Abstract

PbS quantum dots (QDs) with mean radii of 3.7 nm to 9.0 nm are precipitated in silicate glasses. Upon above-band-gap excitation, photoluminescence from QDs is strongly dependent on their size and excitation wavelength, exhibiting photo-darkening (PD) or photo-brightening (PB). Photoluminescence of PbS QDs exhibits strong darkening by short excitation wavelength but the darkening gradually mitigated as the excitation wavelength increased and even turns to be photo-brightening at room temperature. But PD and PB show a much more complicated variation tendency under the same excitation condition when the size of QDs increased. The dependence of PD and PB on the QDs’ size and excitation wavelength indicates that electron/hole trap states of PbS QDs, defect states in surrounding glass matrix as well as on the interface between the glass matrix and PbS QDs all have strong effects on the photoluminescence properties of PbS QDs. These findings are important to modulate the photoluminescence and promote the potential applications of PbS QDs embedded glasses towards various optoelectronic devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

K. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Deng, M. Xia, and Y. Ye, “Optical properties of Cu ions-doped ZnSe quantum dots in silicate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(11), 5080–5088 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

M. Xia, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, C. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Heo, S. Dai, J. Han, and X. Zhao, ““Surface passivation of CdSe quantum dots in all inorganic amorphous solid by forming Cd1-xZnxSe shell,” Sci,” Rep-UK. 4, 42359 (2017).

M. Xia, C. Liu, J. Han, and X. Zhao, “Formation of CdS/Cd1-xZnxS sandwich-structured quantum dots with high quantum efficiency in silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 186, 30–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Kolobkova, Z. Lipatova, A. Abdrshin, and N. Nikonorov, “Luminescent properties of fluorine phosphate glasses doped with PbSe and PbS quantum dots,” Opt. Mater. 65, 124–128 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Su, C. Liu, Z. Deng, X. Zhao, and X. Zhou, “Size-dependent photoluminescence of PbS QDs embedded in silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2194–2207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, C. Liu, J. Wang, J. Han, and X. Zhao, “Near-infrared anti-Stokes photoluminescence of PbS QDs embedded in glasses,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6874–6882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

Z. Zhao, B. Ai, C. Liu, Q. Yin, M. Xia, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Er3+ ions-doped germane-gallate oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(7), 2117–2121 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kitamura, M. Senshu, H. Tokushige, T. Katsuyama, N. Ozaki, I. Tanaka, and Y. Sugimoto, “Spectral and temporal photoluminescence behavior of colloidal PbS quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 79(79), 123–134 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-embedded silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 192–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, C. Liu, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, H. Tao, J. Han, X. Zhao, and J. Heo, “Infrared emission from Er3+/Y3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 404(15), 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Yin, J. Zhang, C. Liu, J. Xie, B. J. So, J. Heo, and X. Zhao, “Dual-band photoluminescence of lead selenide quantum dots doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 385(1), 136–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Han, C. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Infrared photoluminescence from lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses enriched in sulfur,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 391(3), 39–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

E. V. Ushakova, A. P. Litvin, P. S. Parfenov, A. V. Fedorov, M. Artemyev, A. V. Prudnikau, I. D. Rukhlenko, and A. V. Baranov, “Anomalous size-dependent decay of low-energy luminescence from PbS quantum dots in colloidal solution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8913–8921 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Loiko, G. E. Rachkovskaya, G. B. Zacharevich, V. S. Gurin, M. S. Gaponenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Optical properties of novel PbS and PbSe quantum-dot-doped alumino-alkali-silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(15), 1840–1845 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

G. Dong, B. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Zhang, M. Peng, D. Cheng, E. Wu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

B. Chon, S. J. Lim, W. Kim, J. Seo, H. Kang, T. Joo, J. Hwang, and S. K. Shin, “Shell and ligand-dependent blinking of CdSe-based core/shell nanocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(32), 9312–9319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Lewis, S. Wu, and X. J. Jiang, “Unconventional gap state of trapped exciton in lead sulfide quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 21(45), 455402 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. Onushchenko, A. A. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Optical modulation of near-infrared photoluminescence from lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Y. Kon, and J. Heo, “Near-infrared photoluminescence of PbS QDs precipitated in the glass matrix,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(10), 1071–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

C. Liu and J. Heo, “PbS quantum-dots in glass matrix for universal fiber-optic amplifier,” J. Mater. Sci.- Mater. El. 18(1), 135–139 (2007).

