Abstract

In this work, GeSb and Ti-doped GeSb thin films were fabricated by the magnetron sputtering method and the optical phase change properties were systematically investigated through both experimental analyses and DFT calculation. High reflectivity contrast between amorphous and crystalline phase was observed in non-doped GeSb with a stable optical response at 480°C, leading to outstanding optical phase change capability. The red-shift of the optical absorption peak was studied, reflecting in the modulation of the electronic structure in GeSb during thermal-induced crystallization. With the introduction of Ti dopant, crystallization of GeSb was suppressed. A blue-shift trend of band-gap was clearly observed with the increase of Ti concentration, speculating a negative influence of phase change capability, thus resulting in the sharp decrease of optical reflectivity contrast by 10% at the visible wavelength.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
  4. G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  27. S. Caravati, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, “First-principles study of liquid and amorphous Sb2Te3,” Phys. Rev. B 81(1), 014201 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Rütten, M. Kaes, A. Albert, M. Wuttig, and M. Salinga, “Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17362 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. R. R. Desai, D. Lakshminarayana, P. B. Patel, and C. J. Panchal, “Electrical and optical properties of Indium sesquitelluride (In2Te3) thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(7), 2019–2023 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Li, F. Gan, Z. Gu, Q. Xie, H. Ruan, and P. Liang, “Determination of optical parameters of GeTe semiconductor films after thermal treatment,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 337–343 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  31. Y. G. Yoo, D. S. Yang, H. J. Ryu, W. S. Cheong, and M. C. Baek, “Local structural and optical properties of GeSb phase-change materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 449–451, 627–630 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  32. C. Cabral, L. Krusin-Elbaum, J. Bruley, S. Raoux, V. Deline, A. Madan, and T. Pinto, “Direct evidence for abrupt postcrystallization germanium precipitation in thin phase-change films of Sb-15at.% Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071906 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Jang, F. Pan, K. Braam, and V. Subramanian, “Resistance switching characteristics of solid electrolyte chalcogenide Ag2Se nanoparticles for flexible nonvolatile memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3573–3576 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. W. Richter, H. Köhler, and C. R. Becker, “A Raman and Far-Infrared Investigation of Phonons in the Rhombohedra1 V2-VI3 Compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi 84, 619–628 (1977).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

G. Bakan, S. Ayas, T. Saidzoda, K. Celebi, and A. Dana, “Ultrathin phase-change coatings on metals for electrothermally tunable colors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(7), 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yi, Z. Wang, F. Dong, S. Cheng, J. Wang, C. Liu, J. Li, S. Wang, T. Yang, W.-S. Su, and L. Chen, “Structural and optical properties of Ge60Te40: experimental and theoretical verification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(15), 155105 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

M. Rütten, M. Kaes, A. Albert, M. Wuttig, and M. Salinga, “Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Cheng, S. Wei, X. Yi, J. Wang, C. Liu, J. Li, and T. Yang, “Investigations on phase change characteristics of Ti-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 system,” J. Phys. D-Applied Phys. 48(47), 475108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. J. Wei, X. Y. Yi, S. Cheng, K. Chen, H. F. Zhu, J. Li, and L. Lv, “Improvement of phase change behavior in titanium-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 34, 658–662 (2015).

2014 (1)

J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, and J. Solis, “Dynamics of ultrafast reversible phase transitions in GeSb films triggered by picosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 3102, 98–101 (2014).

2013 (1)

