Abstract

The optical properties of double (a blue and a green) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on unstressed bulk GaN and a compressive stressed GaN template on patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) were investigated. Photoluminescence intensity of green MQWs on bulk GaN was about 6 times higher than that on GaN/PSS, while the intensity difference of blue MQWs was less than two times. It was found that the existing stress played an important role in the difference in luminescence. Furthermore, the V-shape pits in blue MQWs stemmed from the pre-existing dislocations while those in green MQWs were derived from the new dislocations.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  2. O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
  3. J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).
  4. Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).
  5. Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
  6. I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).
  7. S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c-Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).
  8. M. Takeguchi, M. R. McCartney, and D. J. Smith, “Mapping In concentration, strain, and internal electric field in InGaN/GaN quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2103–2105 (2004).
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  10. N. Okada, K. Uchida, S. Miyoshi, and K. Tadatomo, “Green light-emitting diodes fabricated on semipolar (11–22) GaN on r -plane patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 469–472 (2012).
  11. S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).
  12. H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).
  13. F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).
  14. T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).
  15. K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Jpn. “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).
  16. C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).
  17. K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).
  18. T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).
  19. J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).
  20. V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).
  21. S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).
  22. C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmuller, F. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053517 (2010).
  23. W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).
  24. B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).
  25. N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. J. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1274–1276 (2000).
  26. R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).
  27. U. Rossow, P. Horenburg, F. Ketzer, H. Bremers, and A. Hangleiter, “Green and blue emissions in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 464, 112–118 (2017).
  28. M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).
  29. Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).
  30. T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

2018 (1)

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

2017 (4)

U. Rossow, P. Horenburg, F. Ketzer, H. Bremers, and A. Hangleiter, “Green and blue emissions in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 464, 112–118 (2017).

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

2016 (1)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).

2015 (1)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).

2014 (3)

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

2013 (2)

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c-Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).

2012 (2)

N. Okada, K. Uchida, S. Miyoshi, and K. Tadatomo, “Green light-emitting diodes fabricated on semipolar (11–22) GaN on r -plane patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 469–472 (2012).

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

2010 (3)

C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmuller, F. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053517 (2010).

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

2006 (1)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

2004 (3)

M. Takeguchi, M. R. McCartney, and D. J. Smith, “Mapping In concentration, strain, and internal electric field in InGaN/GaN quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2103–2105 (2004).

F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).

M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).

2000 (3)

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. J. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1274–1276 (2000).

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

1998 (2)

K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

1997 (2)

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).

S. Nakamura, “III-V nitride based light-emitting devices,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 237–248 (1997).

1993 (1)

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Jpn. “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).

1975 (1)

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, “Preparation and optical properties of Ga1−xInxN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), 3432–3437 (1975).

Akasaki, I.

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Jpn. “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).

Ashby, C. I. H.

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

Avella, M.

M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).

Bai, J. C.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

Baules, P.

F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).

Bosi, M.

M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).

Boutros, K. S.

K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).

Bremers, H.

U. Rossow, P. Horenburg, F. Ketzer, H. Bremers, and A. Hangleiter, “Green and blue emissions in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 464, 112–118 (2017).

Chang, C. Y.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Chang, Y. M.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Chen, W. L.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Cheng, H. Y.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Cheng, Y. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Choi, H. S.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Chou, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Chyi, J. I.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Clarke, D. R.

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).

Demangeot, F.

F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).

Deng, H. H.

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

Detchprohm, T.

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Jpn. “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).

Du, J. J.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Fan, X. M.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

Feng, S. W.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Finken, M.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

Flynn, J. S.

K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).

Follstaedt, D. M.

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

Fornari, R.

M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).

Frandon, J.

F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).

Gallinat, C. S.

C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmuller, F. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053517 (2010).

Griego, L.

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

Ha, J. S.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Han, J.

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

Hangleiter, A.

U. Rossow, P. Horenburg, F. Ketzer, H. Bremers, and A. Hangleiter, “Green and blue emissions in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 464, 112–118 (2017).