K. L. Knappenberger, D. B. Wong, Y. E. Romanyuk, and S. R. Leone, “Excitation wavelength dependence of fluorescence intermittency in CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3869–3874 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Liu, Y. Kon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

J. J. Peterson and T. D. Krauss, “Photobrightening and photodarkening in PbS quantum dots,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(33), 3851–3856 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Fernée, E. Thomsen, P. Jensen, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Highly efficient luminescence from a hybrid state found in strongly quantum confined PbS nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology 17(4), 956–962 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Cademartiri, E. Montanari, G. Calestani, A. Migliori, A. Guagliardi, and G. A. Ozin, “Size-dependent extinction coefficients of PbS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(31), 10337–10346 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Issac, C. von Borczyskowski, and F. Cichos, “Correlation between photoluminescence intermittency of CdSe quantum dots and self-trapped states in dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(16), 161302 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. D. Stefani, W. Knoll, M. Kreiter, X. Zhong, and M. Y. Han, “Quantification of photoinduced and spontaneous quantum-dot blinking,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125304 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. J. Ellingson, M. C. Beard, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Micic, A. J. Nozik, A. Shabaev, and A. L. Efros, “Highly efficient multiple exciton generation in colloidal PbSe and PbS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 865–871 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

R. D. Schaller, M. A. Petruska, and V. I. Klimov, “Tunable near-infrared optical gain and amplified spontaneous emission using PbSe nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(50), 13765–13768 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2895–2897 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (5)

Y. P. Rakovich, S. A. Filonovich, M. J. M. Gomes, J. F. Donegan, D. V. Talapin, and A. L. Rogach, “Anti-stokes photoluminescence in II–VI colloidal nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 229(1), 449–452 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. L. Wehrenberg, C. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(41), 10634–10640 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Asami, I. Kamiya, and M. Hara, “Photobrightening an d photodarkening in CdSe nanocrystal/polymer thin film,” Int. J. Nanosci. 1(5&6), 641–644 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. M. Malyarevich, V. G. Savitski, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, K. V. Yumashev, E. Raaben, and A. A. Zhilin, “Glass doped with PbS quantum dots as a saturable absorber for 1-mm neodymium lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(1), 28–32 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Verberk, A. M. V. Oijen, and M. Orrit, “Simple model for the power-law blinking of single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 66(23), 233202 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. Miyoshi, H. Ohkuni, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, N. Nozaki, N. Matsuo, and T. Kaneda, “Photobrightening of photodarkened CdS- and CdSxSe1-x-doped glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 36(2), 493–496 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glass doped with CdS and CdSxSe1-x nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(1), 6290–6292 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. M. Malyarevich, I. A. Denisov, V. G. Savitsky, K. V. Yumashev, and A. A. Lipovskii, “Glass doped with PbS quantum dots for passive Q switching of a 1.54- µm laser,” Appl. Opt. 39(24), 4345–4347 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. W. Wise, “Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33(11), 773–780 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

E. Poles, D. C. Selmarten, O. I. Mićić, and A. J. Nozik, “Anti-Stokes photoluminescence in colloidal semiconductor quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 971–973 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3406–3408 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Miyoshi, K. Nitta, H. Ohkuni, F. Ikeda, and N. Matsuo, “Laser-induced reversion of photodarkening in CdS-doped glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 6726–6727 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. Kang and F. W. Wise, “Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(7), 1632–1646 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

P. A. Rodrigues, P. Y. Yu, G. Tamulaitis, and S. H. Risbud, “Laser-induced heating of nanocrystals embedded in glass matrices,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(10), 5963–5966 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383(6603), 802–804 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3873–3876 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

C. Jin, J. Yu, W. Qin, J. Zhao, F. Zhou, K. Dou, J. Liu, and S. Huang, “Photodarkening effect and optical nonlinearity in CdSSe doped glasses,” J. Lumin. 53(1–6), 483–486 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

Abdrshin, A.

E. Kolobkova, Z. Lipatova, A. Abdrshin, and N. Nikonorov, “Luminescent properties of fluorine phosphate glasses doped with PbSe and PbS quantum dots,” Opt. Mater. 65, 124–128 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ai, B.

Z. Zhao, B. Ai, C. Liu, Q. Yin, M. Xia, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Er3+ ions-doped germane-gallate oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(7), 2117–2121 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aldana, J.

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artemyev, M.

E. V. Ushakova, A. P. Litvin, P. S. Parfenov, A. V. Fedorov, M. Artemyev, A. V. Prudnikau, I. D. Rukhlenko, and A. V. Baranov, “Anomalous size-dependent decay of low-energy luminescence from PbS quantum dots in colloidal solution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8913–8921 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asami, H.

