Abstract

A Ge/GeSn/Ge single quantum well with 5% Sn content was grown by chemical vapor deposition on a Si substrate using Ge2H6 and SnCl4 precursors. External biaxial tensile strain was mechanically applied to the Ge/Ge0.95Sn0.05/Ge quantum well for the photoluminescence measurement. Note that the Ge0.95Sn0.05 layer is still under compressive strain due to the large internal compressive strain of the GeSn, although the external bending produces the tensile strain. The direct emission of tensily strained Ge buffer shifts toward lower energy, while the direct emission of pseudomorphic Ge0.95Sn0.05 quantum well does not have significant shift. The strain-induced energy changes of heavy holes and light holes in the Γ valley are extracted by fitting the photoluminescence spectra. Based on the nonlocal empirical pseudopotential method and the model-solid theory, a type-I band alignment is used for the fitting of photoluminescence spectra. The experimentally extracted band edge shifts from the photoluminescence measurement have good agreement with theoretical calculation.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. S. Zwerdling, B. Lax, L. M. Roth, and K. J. Button, “Internal impurity levels in semiconductors: experiments in p-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 80 (1959).
  33. J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Compositional dependence of the bowing parameter for the direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1−ySny alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 142102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  37. W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

H. Cong, F. Yang, C. Xue, K. Yu, L. Zhou, N. Wang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Multilayer graphene-GeSn quantum well heterostructure SWIR light source,” Small 14(17), 1704414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (8)

Y.-H. Huang, G.-E. Chang, H. Li, and H. H. Cheng, “Sn-based waveguide p-i-n photodetector with strained GeSn/Ge multiple-quantum-well active layer,” Opt. Lett. 42(9), 1652–1655 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-S. Lan and C. W. Liu, “Band alignments at strained Ge1−x Snx/relaxed Ge1−y Sny heterointerfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(13), 13LT02 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Lan, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Semiconductor, topological semimetal, indirect semimetal, and topological Dirac semimetal phases of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 95(20), 201201 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Qian, W. J. Fan, C. S. Tan, and D. H. Zhang, “Temperature enhanced spontaneous emission rate spectra in GeSn/Ge quantum wells,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(3), 800–807 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. W. Millar, D. C. S. Dumas, K. F. Gallacher, P. Jahandar, C. MacGregor, M. Myronov, and D. J. Paul, “Mid-infrared light emission > 3 µm wavelength from tensile strained GeSn microdisks,” Opt. Express 25(21), 25374–25385 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, S. Roesgaard, I. Povstugar, J.-M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Short-wave infrared LEDs from GeSn/SiGeSn multiple quantum wells,” Optica 4(2), 185–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

C. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, S. H. Huang, C. C. Chang, C. W. Liu, Y. C. Huang, H. Chung, and C. P. Chang, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 091103 (2016).

2015 (3)

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Yan, C. Zhang, Y. Hao, and G. Han, “Theoretical investigation of tensile strained GeSn waveguide with Si3N4 liner stressor for mid-infrared detector and modulator applications,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7924–7932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-H. Huang, F.-L. Lu, W.-L. Huang, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “The ∼3×1020 cm−3 electron concentration and low specific contact resistivity of phosphorus-doped Ge on Si by in-situ chemical vapor deposition doping and laser annealing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36, 1114 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express 22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soref, “Direct-bandgap compositions of the CSiGeSn group-IV alloy,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 836–842 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Lan and C. W. Liu, “Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 192101 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Compositional dependence of the bowing parameter for the direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1−ySny alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 142102 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-R. Jan, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lee, S.-T. Chan, K.-L. Peng, C. W. Liu, Y. Yamamoto, and B. Tillack, “Influence of defects and interface on radiative transition of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141105 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Peng, Y.-J. Yang, Y.-C. Fu, C.-F. Huang, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Effects of applied mechanical uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain on the flatband voltage of (001), (110), and (111) metal-oxide-silicon capacitors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56(8), 1736–1745 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 041407 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Perez Ladron de Guevara, A. G. Rodrguez, H. N. Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Nonlinear behavior of the energy gap in Ge1−xSnx alloys at 4K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161909 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261913 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. K. Brierley, “Quantitative characterization of modulation‐doped strained quantum wells through line‐shape analysis of room‐temperature photoluminescence spectra,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2760–2767 (1993).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

S. Zwerdling, B. Lax, L. M. Roth, and K. J. Button, “Internal impurity levels in semiconductors: experiments in p-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 80 (1959).