Hao, M. S.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Hao, Y.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

Hashimoto, R.

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c-Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).

Heuken, M.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

Hiramatsu, K.

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Jpn. “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Hollander, B.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

Hong, X. S.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Horenburg, P.

U. Rossow, P. Horenburg, F. Ketzer, H. Bremers, and A. Hangleiter, “Green and blue emissions in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 464, 112–118 (2017).

Hsu, C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Huang, J.

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

Huang, Y. H.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Humphreys, C. J.

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. J. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1274–1276 (2000).

Hwang, J.

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c-Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).

Hwang, J. I.

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Jeong, M. S.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).

Jiang, R. Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).

Jiang, T.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

Jimenez, J.

M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).

Ju, J. W.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).

Kalisch, H.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

Karpov, S. Y.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).

Ketzer, F.

U. Rossow, P. Horenburg, F. Ketzer, H. Bremers, and A. Hangleiter, “Green and blue emissions in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 464, 112–118 (2017).

Koblmuller, G.

C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmuller, F. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053517 (2010).

Krames, M. R.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Kurai, S.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Lee, C. M.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Lee, I. H.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).

Lee, J. J.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Lee, J. K.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Li, C. K.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Li, G. Q.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Li, H.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Li, P. X.

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

Li, Y.

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

Liao, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Lin, Y. H.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Lin, Y. S.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Lin, Z. T.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Lin, Z. Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

Lu, T. C.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Ma, J. J.

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

Ma, K. J.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Mamedov, D.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Martinez, O.

M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).

Massies, J.

F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).

McCartney, M. R.

M. Takeguchi, M. R. McCartney, and D. J. Smith, “Mapping In concentration, strain, and internal electric field in InGaN/GaN quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2103–2105 (2004).

Missert, N. A.

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

Mitchell, C. C.

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

Miyoshi, S.

N. Okada, K. Uchida, S. Miyoshi, and K. Tadatomo, “Green light-emitting diodes fabricated on semipolar (11–22) GaN on r -plane patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 469–472 (2012).

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Murakami, Y.

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, “Preparation and optical properties of Ga1−xInxN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), 3432–3437 (1975).

Naka, S.

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, “Preparation and optical properties of Ga1−xInxN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), 3432–3437 (1975).

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, “III-V nitride based light-emitting devices,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 237–248 (1997).

Naoi, Y.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Natali, F.

F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).

Nishino, K.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Nunoue, S.

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c-Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).

Okada, N.

N. Okada, K. Uchida, S. Miyoshi, and K. Tadatomo, “Green light-emitting diodes fabricated on semipolar (11–22) GaN on r -plane patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 469–472 (2012).

Osamura, K.

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, “Preparation and optical properties of Ga1−xInxN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), 3432–3437 (1975).

Peake, G. M.

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

Peng, R. S.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

Phanse, V.

K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).

Provencio, P. P.

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

Rafailov, E.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).

Redwing, J. M.

K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).

Reuters, B.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

Rho, H.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).

Romano, L. T.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Rossow, U.

U. Rossow, P. Horenburg, F. Ketzer, H. Bremers, and A. Hangleiter, “Green and blue emissions in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 464, 112–118 (2017).

Ryu, B.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Ryu, S. W.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Saito, S.

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c-Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).

Sakai, S.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Sato, H.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Scardova, S.

M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).

Semond, F.

F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).

Sharma, N.

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. J. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1274–1276 (2000).

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Smith, D. J.

M. Takeguchi, M. R. McCartney, and D. J. Smith, “Mapping In concentration, strain, and internal electric field in InGaN/GaN quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2103–2105 (2004).

Smith, G. M.

K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).

Song, J.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Song, J. S.

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).

Speck, J. S.

C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmuller, F. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053517 (2010).

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).

Srikant, V.

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Sugahara, T.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Sun, L.

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

Tadatomo, K.

N. Okada, K. Uchida, S. Miyoshi, and K. Tadatomo, “Green light-emitting diodes fabricated on semipolar (11–22) GaN on r -plane patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 469–472 (2012).