H. Asami, I. Kamiya, and M. Hara, “Photobrightening an d photodarkening in CdSe nanocrystal/polymer thin film,” Int. J. Nanosci. 1(5&6), 641–644 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bakueva, L.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2895–2897 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baranov, A. V.

E. V. Ushakova, A. P. Litvin, P. S. Parfenov, A. V. Fedorov, M. Artemyev, A. V. Prudnikau, I. D. Rukhlenko, and A. V. Baranov, “Anomalous size-dependent decay of low-energy luminescence from PbS quantum dots in colloidal solution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8913–8921 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383(6603), 802–804 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3873–3876 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beard, M. C.

R. J. Ellingson, M. C. Beard, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Micic, A. J. Nozik, A. Shabaev, and A. L. Efros, “Highly efficient multiple exciton generation in colloidal PbSe and PbS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 865–871 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruchez, M.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brus, L. E.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383(6603), 802–804 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bussian, D. A.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cademartiri, L.

L. Cademartiri, E. Montanari, G. Calestani, A. Migliori, A. Guagliardi, and G. A. Ozin, “Size-dependent extinction coefficients of PbS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(31), 10337–10346 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calestani, G.

L. Cademartiri, E. Montanari, G. Calestani, A. Migliori, A. Guagliardi, and G. A. Ozin, “Size-dependent extinction coefficients of PbS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(31), 10337–10346 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casson, J. L.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, T.-W. F.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2895–2897 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, D.

G. Dong, B. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Zhang, M. Peng, D. Cheng, E. Wu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chon, B.

B. Chon, S. J. Lim, W. Kim, J. Seo, H. Kang, T. Joo, J. Hwang, and S. K. Shin, “Shell and ligand-dependent blinking of CdSe-based core/shell nanocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(32), 9312–9319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cichos, F.

A. Issac, C. von Borczyskowski, and F. Cichos, “Correlation between photoluminescence intermittency of CdSe quantum dots and self-trapped states in dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(16), 161302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dabbousi, B. O.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383(6603), 802–804 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

M. Xia, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, C. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Heo, S. Dai, J. Han, and X. Zhao, ““Surface passivation of CdSe quantum dots in all inorganic amorphous solid by forming Cd1-xZnxSe shell,” Sci,” Rep-UK. 4, 42359 (2017).

Deng, Z.

K. Li, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, Z. Deng, M. Xia, and Y. Ye, “Optical properties of Cu ions-doped ZnSe quantum dots in silicate glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(11), 5080–5088 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Su, C. Liu, Z. Deng, X. Zhao, and X. Zhou, “Size-dependent photoluminescence of PbS QDs embedded in silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(7), 2194–2207 (2017).
[Crossref]

Denisov, I. A.

Donegan, J. F.

Y. P. Rakovich, S. A. Filonovich, M. J. M. Gomes, J. F. Donegan, D. V. Talapin, and A. L. Rogach, “Anti-stokes photoluminescence in II–VI colloidal nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 229(1), 449–452 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dong, G.

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-embedded silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 192–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Dong, B. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Zhang, M. Peng, D. Cheng, E. Wu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence and tunable optical amplification around 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm of PbS quantum dots in glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(38), 9335–9339 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dou, K.

C. Jin, J. Yu, W. Qin, J. Zhao, F. Zhou, K. Dou, J. Liu, and S. Huang, “Photodarkening effect and optical nonlinearity in CdSSe doped glasses,” J. Lumin. 53(1–6), 483–486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Efros, A. L.

R. J. Ellingson, M. C. Beard, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Micic, A. J. Nozik, A. Shabaev, and A. L. Efros, “Highly efficient multiple exciton generation in colloidal PbSe and PbS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 865–871 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellingson, R. J.

R. J. Ellingson, M. C. Beard, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Micic, A. J. Nozik, A. Shabaev, and A. L. Efros, “Highly efficient multiple exciton generation in colloidal PbSe and PbS quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 5(5), 865–871 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Empedocles, S. A.

S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3873–3876 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

G. Dong, G. Wu, S. Fan, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Wu, Z. Ma, M. Peng, and J. Qiu, “Formation, near-infrared luminescence and multi-wavelength optical amplification of PbS quantum dot-embedded silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 383, 192–195 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fedorov, A. V.