Al-Kabi, S.

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechler, S.

Bensahel, D.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertin, H.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bonfanti, M.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 041407 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bosseboeuf, A.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boulmer, J.

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Du, W.

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Fishman, G.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
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M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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C.-Y. Peng, Y.-J. Yang, Y.-C. Fu, C.-F. Huang, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Effects of applied mechanical uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain on the flatband voltage of (001), (110), and (111) metal-oxide-silicon capacitors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56(8), 1736–1745 (2009).
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Gong, X.

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M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 041407 (2008).
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Gupta, S.

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
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Han, G.

Hao, Y.

Harris, J. S.

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

Huang, C. H.

C. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, S. H. Huang, C. C. Chang, C. W. Liu, Y. C. Huang, H. Chung, and C. P. Chang, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 091103 (2016).

Huang, C.-F.

C.-Y. Peng, Y.-J. Yang, Y.-C. Fu, C.-F. Huang, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Effects of applied mechanical uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain on the flatband voltage of (001), (110), and (111) metal-oxide-silicon capacitors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56(8), 1736–1745 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
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Huang, S.-H.

S.-H. Huang, F.-L. Lu, W.-L. Huang, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “The ∼3×1020 cm−3 electron concentration and low specific contact resistivity of phosphorus-doped Ge on Si by in-situ chemical vapor deposition doping and laser annealing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36, 1114 (2015).
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S.-H. Huang, F.-L. Lu, W.-L. Huang, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “The ∼3×1020 cm−3 electron concentration and low specific contact resistivity of phosphorus-doped Ge on Si by in-situ chemical vapor deposition doping and laser annealing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36, 1114 (2015).
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C. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, S. H. Huang, C. C. Chang, C. W. Liu, Y. C. Huang, H. Chung, and C. P. Chang, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 091103 (2016).

Huang, Y.-C.

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-H.

Huo, Y.

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, S. Roesgaard, I. Povstugar, J.-M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Short-wave infrared LEDs from GeSn/SiGeSn multiple quantum wells,” Optica 4(2), 185–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 041407 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, Y.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, R. B.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
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Jan, S.-R.

S.-R. Jan, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lee, S.-T. Chan, K.-L. Peng, C. W. Liu, Y. Yamamoto, and B. Tillack, “Influence of defects and interface on radiative transition of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jongthammanurak, S.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 906–908 (2004).
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R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaschel, M.

Kasper, E.

Kermarrec, O.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ko, C.-Y.

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kociniewski, T.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Körner, R.

Kostecki, K.

Kouvetakis, J.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Compositional dependence of the bowing parameter for the direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1−ySny alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 142102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuchuk, A.

Lagally, M. G.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
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Lai, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lan, H.-S.

H.-S. Lan and C. W. Liu, “Band alignments at strained Ge1−x Snx/relaxed Ge1−y Sny heterointerfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(13), 13LT02 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Lan, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Semiconductor, topological semimetal, indirect semimetal, and topological Dirac semimetal phases of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 95(20), 201201 (2017).
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H.-S. Lan and C. W. Liu, “Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 192101 (2014).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lax, B.

S. Zwerdling, B. Lax, L. M. Roth, and K. J. Button, “Internal impurity levels in semiconductors: experiments in p-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 80 (1959).

Lee, C.-H.

S.-R. Jan, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lee, S.-T. Chan, K.-L. Peng, C. W. Liu, Y. Yamamoto, and B. Tillack, “Influence of defects and interface on radiative transition of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141105 (2011).
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Lei, D.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

Li, B.

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Liang, G.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

Liao, M. H.

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

C. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, S. H. Huang, C. C. Chang, C. W. Liu, Y. C. Huang, H. Chung, and C. P. Chang, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 091103 (2016).