Takeguchi, M.

M. Takeguchi, M. R. McCartney, and D. J. Smith, “Mapping In concentration, strain, and internal electric field in InGaN/GaN quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2103–2105 (2004).

Tawfik, W. Z.

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Thomas, P.

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. J. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1274–1276 (2000).

Titkov, I. E.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).

Tottori, S.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Tricker, D.

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. J. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1274–1276 (2000).

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

Uchida, K.

N. Okada, K. Uchida, S. Miyoshi, and K. Tadatomo, “Green light-emitting diodes fabricated on semipolar (11–22) GaN on r -plane patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 469–472 (2012).

Vaudo, R. P.

K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).

Vescan, A.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

Wang, H. Y.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Wang, M. Y.

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

Wang, W. L.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Wille, A.

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

Wu, F.

C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmuller, F. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053517 (2010).

Wu, M.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

Wu, Y. R.

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

Xie, Y.

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).

Xu, S. R.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

Yadav, A.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).

Yamashita, K.

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Yang, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Yang, W. J.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Yin, H. H.

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

Zerova, V. L.

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).

Zhang, J. C.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

Zhao, Y.

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

Zhong, L. Y.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Zhou, S. Z.

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Zhu, Y. H.

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

J. I. Hwang, R. Hashimoto, S. Saito, and S. Nunoue, “Development of InGaN-based red LED grown on (0001) polar surface,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(7), 071003 (2014).

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes on c-Face Sapphire Substrates in Green Gap Spectral Range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(11), 111004 (2013).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Takeguchi, M. R. McCartney, and D. J. Smith, “Mapping In concentration, strain, and internal electric field in InGaN/GaN quantum well structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2103–2105 (2004).

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).

C. I. H. Ashby, C. C. Mitchell, J. Han, N. A. Missert, P. P. Provencio, D. M. Follstaedt, G. M. Peake, and L. Griego, “Low-dislocation-density GaN from a single growth on a textured substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3233–3235 (2000).

N. Sharma, P. Thomas, D. Tricker, and C. J. Humphreys, “Chemical mapping and formation of V-defects in InGaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1274–1276 (2000).

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chou, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988–2990 (2000).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

W. Z. Tawfik, J. Song, J. J. Lee, J. S. Ha, S. W. Ryu, H. S. Choi, B. Ryu, and J. K. Lee, “Effect of external tensile stress on blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 283, 727–731 (2013).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Z. Y. Lin, R. Y. Jiang, and Y. Hao, “Growth of a-Plane GaN Films on r-Plane Sapphire by Combining Metal OrganicVapor Phase Epitaxy with the Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 32(8), 088103 (2015).

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

S. R. Xu, P. X. Li, J. C. Zhang, T. Jiang, J. J. Ma, Z. Y. Lin, and Y. Hao, “Threading dislocation annihilation in the GaN layer on cone patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Alloys Compd. 614, 360–363 (2014).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

C. S. Gallinat, G. Koblmuller, F. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053517 (2010).

V. Srikant, J. S. Speck, and D. R. Clarke, “Mosaic structure in epitaxial thin films having large lattice mismatch,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4286–4295 (1997).

B. Reuters, M. Finken, A. Wille, B. Hollander, M. Heuken, H. Kalisch, and A. Vescan, “Relaxation and critical strain for maximum In incorporation in AlInGaN on GaN grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(9), 093524 (2012).

K. Hiramatsu, T. Detchprohm, and I. Akasaki, “Jpn. “Relaxation Mechanism of Thermal Stresses in the Heterostructure of GaN Grown on Sapphire by Vapor Phase Epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(1), 1528–1533 (1993).

K. Osamura, S. Naka, and Y. Murakami, “Preparation and optical properties of Ga1−xInxN thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 46(8), 3432–3437 (1975).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

U. Rossow, P. Horenburg, F. Ketzer, H. Bremers, and A. Hangleiter, “Green and blue emissions in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells,” J. Cryst. Growth 464, 112–118 (2017).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Li, Y. H. Zhu, M. Y. Wang, H. H. Deng, J. Huang, H. H. Yin, and L. Sun, “Temperature dependence of the optical properties of violet, blue and green InGaN/GaN single quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 50(49), 495103 (2017).

