Abstract

Optical isolators and circulators are extremely valuable components to have in photonic integrated circuits, but their integration with lasers poses significant design and fabrication challenges. These challenges largely stem from the incompatibility of magneto-optic material with the silicon or III-V platforms commonly used today for photonic integration. Heterogeneous integration using wafer bonding can overcome many of these challenges, and provides a promising path towards integrating isolators with lasers on the same silicon chip. An optical isolator operating for TE mode with 25 dB of isolation, 6.5 dB of insertion loss, and tunability over 40nm is demonstrated and a path towards integrating this isolator with the heterogeneous silicon/III-V laser is described.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (6)

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, M. G. Thompson, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12(2), 91–97 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Mizumoto, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Optical nonreciprocal devices for silicon photonics using wafer-bonded magneto-optical garnet materials,” MRS Bull. 43(6), 419–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Davenport, “Heterogeneous silicon III-V mode-locked lasers,” Photon. Res.  6, 468–478 (2018)

K. Okazeri, K. Muraoka, Y. Shoji, S. Nakagawa, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, and T. Mizumoto, “Self-Holding Magneto-Optical Switch Integrated with Thin-Film Magnet,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 371–374 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

2016 (8)

S. Hua, J. Wen, X. Jiang, Q. Hua, L. Jiang, and M. Xiao, “Demonstration of a chip-based optical isolator with parametric amplification,” Nat. Commun. 7, 13657 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Onbasli, L. Beran, M. Zahradník, M. Kučera, R. Antoš, J. Mistrík, G. F. Dionne, M. Veis, and C. A. Ross, “Optical and magneto-optical behavior of cerium yttrium iron garnet thin films at wavelengths of 200-1770 nm,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23640 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically driven and thermally tunable integrated optical isolators for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 271–278 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Shoji, A. Fujie, and T. Mizumoto, “Silicon waveguide optical isolator operating for TE mode input light,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 264–270 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Dulal, A. D. Block, T. E. Gage, H. A. Haldren, S. Y. Sung, D. C. Hutchings, and B. J. H. Stadler, “Optimized magneto-optical isolator designs inspired by seedlayer-free terbium iron garnets with opposite chirality,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1818–1825 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Song, C. Stagarescu, S. Ristic, A. Behfar, and J. Klamkin, “3D integrated hybrid silicon laser,” Opt. Express 24(10), 10435–10444 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3(7), 785 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (8)

G. Beaudin, A. Belarouci, and V. Aimez, “Precise localized thinning and vertical taper fabrication for silicon photonics using a modified local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) fabrication process,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4377–4384 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Fully integrated hybrid silicon two dimensional beam scanner,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5861–5874 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Limitations of nonlinear optical isolators due to dynamic reciprocity,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 388–392 (2015).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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C. H. Dong, Z. Shen, C. L. Zou, Y. L. Zhang, W. Fu, and G. C. Guo, “Brillouin-scattering-induced transparency and non-reciprocal light storage,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6193 (2015).
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Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), 1–13 (2015).
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T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Liu, C. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. Bowers, “Heterogeneous Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1(2015).

Y. Shoji, K. Miura, and T. Mizumoto, “Optical nonreciprocal devices based on magneto-optical phase shift in silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18, 1 (2015)

2014 (5)

2013 (7)

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, A. Le Liepvre, F. Lelarge, D. Make, G.-H. Duan, D. Bordel, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3784–3792 (2013).
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P. Pintus, F. Di Pasquale, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated TE and TM optical circulators on ultra-low-loss silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5041–5052 (2013).
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S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Optical isolator for TE polarized light realized by adhesive bonding of Ce:YIG on silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 6601108 (2013).
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D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
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P. Pintus, N. Andriolli, F. Di Pasquale, and J. E. Bowers, “Bidirectional crosstalk and back-reflection free WDM active optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1973–1976 (2013).
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D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popović, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is-and what is not-an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
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J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
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2012 (4)

H. Lira, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Electrically driven nonreciprocity induced by interband photonic transition on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(3), 033901 (2012).
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D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(3), 1–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
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T. Goto, M. C. Onbaşlı, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical properties of cerium substituted yttrium iron garnet films with reduced thermal budget for monolithic photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28507–28517 (2012).
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2011 (6)

2010 (2)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
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D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials (Basel) 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
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2009 (1)

Z. Yu and S. Fan, “Complete optical isolation created by indirect interband photonic transitions,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 91–94 (2009).
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2008 (3)

M. Krause, H. Rentier, and E. Brinkmeyer, “Optical isolation in silicon waveguides based on nonreciprocal Raman amplification,” Electron. Lett. 44(11), 691 (2008).
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Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood., “Magneto-optical isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071117 (2008).
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T. R. Zaman, X. Guo, and R. J. Ram, “Semiconductor waveguide isolators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(2), 291–301 (2008).
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2007 (2)

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Monolithic integration of a waveguide optical isolator with a distributed feedback laser diode in the 1.5-um wavelength range,” Technology 19, 1973–1975 (2007).