Liu, C. W.

H.-S. Lan and C. W. Liu, “Band alignments at strained Ge1−x Snx/relaxed Ge1−y Sny heterointerfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(13), 13LT02 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Lan, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Semiconductor, topological semimetal, indirect semimetal, and topological Dirac semimetal phases of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 95(20), 201201 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, S. H. Huang, C. C. Chang, C. W. Liu, Y. C. Huang, H. Chung, and C. P. Chang, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 091103 (2016).

S.-H. Huang, F.-L. Lu, W.-L. Huang, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “The ∼3×1020 cm−3 electron concentration and low specific contact resistivity of phosphorus-doped Ge on Si by in-situ chemical vapor deposition doping and laser annealing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36, 1114 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-S. Lan and C. W. Liu, “Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 192101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Jan, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lee, S.-T. Chan, K.-L. Peng, C. W. Liu, Y. Yamamoto, and B. Tillack, “Influence of defects and interface on radiative transition of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141105 (2011).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211108 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Peng, Y.-J. Yang, Y.-C. Fu, C.-F. Huang, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Effects of applied mechanical uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain on the flatband voltage of (001), (110), and (111) metal-oxide-silicon capacitors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56(8), 1736–1745 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261913 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lu, F.-L.

S.-H. Huang, F.-L. Lu, W.-L. Huang, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “The ∼3×1020 cm−3 electron concentration and low specific contact resistivity of phosphorus-doped Ge on Si by in-situ chemical vapor deposition doping and laser annealing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36, 1114 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.

Luysberg, M.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

MacGregor, C.

Magyari-Köpe, B.

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, S. Roesgaard, I. Povstugar, J.-M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Short-wave infrared LEDs from GeSn/SiGeSn multiple quantum wells,” Optica 4(2), 185–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Margetis, J.

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Menendez, J.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Compositional dependence of the bowing parameter for the direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1−ySny alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 142102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

Millar, R. W.

Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mortazavi, M.

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mosleh, A.

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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Myronov, M.

Naseem, H. A.

Neels, A.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 041407 (2008).
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Ngo, T.-P.

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nishi, Y.

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-L. Cheng, J. Lu, G. Shambat, H.-Y. Yu, K. Saraswat, J. Vuckovic, and Y. Nishi, “Room temperature 1.6 microm electroluminescence from Ge light emitting diode on Si substrate,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10019–10024 (2009).
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Oehme, M.

Paiella, R.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paskiewicz, D. M.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
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Passlack, M.

Y.-C. Yeo, X. Gong, M. J. H. van Dal, G. Vellianitis, and M. Passlack, “Germanium-based transistors for future high performance and low power logic applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2015), pp. 2.4.1.
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Paul, D. J.

Peng, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Peng, Y.-J. Yang, Y.-C. Fu, C.-F. Huang, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Effects of applied mechanical uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain on the flatband voltage of (001), (110), and (111) metal-oxide-silicon capacitors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56(8), 1736–1745 (2009).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peng, K.-L.

S.-R. Jan, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lee, S.-T. Chan, K.-L. Peng, C. W. Liu, Y. Yamamoto, and B. Tillack, “Influence of defects and interface on radiative transition of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141105 (2011).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211108 (2010).
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Perez Ladron de Guevara, H.

H. Perez Ladron de Guevara, A. G. Rodrguez, H. N. Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Nonlinear behavior of the energy gap in Ge1−xSnx alloys at 4K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161909 (2007).
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Povstugar, I.

Qian, L.

Rainko, D.

Rodrguez, A. G.

H. Perez Ladron de Guevara, A. G. Rodrguez, H. N. Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Nonlinear behavior of the energy gap in Ge1−xSnx alloys at 4K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161909 (2007).
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Roesgaard, S.

Roth, L. M.

S. Zwerdling, B. Lax, L. M. Roth, and K. J. Button, “Internal impurity levels in semiconductors: experiments in p-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 80 (1959).

Rudy, C. W.

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, E.

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez-Pérez, J. R.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K.

Saraswat, K. C.

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
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Schiefler, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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Schilling, J.