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Sugahara, H. Sato, M. S. Hao, Y. Naoi, S. Kurai, S. Tottori, K. Yamashita, K. Nishino, L. T. Romano, and S. Sakai, “Direct Evidence that Dislocations are Non-Radiative Recombination Centers in GaN,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 398–400 (1998).

Materials (Basel) (1)

I. E. Titkov, S. Y. Karpov, A. Yadav, D. Mamedov, V. L. Zerova, and E. Rafailov, “Efficiency of True-Green Light Emitting Diodes: Non-Uniformity and Temperature Effects,” Materials (Basel) 10(11), 1323 (2017).

Nitride Semiconductors. (1)

K. S. Boutros, J. S. Flynn, V. Phanse, R. P. Vaudo, G. M. Smith, and J. M. Redwing, “InGaN Double-Heterostructures and DH-LEDs on HVPE GaN-on-Sapphire Substrates,” Nitride Semiconductors. 482, 1047–1052 (1998).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, P. Baules, F. Natali, F. Semond, and J. Massies, “Phonon deformation potentials in hexagonal GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155215 (2004).

J. S. Song, H. Rho, M. S. Jeong, J. W. Ju, and I. H. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence and Raman mapping of epitaxial GaN laterally overgrown on sapphire,” Phys. Rev. B 81(23), 233304 (2010).

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

N. Okada, K. Uchida, S. Miyoshi, and K. Tadatomo, “Green light-emitting diodes fabricated on semipolar (11–22) GaN on r -plane patterned sapphire substrate,” Phys. Status Solidi 209(3), 469–472 (2012).

Sci. Rep. (2)

H. Li, H. Y. Cheng, W. L. Chen, Y. H. Huang, C. K. Li, C. Y. Chang, Y. R. Wu, T. C. Lu, and Y. M. Chang, “Three dimensional characterization of GaN-based light emitting diode grown on patterned sapphire substrate by confocal Raman and photoluminescence spectromicroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45519 (2017).

T. Jiang, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, Y. Xie, and Y. Hao, “Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 19955 (2016).

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Bosi, R. Fornari, S. Scardova, M. Avella, O. Martinez, and J. Jimenez, “Compositional and optical uniformity of InGaN layers deposited on (0001) sapphire by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19(2), 147–151 (2004).

Solid State Commun. (1)

S. Nakamura, “III-V nitride based light-emitting devices,” Solid State Commun. 102(2-3), 237–248 (1997).

Solid State Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Z. Zhou, H. Y. Wang, Z. T. Lin, L. Y. Zhong, Y. H. Lin, W. L. Wang, W. J. Yang, X. S. Hong, and G. Q. Li, “ECS J. “Design of Wide-Bottomed Patterned Sapphire Substrates for Performance Improvement of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes,” Solid State Sci. Technol. 3(11), R200–R206 (2014).

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

R. S. Peng, J. C. Bai, S. R. Xu, J. C. Zhang, J. J. Du, Y. Zhao, X. M. Fan, M. Wu, and Y. Hao, “Effects of 4° misoriented sapphire substrate on optical property of green InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 10, 1016 (2018).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Raman spectra of the bulk GaN and the GaN/PSS template.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 PL spectra of sample A and B.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 HRXRD ω-scan RCs of the (a) (002) reflection and (b) (102) reflection for samples.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 AFM images of (a) sample A and (b) sample B. Samples were etched by H2 in 1000°C environment for 10 min to show up dislocations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-sectional TEM images of (a), (c) and (e) sample A; (b), (d) and (e) sample B.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 20 × 20 µm2 plan-view CL mapping images for (a) (c) sample A and (b) (d) sample B. CL mapping images are taken at wavelengths of (a) 540 nm and (c) 435 nm for sample A and (b) 566 nm and (d) 426 nm for sample B.

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