912 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, S.

Saliba, M.

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobhani, H.

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Špacková, B.

B. Špačková, P. Wrobel, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanostructures: a review,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2380–2408 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, D. S.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4–6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wrobel, P.

B. Špačková, P. Wrobel, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Optical biosensors based on plasmonic nanostructures: a review,” Proc. IEEE 104(12), 2380–2408 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(29), 10856–10860 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

S. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Huang, and H. Xu, “Reduced linewidth multipolar plasmon resonances in metal nanorods and related applications,” Nanoscale 5(15), 6985–6991 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, T.

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y. F.

Y. H. Fu, J. B. Zhang, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Generating and manipulating higher order Fano resonances in dual-disk ring plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5130–5137 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. B.

Y. H. Fu, J. B. Zhang, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Generating and manipulating higher order Fano resonances in dual-disk ring plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5130–5137 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Huang, and H. Xu, “Reduced linewidth multipolar plasmon resonances in metal nanorods and related applications,” Nanoscale 5(15), 6985–6991 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: a route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (3)

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fu, J. B. Zhang, Y. F. Yu, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Generating and manipulating higher order Fano resonances in dual-disk ring plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(6), 5130–5137 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Cetin and H. Altug, “Fano resonant ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities on conducting substrates for advanced biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(11), 9989–9995 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

A. E. Cetin, D. Etezadi, B. C. Galarreta, M. P. Busson, Y. Eksioglu, and H. Altug, “Plasmonic nanohole arrays on a robust hybrid substrate for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1167–1174 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Sens. (1)

Y. Liang, H. Zhang, W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, H. Lezec, L. Li, W. Peng, Y. Zou, Y. Lu, and T. Xu, “Subradiant dipolar interactions in plasmonic nanoring resonator array for integrated label-free biosensing,” ACS Sens. 2(12), 1796–1804 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4–6), 262–266 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

L. Chuntonov and G. Haran, “Effect of symmetry breaking on the mode structure of trimeric plasmonic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(40), 19488–19495 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (7)

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, J. A. Fan, J. Kundu, F. Capasso, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoclusters: geometrical and chemical tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3184–3189 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
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K. D. Osberg, N. Harris, T. Ozel, J. C. Ku, G. C. Schatz, and C. A. Mirkin, “Systematic study of antibonding modes in gold nanorod dimers and trimers,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6949–6954 (2014).
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Nanoscale (2)

Y. Liang, L. Li, M. Lu, H. Yuan, Z. Long, W. Peng, and T. Xu, “Comparative investigation of sensing behaviors between gap and lattice plasmon modes in a metallic nanoring array,” Nanoscale 10(2), 548–555 (2018).
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S. Zhang, L. Chen, Y. Huang, and H. Xu, “Reduced linewidth multipolar plasmon resonances in metal nanorods and related applications,” Nanoscale 5(15), 6985–6991 (2013).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

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Proc. IEEE (1)

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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

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Science (1)

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Geometry of the ANRA standing on a conducting layer in the simulations: outer radius (R = 230 nm), inner radius (r = 150 nm). Periodicity of ANRA is 740 nm, and thickness of the ring and the conducting metal layer is 100 nm and 150 nm, respectively. (b) The reflection spectra of ANRA system for various offset parameter ∆y.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electric field intensity (|E|2) and normalized surface charge distributions at specific wavelengths for four unit cells of ANRA deposited to a conducting gold layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The near field (|E|2) distributions are calculated at the top surface of ANRA system and at the yz cross section through the center of a nanoring.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electric field intensity enhancement (|E|2) plots of ANRA on a conducting gold layer with different offset inner surface around resonance minimum B. (a) ∆y = 0 nm. (b) ∆y = 20 nm. (c) ∆y = 40 nm. (d) ∆y = 60 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical responses of the ANRA on a conducting metal layer for the geometrical parameters of: (a) P = 740 nm, R = 230 nm, r = 150 nm, ∆y = 60 nm and various H; (b) R = 230 nm, r = 150 nm, ∆y = 60 nm, H = 100 nm and various P; (c) P = 740 nm, H = 100 nm, ∆y = 60 nm and various [R, r].
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Reflection spectra of different RIs solutions on the surface of structure. (b) Linear response of wavelength positions of quadrupolar (black), LSP (red) dipolar (blue) modes on RIs. (c) FOM in corresponding resonant mode.

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