N. Kono, K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Nonreciprocal microresonators for the miniaturization of optical waveguide isolators,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7737–7751 (2007).
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2006 (3)

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and Characterization of an InGaAsp / InP Active Waveguide Optical Isolator With 14. 7 dB / mm TE Mode Nonreciprocal Attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 38–43 (2006).
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A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
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W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
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2005 (3)

J. S. Yang, J. W. Roh, S. H. Ok, D. H. Woo, Y. T. Byun, W. Y. Lee, T. Mizumoto, and S. Lee, “An integrated optical waveguide isolator based on multimode interference by wafer direct bonding,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 41(10), 3520–3522 (2005).
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S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
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Z. Wang and S. Fan, “Optical circulators in two-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 30(15), 1989–1991 (2005).
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2002 (1)

M. Levy, “The on-chip integration of magnetooptic waveguide isolators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(6), 1300–1306 (2002).
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2000 (1)

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
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1998 (4)

T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
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J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, J. Eckner, and E. Gamper, “Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of 0th & 1st-order modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1228–1239 (1998).
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M. Bruel, “The history, physics, and applications of the smart-cut process,” MRS Bull. 23(12), 35–39 (1998).
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M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Crystal ion slicing of single-crystal magnetic garnet films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6759–6761 (1998).
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1996 (1)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(7), 903–905 (1996).
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1972 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, R. Wolfe, R. C. Le Craw, and S. L. Blank, “Switching and modulation of light in magneto-optic waveguides of garnet films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(8), 394–396 (1972).
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1969 (1)

J. R. Black, “Electromigration-A brief survey and some recent results,” Electron Devices, IEEE Trans. 16(4), 338–347 (1969).
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Acín, A.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, M. G. Thompson, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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Aimez, V.

Al Qubaisi, K.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
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Alloatti, L.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
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C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriolli, N.

P. Pintus, N. Andriolli, F. Di Pasquale, and J. E. Bowers, “Bidirectional crosstalk and back-reflection free WDM active optical interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(20), 1973–1976 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antoš, R.

M. C. Onbasli, L. Beran, M. Zahradník, M. Kučera, R. Antoš, J. Mistrík, G. F. Dionne, M. Veis, and C. A. Ross, “Optical and magneto-optical behavior of cerium yttrium iron garnet thin films at wavelengths of 200-1770 nm,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23640 (2016).
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Arai, S.

K. Okazeri, K. Muraoka, Y. Shoji, S. Nakagawa, N. Nishiyama, S. Arai, and T. Mizumoto, “Self-Holding Magneto-Optical Switch Integrated with Thin-Film Magnet,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(4), 371–374 (2018).
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E. Ishida, K. Miura, Y. Shoji, H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Amorphous-Si waveguide on a garnet magneto-optical isolator with a TE mode nonreciprocal phase shift,” Opt. Express 25(1), 452–462 (2017).
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Asanovic, K.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Atabaki, A. H.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Augusiak, R.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, M. G. Thompson, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
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Avizienis, R. R.

C. Sun, M. T. Wade, Y. Lee, J. S. Orcutt, L. Alloatti, M. S. Georgas, A. S. Waterman, J. M. Shainline, R. R. Avizienis, S. Lin, B. R. Moss, R. Kumar, F. Pavanello, A. H. Atabaki, H. M. Cook, A. J. Ou, J. C. Leu, Y. H. Chen, K. Asanović, R. J. Ram, M. A. Popović, and V. M. Stojanović, “Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light,” Nature 528(7583), 534–538 (2015).
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Bacco, D.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, M. G. Thompson, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

T. Mizumoto, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Optical nonreciprocal devices for silicon photonics using wafer-bonded magneto-optical garnet materials,” MRS Bull. 43(6), 419–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvaninia, Y. Shirato, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Optical isolator for TE polarized light realized by adhesive bonding of Ce:YIG on silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 6601108 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Jalas, A. Petrov, M. Eich, W. Freude, S. Fan, Z. Yu, R. Baets, M. Popović, A. Melloni, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Vanwolleghem, C. R. Doerr, and H. Renner, “What is-and what is not-an optical isolator,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 579–582 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liang, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics,” Materials (Basel) 3(3), 1782–1802 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bahl, G.