A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
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Schmid, M.

Schmidt, G.

A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
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Schulze, J.

Senaratne, C. L.

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Compositional dependence of the bowing parameter for the direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1−ySny alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 142102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shambat, G.

Sigg, H.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

Soref, R. A.

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stange, D.

Stoica, T.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, S. Roesgaard, I. Povstugar, J.-M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Short-wave infrared LEDs from GeSn/SiGeSn multiple quantum wells,” Optica 4(2), 185–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sudradjat, F. F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talalaev, V. G.

A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. S.

Tillack, B.

S.-R. Jan, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lee, S.-T. Chan, K.-L. Peng, C. W. Liu, Y. Yamamoto, and B. Tillack, “Influence of defects and interface on radiative transition of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tolle, J.

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tonkikh, A. A.

A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tseng, H.-H.

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ulbricht, K.

van Dal, M. J. H.

Y.-C. Yeo, X. Gong, M. J. H. van Dal, G. Vellianitis, and M. Passlack, “Germanium-based transistors for future high performance and low power logic applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2015), pp. 2.4.1.
[Crossref]

Vellianitis, G.

Y.-C. Yeo, X. Gong, M. J. H. van Dal, G. Vellianitis, and M. Passlack, “Germanium-based transistors for future high performance and low power logic applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2015), pp. 2.4.1.
[Crossref]

Vidal, M. A.

H. Perez Ladron de Guevara, A. G. Rodrguez, H. N. Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Nonlinear behavior of the energy gap in Ge1−xSnx alloys at 4K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Virgilio, M.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 041407 (2008).
[Crossref]

von den Driesch, N.

D. Stange, N. von den Driesch, D. Rainko, S. Roesgaard, I. Povstugar, J.-M. Hartmann, T. Stoica, Z. Ikonic, S. Mantl, D. Grützmacher, and D. Buca, “Short-wave infrared LEDs from GeSn/SiGeSn multiple quantum wells,” Optica 4(2), 185–188 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

von Kanel, H.

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 041407 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

Wada, K.

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, N.

H. Cong, F. Yang, C. Xue, K. Yu, L. Zhou, N. Wang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Multilayer graphene-GeSn quantum well heterostructure SWIR light source,” Small 14(17), 1704414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

H. Cong, F. Yang, C. Xue, K. Yu, L. Zhou, N. Wang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Multilayer graphene-GeSn quantum well heterostructure SWIR light source,” Small 14(17), 1704414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, W.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

Werner, P.

A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-R.

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

Xu, Z.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

Xue, C.

H. Cong, F. Yang, C. Xue, K. Yu, L. Zhou, N. Wang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Multilayer graphene-GeSn quantum well heterostructure SWIR light source,” Small 14(17), 1704414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

S.-R. Jan, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lee, S.-T. Chan, K.-L. Peng, C. W. Liu, Y. Yamamoto, and B. Tillack, “Influence of defects and interface on radiative transition of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

Yang, F.

H. Cong, F. Yang, C. Xue, K. Yu, L. Zhou, N. Wang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Multilayer graphene-GeSn quantum well heterostructure SWIR light source,” Small 14(17), 1704414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.-H.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.-J.

C.-Y. Peng, Y.-J. Yang, Y.-C. Fu, C.-F. Huang, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Effects of applied mechanical uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain on the flatband voltage of (001), (110), and (111) metal-oxide-silicon capacitors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56(8), 1736–1745 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ye, K.

Yeo, Y.-C.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

Y.-C. Yeo, X. Gong, M. J. H. van Dal, G. Vellianitis, and M. Passlack, “Germanium-based transistors for future high performance and low power logic applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2015), pp. 2.4.1.
[Crossref]

Yoon, S.-F.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

Yu, H.-Y.

Yu, K.

H. Cong, F. Yang, C. Xue, K. Yu, L. Zhou, N. Wang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Multilayer graphene-GeSn quantum well heterostructure SWIR light source,” Small 14(17), 1704414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.-Q.

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zakharov, N. D.

A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, D. H.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, W.

Zhou, L.