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. Jang, F. Pan, K. Braam, and V. Subramanian, “Resistance switching characteristics of solid electrolyte chalcogenide Ag2Se nanoparticles for flexible nonvolatile memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3573–3576 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M.-J. Lee, C. B. Lee, D. Lee, S. R. Lee, M. Chang, J. H. Hur, Y.-B. Kim, C.-J. Kim, D. H. Seo, S. Seo, U.-I. Chung, I.-K. Yoo, and K. Kim, “A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta2O5-x/TaO2-x bilayer structures,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 625–630 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Kim, J.-H. Bae, S.-M. Jeong, S.-M. Choi, and H.-L. Lee, “Crystallization Properties of Ge1-x Sbx Thin Films (x = 0.58–0.88),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4R), 045805 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Y. Gu, T. Zhang, Z. Song, Y. Liu, B. Liu, and S. Feng, “Characterization of the properties for phase-change material GeSb,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 205–209 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Caravati, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, “First-principles study of liquid and amorphous Sb2Te3,” Phys. Rev. B 81(1), 014201 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Rao, Z. Song, L. Wu, Y. Gong, S. Feng, and B. Chen, “Phase change memory cell based on Sb2Te3/TiN/Ge2Sb2Te5 sandwich-structure,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 276–278 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

C. Cabral, L. Krusin-Elbaum, J. Bruley, S. Raoux, V. Deline, A. Madan, and T. Pinto, “Direct evidence for abrupt postcrystallization germanium precipitation in thin phase-change films of Sb-15at.% Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071906 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Raoux, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and A. J. Kellock, “Crystallization properties of ultrathin phase change films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(11), 114310 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

R. Pandian, B. J. Kooi, J. T. M. De Hosson, and A. Pauza, “Influence of electron beam exposure on crystallization of phase-change materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 0–6 (2007).

Y. G. Yoo, D. S. Yang, H. J. Ryu, W. S. Cheong, and M. C. Baek, “Local structural and optical properties of GeSb phase-change materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 449–451, 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, L. Krusin-Elbaum, and V. Deline, “Irreversible modification of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material by nanometer-thin Ti adhesion layers in a device-compatible stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051908 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Krusin-Elbaum, C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, M. Copel, D. W. Abraham, K. B. Reuter, S. M. Rossnagel, J. Bruley, and V. R. Deline, “Evidence for segregation of Te in Ge2Sb2Te5 films: Effect on the “phase-change” stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141902 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Wei, J. Li, X. Wu, P. Zhou, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, L. Chen, F. Gan, X. Zhang, and G. Li, “Phase change characteristics of aluminum doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10584–10590 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. R. Desai, D. Lakshminarayana, P. B. Patel, and C. J. Panchal, “Electrical and optical properties of Indium sesquitelluride (In2Te3) thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(7), 2019–2023 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. J. Clark, M. D. Segall, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, M. I. J. Probert, K. Refson, and M. C. Payne, “First principles methods using CASTEP,” Zeitschrift fur Krist. 220, 567–570 (2005).

M. H. R. Lankhorst, B. W. S. M. M. Ketelaars, and R. A. M. Wolters, “Low-cost and nanoscale non-volatile memory concept for future silicon chips,” Nat. Mater. 4(4), 347–352 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. J. Clark and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation : ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(11), 2717–2744 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Li, F. Gan, Z. Gu, Q. Xie, H. Ruan, and P. Liang, “Determination of optical parameters of GeTe semiconductor films after thermal treatment,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 337–343 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

N. A. Hegab, A. E. Bekheet, M. A. Afifi, and A. A. El-Shazly, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of In2Te3 thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 66(2), 235–240 (1998).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

W. Richter, H. Köhler, and C. R. Becker, “A Raman and Far-Infrared Investigation of Phonons in the Rhombohedra1 V2-VI3 Compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi 84, 619–628 (1977).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

B. C. Giessen and C. Borromee-Gautier, “Structure and alloy chemistry of metastable GeSb,” J. Solid State Chem. 4(3), 447–452 (1972).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

S. R. Ovshinsky, “Reversible electrical switching phenomena in disordered structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(20), 1450–1453 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abraham, D. W.

L. Krusin-Elbaum, C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, M. Copel, D. W. Abraham, K. B. Reuter, S. M. Rossnagel, J. Bruley, and V. R. Deline, “Evidence for segregation of Te in Ge2Sb2Te5 films: Effect on the “phase-change” stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Afifi, M. A.

N. A. Hegab, A. E. Bekheet, M. A. Afifi, and A. A. El-Shazly, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of In2Te3 thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 66(2), 235–240 (1998).
[Crossref]

Afonso, C. N.