E. V. Ushakova, A. P. Litvin, P. S. Parfenov, A. V. Fedorov, M. Artemyev, A. V. Prudnikau, I. D. Rukhlenko, and A. V. Baranov, “Anomalous size-dependent decay of low-energy luminescence from PbS quantum dots in colloidal solution,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8913–8921 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernée, M. J.

M. J. Fernée, E. Thomsen, P. Jensen, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Highly efficient luminescence from a hybrid state found in strongly quantum confined PbS nanocrystals,” Nanotechnology 17(4), 956–962 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filonovich, S. A.

Y. P. Rakovich, S. A. Filonovich, M. J. M. Gomes, J. F. Donegan, D. V. Talapin, and A. L. Rogach, “Anti-stokes photoluminescence in II–VI colloidal nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 229(1), 449–452 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gaponenko, M. S.

P. A. Loiko, G. E. Rachkovskaya, G. B. Zacharevich, V. S. Gurin, M. S. Gaponenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Optical properties of novel PbS and PbSe quantum-dot-doped alumino-alkali-silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(15), 1840–1845 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. Gaponenko, A. A. Lutich, N. A. Tolstik, A. Onushchenko, A. A. Malyarevich, E. P. Petrov, and K. V. Yumashev, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of PbS quantum dots in glass: Evidence of exciton state splitting and carrier trapping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 82(12), 125320 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gin, P.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomes, M. J. M.

Y. P. Rakovich, S. A. Filonovich, M. J. M. Gomes, J. F. Donegan, D. V. Talapin, and A. L. Rogach, “Anti-stokes photoluminescence in II–VI colloidal nanocrystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 229(1), 449–452 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gómez, D. E.

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guagliardi, A.

L. Cademartiri, E. Montanari, G. Calestani, A. Migliori, A. Guagliardi, and G. A. Ozin, “Size-dependent extinction coefficients of PbS quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(31), 10337–10346 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurin, V. S.

P. A. Loiko, G. E. Rachkovskaya, G. B. Zacharevich, V. S. Gurin, M. S. Gaponenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Optical properties of novel PbS and PbSe quantum-dot-doped alumino-alkali-silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(15), 1840–1845 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

B. L. Wehrenberg, C. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(41), 10634–10640 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

Han, J.

M. Xia, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, C. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Heo, S. Dai, J. Han, and X. Zhao, ““Surface passivation of CdSe quantum dots in all inorganic amorphous solid by forming Cd1-xZnxSe shell,” Sci,” Rep-UK. 4, 42359 (2017).

M. Xia, C. Liu, J. Han, and X. Zhao, “Formation of CdS/Cd1-xZnxS sandwich-structured quantum dots with high quantum efficiency in silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 186, 30–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xiong, C. Liu, J. Wang, J. Han, and X. Zhao, “Near-infrared anti-Stokes photoluminescence of PbS QDs embedded in glasses,” Opt. Express 25(6), 6874–6882 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhao, C. Liu, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, H. Tao, J. Han, X. Zhao, and J. Heo, “Infrared emission from Er3+/Y3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 404(15), 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, M. Y.

F. D. Stefani, W. Knoll, M. Kreiter, X. Zhong, and M. Y. Han, “Quantification of photoinduced and spontaneous quantum-dot blinking,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 72(12), 125304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Han, N.

N. Han, C. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, “Infrared photoluminescence from lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses enriched in sulfur,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 391(3), 39–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hara, M.

H. Asami, I. Kamiya, and M. Hara, “Photobrightening an d photodarkening in CdSe nanocrystal/polymer thin film,” Int. J. Nanosci. 1(5&6), 641–644 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harris, T. D.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383(6603), 802–804 (1996).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

M. Xia, C. Liu, Z. Zhao, J. Wang, C. Lin, Y. Xu, J. Heo, S. Dai, J. Han, and X. Zhao, ““Surface passivation of CdSe quantum dots in all inorganic amorphous solid by forming Cd1-xZnxSe shell,” Sci,” Rep-UK. 4, 42359 (2017).

Z. Zhao, C. Liu, Y. Jiang, J. Zhang, H. Tao, J. Han, X. Zhao, and J. Heo, “Infrared emission from Er3+/Y3+ co-doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 404(15), 37–42 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Yin, J. Zhang, C. Liu, J. Xie, B. J. So, J. Heo, and X. Zhao, “Dual-band photoluminescence of lead selenide quantum dots doped oxyfluoride glass-ceramics containing BaF2 nanocrystals,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 385(1), 136–141 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. K. Kwon, and J. Heo, “Optical modulation of near-infrared photoluminescence from lead sulfide quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021103 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Liu, Y. Kon, and J. Heo, “Near-infrared photoluminescence of PbS QDs precipitated in the glass matrix,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(10), 1071–1074 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Liu and J. Heo, “PbS quantum-dots in glass matrix for universal fiber-optic amplifier,” J. Mater. Sci.- Mater. El. 18(1), 135–139 (2007).