H. Cong, F. Yang, C. Xue, K. Yu, L. Zhou, N. Wang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Multilayer graphene-GeSn quantum well heterostructure SWIR light source,” Small 14(17), 1704414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

Zhou, Y.

S. A. Ghetmiri, Y. Zhou, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, W. Dou, A. Mosleh, W. Du, A. Kuchuk, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, H. A. Naseem, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Study of a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn structure toward direct bandgap type-I quantum well for all group-IV optoelectronics,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 387–390 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zwerdling, S.

S. Zwerdling, B. Lax, L. M. Roth, and K. J. Button, “Internal impurity levels in semiconductors: experiments in p-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 80 (1959).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

H.-S. Lan and C. W. Liu, “Ballistic electron transport calculation of strained germanium-tin fin field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(19), 192101 (2014).
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C. Y. Lin, C. H. Huang, S. H. Huang, C. C. Chang, C. W. Liu, Y. C. Huang, H. Chung, and C. P. Chang, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 091103 (2016).

A. A. Tonkikh, C. Eisenschmidt, V. G. Talalaev, N. D. Zakharov, J. Schilling, G. Schmidt, and P. Werner, “Pseudomorphic GeSn/Ge(001) quantum wells: examining indirect band gap bowing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(3), 032106 (2013).
[Crossref]

T.-H. Cheng, K.-L. Peng, C.-Y. Ko, C.-Y. Chen, H.-S. Lan, Y.-R. Wu, C. W. Liu, and H.-H. Tseng, “Strain-enhanced photoluminescence from Ge direct transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211108 (2010).
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M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, M. De Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. H. Liao, T.-H. Cheng, and C. W. Liu, “Infrared emission from Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261913 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, T. Kociniewski, T.-P. Ngo, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, P. Boucaud, J. F. Damlencourt, O. Kermarrec, and D. Bensahel, “Enhanced photoluminescence of heavily n-doped germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191107 (2009).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Jan, C.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Lee, S.-T. Chan, K.-L. Peng, C. W. Liu, Y. Yamamoto, and B. Tillack, “Influence of defects and interface on radiative transition of Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(14), 141105 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. D. Gallagher, C. L. Senaratne, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Compositional dependence of the bowing parameter for the direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1−ySny alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(14), 142102 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Perez Ladron de Guevara, A. G. Rodrguez, H. N. Contreras, and M. A. Vidal, “Nonlinear behavior of the energy gap in Ge1−xSnx alloys at 4K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161909 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 906–908 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

S.-H. Huang, F.-L. Lu, W.-L. Huang, C.-H. Huang, and C. W. Liu, “The ∼3×1020 cm−3 electron concentration and low specific contact resistivity of phosphorus-doped Ge on Si by in-situ chemical vapor deposition doping and laser annealing,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36, 1114 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

C.-Y. Peng, Y.-J. Yang, Y.-C. Fu, C.-F. Huang, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Effects of applied mechanical uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain on the flatband voltage of (001), (110), and (111) metal-oxide-silicon capacitors,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 56(8), 1736–1745 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

S. Gupta, B. Magyari-Köpe, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Achieving direct band gap in germanium through integration of Sn alloying and external strain,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(7), 073707 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(8), 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. K. Brierley, “Quantitative characterization of modulation‐doped strained quantum wells through line‐shape analysis of room‐temperature photoluminescence spectra,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2760–2767 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. Du, S. A. Ghetmiri, J. Margetis, S. Al-Kabi, Y. Zhou, J. Liu, G. Sun, R. A. Soref, J. Tolle, B. Li, M. Mortazavi, and S.-Q. Yu, “Investigation of optical transitions in a SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn single quantum well structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(12), 123102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