D. B. Sohn, S. Kim, and G. Bahl, “Time-reversal symmetry breaking with acoustic pumping of nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Photonics 12(2), 91–97 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baiocco, C. V.

A. H. Atabaki, S. Moazeni, F. Pavanello, H. Gevorgyan, J. Notaros, L. Alloatti, M. T. Wade, C. Sun, S. A. Kruger, H. Meng, K. Al Qubaisi, I. Wang, B. Zhang, A. Khilo, C. V. Baiocco, M. A. Popović, V. M. Stojanović, and R. J. Ram, “Integrating photonics with silicon nanoelectronics for the next generation of systems on a chip,” Nature 556(7701), 349–354 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakhru, H.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Crystal ion slicing of single-crystal magnetic garnet films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6759–6761 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

Bauters, J.

D. Dai, J. Bauters, and J. E. Bowers, “Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: Polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(3), 1–12 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beaudin, G.

Behfar, A.

Belarouci, A.

Beran, L.

M. C. Onbasli, L. Beran, M. Zahradník, M. Kučera, R. Antoš, J. Mistrík, G. F. Dionne, M. Veis, and C. A. Ross, “Optical and magneto-optical behavior of cerium yttrium iron garnet thin films at wavelengths of 200-1770 nm,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 23640 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated in III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Black, J. R.

J. R. Black, “Electromigration-A brief survey and some recent results,” Electron Devices, IEEE Trans. 16(4), 338–347 (1969).
[Crossref]

Blank, S. L.

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, R. Wolfe, R. C. Le Craw, and S. L. Blank, “Switching and modulation of light in magneto-optic waveguides of garnet films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(8), 394–396 (1972).
[Crossref]

Block, A. D.

P. Dulal, A. D. Block, T. E. Gage, H. A. Haldren, S. Y. Sung, D. C. Hutchings, and B. J. H. Stadler, “Optimized magneto-optical isolator designs inspired by seedlayer-free terbium iron garnets with opposite chirality,” ACS Photonics 3(10), 1818–1825 (2016).
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A. D. Block, P. Dulal, B. J. H. Stadler, and N. C. A. Seaton, “Growth parameters of fully crystallized YIG, Bi:YIG, and Ce:YIG films with high Faraday rotations,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(1), 1–8 (2014).
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Blumenthal, D. J.

Boeuf, F.

D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
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Bonneau, D.

J. Wang, S. Paesani, Y. Ding, R. Santagati, P. Skrzypczyk, A. Salavrakos, J. Tura, R. Augusiak, L. Mančinska, D. Bacco, D. Bonneau, J. W. Silverstone, Q. Gong, A. Acín, K. Rottwitt, L. K. Oxenløwe, J. L. O’Brien, A. Laing, M. G. Thompson, and M. G. Thompson, “Multidimensional quantum entanglement with large-scale integrated optics,” Science 360(6386), 285–291 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bordel, D.

Bovington, J. T.

Bowers, J.

T. Komljenovic, M. Davenport, J. Hulme, A. Liu, C. Santis, A. Spott, S. Srinivasan, E. Stanton, C. Zhang, and J. Bowers, “Heterogeneous Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1(2015).

Bowers, J. E.