C. Liu, Y. Kon, and J. Heo, “Temperature-dependent brightening and darkening of photoluminescence from PbS quantum dots in glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hines, M. A.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2895–2897 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hirano, A.

T. Miyoshi, H. Ohkuni, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, N. Nozaki, N. Matsuo, and T. Kaneda, “Photobrightening of photodarkened CdS- and CdSxSe1-x-doped glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 36(2), 493–496 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Miyoshi, A. Hirano, T. Suenaga, J. Nagata, T. Nagai, and N. Matsuo, “Photodarkening and photobrightening in glass doped with CdS and CdSxSe1-x nanocrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(1), 6290–6292 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. A. Hollingsworth, C. A. Leatherdale, H. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots,” Science 290(5490), 314–317 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Htoon, H.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(15), 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S.

C. Jin, J. Yu, W. Qin, J. Zhao, F. Zhou, K. Dou, J. Liu, and S. Huang, “Photodarkening effect and optical nonlinearity in CdSSe doped glasses,” J. Lumin. 53(1–6), 483–486 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

B. Chon, S. J. Lim, W. Kim, J. Seo, H. Kang, T. Joo, J. Hwang, and S. K. Shin, “Shell and ligand-dependent blinking of CdSe-based core/shell nanocrystals,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(32), 9312–9319 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, F.

T. Miyoshi, K. Nitta, H. Ohkuni, F. Ikeda, and N. Matsuo, “Laser-induced reversion of photodarkening in CdS-doped glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 6726–6727 (1997).
[Crossref]

Issac, A.

A. Issac, C. von Borczyskowski, and F. Cichos, “Correlation between photoluminescence intermittency of CdSe quantum dots and self-trapped states in dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(16), 161302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jasieniak, J.

D. E. Gómez, J. van Embden, J. Jasieniak, T. A. Smith, and P. Mulvaney, “Blinking and surface chemistry of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Small 2(2), 204–208 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jensen, P.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) X-ray diffraction patterns of as-prepared glass and heat-treated glasses. Bottom gray line is the diffraction patterns of PbS crystal (JCPDS#: 78-1057). All XRD patterns were shifted vertically for clarity. (b) TEM image, (c) high-resolution TEM image of one nanocrystal, and (d) size distribution of nanocrystals formed in the glass heat-treated at 530 °C for 10 h.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Absorption spectra and (b) normalized photoluminescence spectra of as-prepared glass and heat-treated glasses. Inset in (a) shows the photograph of the as-prepared and heat-treated glasses.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized PL traces of various sized PbS QDs recorded under 800 nm laser excitation with an excitation flux of (a) 40 × 1016 photons/second and (b) 200 × 1016 photons/second. (c) I S / I 0 and (d) initial I 0 as a function of excitation photon flux for different sized PbS QDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption spectrum, photoluminescence spectrum by 800 nm and excitation spectrum from 7.7 nm-PbS QDs doped glass sample.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized photoluminescence spectra of PbS QDs recorded at stable state under different illumination intensity from PbS QDs of (a) 5.0 nm excited by 800 nm, (b) 7.7 nm excited by 655 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Normalized PL traces of 7.7 nm-sized PbS QDs recorded using different excitation wavelength with photon flux of 60 × 1016 photons/second. I S / I 0 values of (b) 6.0 nm- and (c) 7.7 nm-sized PbS QDs recorded using different excitation wavelength.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Low temperature PL traces and (b) I S / I 0 values of 7.7 nm-sized PbS QDs excited by 1532 nm laser.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Schematic diagram for PD and PB of PbS QDs in glasses. STS is the surface trap states (red dashed lines), and DS is the defect states located at the interface between QDs and glass matrix (thin gray lines). Dashed down arrows and solid down arrow represent the band edge emission; dotted down arrows represent defect emission. The red up arrow represents the excitation. Waved arrows are the nonradiative relaxation, and curve-dashed arrows are the thermal ejection of charge carriers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average diameter, peak wavelengths of first excitonic absorption bands, PL bands, Stokes shift, and FWHM of PL bands from PbS QDs doped in glass-ceramics heat-treated at various conditions.

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