H.-S. Lan and C. W. Liu, “Band alignments at strained Ge1−x Snx/relaxed Ge1−y Sny heterointerfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(13), 13LT02 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. Chen, S. Gupta, Y.-C. Huang, Y. Huo, C. W. Rudy, E. Sanchez, Y. Kim, T. I. Kamins, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Demonstration of a Ge/GeSn/Ge quantum-well microdisk resonator on silicon: enabling high-quality Ge(Sn) materials for micro- and nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 37–43 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H.-S. Lan, S. T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Semiconductor, topological semimetal, indirect semimetal, and topological Dirac semimetal phases of Ge1−xSnx alloys,” Phys. Rev. B 95(20), 201201 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Bonfanti, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Kanel, and A. Neels, “Optical transitions in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with Ge-rich barriers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 041407 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Zwerdling, B. Lax, L. M. Roth, and K. J. Button, “Internal impurity levels in semiconductors: experiments in p-type silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 80 (1959).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

H. Cong, F. Yang, C. Xue, K. Yu, L. Zhou, N. Wang, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Multilayer graphene-GeSn quantum well heterostructure SWIR light source,” Small 14(17), 1704414 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Y. Dong, W. Wang, X. Xu, X. Gong, D. Lei, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, S.-F. Yoon, G. Liang, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Germanium-tin on silicon avalanche photodiode for short-wave infrared imaging,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposia on VLSI Technology and Circuits (IEEE, 2014), pp. 21.2.

C.-H. Yu-Shiang Huang, F. L. Lu, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Ye, I. H. Wong, S. R. Jan, H. S. Lan, C. W. Liu, Y. C. Huang, H. Chung, C. P. Chang, S. S. Chu, and S. Kuppurao, “Record high mobility (428cm2/V-s) of CVD-grown Ge/Strained Ge0.91Sn0.09 /Ge Quantum Well p-MOSFETs.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2016), pp. 33.1. 1–33.1. 4.

Y.-C. Yeo, X. Gong, M. J. H. van Dal, G. Vellianitis, and M. Passlack, “Germanium-based transistors for future high performance and low power logic applications,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2015), pp. 2.4.1.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic band structures along <111> and <001> directions of Ge using the EPM calculation. The tensile (a) and compressive (b) biaxial strains on (001) plane yield opposite shifts in energy for ΔE, ΔEcL ΔELH, and ΔEHH with respect to the relaxed Ge valence band edge.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured and simulated (004) HRXRD curves of the Ge/GeSn/Ge single quantum well with [Sn] = 5% grown on a Si (100) substrate. The Ge virtual substrate has 0.15% tensile strain. The fringes reflect the abruptness between GeSn/Ge interfaces. The inset shows the schematic cross-section.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The normalized PL spectra at RT of Ge/s- Ge0.95Sn0.05 /Ge QW on a Si substrate under 0.09%, 0.18% external tensile strain as well as the as-grown samples. The inset shows the bending mechanism. As the tensile strain is introduced to the sample, the direct emission of the Ge buffer shifts toward lower energy significantly, while the Ge0.95Sn0.05 QW direct emission shifts weakly.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The PL spectra of the Ge/s-Ge0.95Sn0.05/Ge without external tensile strain (a) and with 0.18% external tensile strain (b) fitted by the phenomenological line-shape models. Transitions from cΓ-LH, cΓ-HH in Ge buffer and cΓ1-HH1, cL1-HH1 in Ge0.95Sn0.05 QW are included in the model. (c) The PL spectra fitting curve of the Ge/s-Ge0.95Sn0.05/Ge without external tensile strain and with 0.18% external tensile strain. The PL spectrum peak of the Ge buffer has larger shift than that of Ge0.95Sn0.05 QW (d)The calculated type-I band edge profiles including HH, LH, cL, and cΓ without external tensile strain (black lines) and 0.18% external tensile strain (red lines). The energy level of heavy hole of s-GeSn is the energy reference.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated energy changes in LH, HH, and cΓ of Ge and Ge0.95Sn0.05 with respect to the relaxed valence bands using the EPM and the MST. The calculated change rates versus biaxial strain of E (Ge), ELH (Ge), E (GeSn), and EHH (GeSn) are −85, 80, −85 and −11, meV/%, respectively. The extracted cΓ-LH and cΓ-HH of Ge buffer, and cΓ-HH of s-Ge0.95Sn0.05 from PL spectra under external tensile strain are shown (solid squares) as well as the reported Ge data [35] (orange diamond).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 strain induced energy shifts for 0.18% external tensile strain (meV)

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