T. Mizumoto, R. Baets, and J. E. Bowers, “Optical nonreciprocal devices for silicon photonics using wafer-bonded magneto-optical garnet materials,” MRS Bull. 43(6), 419–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. J. Kennedy, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated optical driver for interferometric optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3826–3840 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Pintus, D. Huang, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. E. Bowers, “Microring-based optical isolator and circulator with integrated electromagnet for silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(8), 1429–1437 (2017).
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D. Huang, P. Pintus, Y. Shoji, P. Morton, T. Mizumoto, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated broadband Ce:YIG/Si Mach-Zehnder optical isolators with over 100 nm tuning range,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4901–4904 (2017).
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C. Zhang, S. Zhang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “8 × 8 × 40 Gbps fully integrated silicon photonic network on chip,” Optica 3(7), 785 (2016).
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D. Huang, P. Pintus, C. Zhang, Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically driven and thermally tunable integrated optical isolators for silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(6), 271–278 (2016).
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D. Thomson, A. Zilkie, J. E. Bowers, T. Komljenovic, G. T. Reed, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, L. Virot, J. M. Fédéli, J. M. Hartmann, J. H. Schmid, D. X. Xu, F. Boeuf, P. O’Brien, G. Z. Mashanovich, and M. Nedeljkovic, “Roadmap on silicon photonics,” J. Opt. 18(7), 1–20 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Hulme, J. K. Doylend, M. J. R. Heck, J. D. Peters, M. L. Davenport, J. T. Bovington, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Fully integrated hybrid silicon two dimensional beam scanner,” Opt. Express 23(5), 5861–5874 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Pintus, F. Di Pasquale, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated TE and TM optical circulators on ultra-low-loss silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5041–5052 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M.-C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
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A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
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N. Kono, K. Kakihara, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Nonreciprocal microresonators for the miniaturization of optical waveguide isolators,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7737–7751 (2007).
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E. Ishida, K. Miura, Y. Shoji, H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Nishiyama, and S. Arai, “Amorphous-Si waveguide on a garnet magneto-optical isolator with a TE mode nonreciprocal phase shift,” Opt. Express 25(1), 452–462 (2017).
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M. A. Tran, T. Komljenovic, J. C. Hulme, M. J. Kennedy, D. J. Blumenthal, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated optical driver for interferometric optical gyroscopes,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3826–3840 (2017).
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S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
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T. Goto, M. C. Onbaşlı, and C. A. Ross, “Magneto-optical properties of cerium substituted yttrium iron garnet films with reduced thermal budget for monolithic photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28507–28517 (2012).
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S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, A. Le Liepvre, F. Lelarge, D. Make, G.-H. Duan, D. Bordel, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3784–3792 (2013).
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P. Pintus, F. Di Pasquale, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated TE and TM optical circulators on ultra-low-loss silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5041–5052 (2013).
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W. D. Sacher, T. Barwicz, B. J. F. Taylor, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3777–3786 (2014).
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C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, and D. Vermeulen, “Silicon photonics broadband modulation-based isolator,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4493–4498 (2014).
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P. Pintus, “Accurate vectorial finite element mode solver for magneto-optic and anisotropic waveguides,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15737–15756 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the various magneto-optic effects used to realize optical nonreciprocity for light propagating in the z-axis (a). Faraday rotation occurs when Hz,ext ≠ 0, resulting in polarization rotation. When (b) Hy,ext ≠ 0 or (c) Hx,ext ≠ 0, NRPS is present, and maximized for TE and TM modes respectively for the depicted waveguide geometries.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the typical heterogeneous silicon/III-V laser structure formed by direct wafer bonding. (b) The optimal Si and Ce:YIG thicknesses to maximize the NRPS for a 600nm wide waveguide [58].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of the TE/TM polarization rotator consisting of an (b) adiabatic coupler and (c) linear taper under the Ce:YIG region. If the widths and lengths of the coupler (d) and taper (e) are chosen according, the transition can be fully adiabatic, resulting in efficient, broadband polarization rotation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Cross sectional schematic of the Si waveguide with the bonded Ce:YIG and integrated electromagnet. Multiple narrowly spaced coils of the electromagnet increase the magnetic field strength at the waveguide and results in larger NRPS for a given current. (b) Experimental data showing the increase in NRPS for thinner SGGG and multi-coils. Adding too many coils provides diminishing returns, as the outer coils do not contribute as much to the transverse magnetic field. NRPS increases linearly until the magnetization in the material is saturated.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Microscope image of the microring isolator with TE/TM rotator (not shown). (b) The measured transmission spectra of the isolator with no applied current is shown in black, and compared to reference waveguides. (c) The transmission spectra of the isolator at 1549.5 nm for 40 mA of applied current showing 25 dB of optical isolation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Optical bandwidth of the isolator for different isolation levels. (b) The thermal (reciprocal) and MO (nonreciprocal) induced shifts on resonance wavelength with respect to applied current. Both effects can be used to tune the wavelength a full FSR in (c) while maintaining high isolation ratio. (d) The tuning allows for larger than 20 dB of optical isolation anywhere from 1540 nm to 1580 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The library of heterogeneous silicon/III-V components, with the addition of isolators and circulators.

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