J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, and J. Solis, “Dynamics of ultrafast reversible phase transitions in GeSb films triggered by picosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 3102, 98–101 (2014).

Ahn, D. H.

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. J.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Albert, A.

M. Rütten, M. Kaes, A. Albert, M. Wuttig, and M. Salinga, “Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayas, S.

G. Bakan, S. Ayas, T. Saidzoda, K. Celebi, and A. Dana, “Ultrathin phase-change coatings on metals for electrothermally tunable colors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(7), 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bae, J.-H.

B. G. Kim, J.-H. Bae, S.-M. Jeong, S.-M. Choi, and H.-L. Lee, “Crystallization Properties of Ge1-x Sbx Thin Films (x = 0.58–0.88),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4R), 045805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baek, M. C.

Y. G. Yoo, D. S. Yang, H. J. Ryu, W. S. Cheong, and M. C. Baek, “Local structural and optical properties of GeSb phase-change materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 449–451, 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bakan, G.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bakan, S. Ayas, T. Saidzoda, K. Celebi, and A. Dana, “Ultrathin phase-change coatings on metals for electrothermally tunable colors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(7), 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Becker, C. R.

W. Richter, H. Köhler, and C. R. Becker, “A Raman and Far-Infrared Investigation of Phonons in the Rhombohedra1 V2-VI3 Compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi 84, 619–628 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bekheet, A. E.

N. A. Hegab, A. E. Bekheet, M. A. Afifi, and A. A. El-Shazly, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of In2Te3 thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 66(2), 235–240 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bernasconi, M.

S. Caravati, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, “First-principles study of liquid and amorphous Sb2Te3,” Phys. Rev. B 81(1), 014201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Borromee-Gautier, C.

B. C. Giessen and C. Borromee-Gautier, “Structure and alloy chemistry of metastable GeSb,” J. Solid State Chem. 4(3), 447–452 (1972).
[Crossref]

Braam, K.

J. Jang, F. Pan, K. Braam, and V. Subramanian, “Resistance switching characteristics of solid electrolyte chalcogenide Ag2Se nanoparticles for flexible nonvolatile memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3573–3576 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruley, J.

C. Cabral, L. Krusin-Elbaum, J. Bruley, S. Raoux, V. Deline, A. Madan, and T. Pinto, “Direct evidence for abrupt postcrystallization germanium precipitation in thin phase-change films of Sb-15at.% Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071906 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Krusin-Elbaum, C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, M. Copel, D. W. Abraham, K. B. Reuter, S. M. Rossnagel, J. Bruley, and V. R. Deline, “Evidence for segregation of Te in Ge2Sb2Te5 films: Effect on the “phase-change” stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cabral, C.

C. Cabral, L. Krusin-Elbaum, J. Bruley, S. Raoux, V. Deline, A. Madan, and T. Pinto, “Direct evidence for abrupt postcrystallization germanium precipitation in thin phase-change films of Sb-15at.% Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071906 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Krusin-Elbaum, C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, M. Copel, D. W. Abraham, K. B. Reuter, S. M. Rossnagel, J. Bruley, and V. R. Deline, “Evidence for segregation of Te in Ge2Sb2Te5 films: Effect on the “phase-change” stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141902 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, L. Krusin-Elbaum, and V. Deline, “Irreversible modification of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material by nanometer-thin Ti adhesion layers in a device-compatible stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Caravati, S.

S. Caravati, M. Bernasconi, and M. Parrinello, “First-principles study of liquid and amorphous Sb2Te3,” Phys. Rev. B 81(1), 014201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Celebi, K.

G. Bakan, S. Ayas, T. Saidzoda, K. Celebi, and A. Dana, “Ultrathin phase-change coatings on metals for electrothermally tunable colors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(7), 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, M.

M.-J. Lee, C. B. Lee, D. Lee, S. R. Lee, M. Chang, J. H. Hur, Y.-B. Kim, C.-J. Kim, D. H. Seo, S. Seo, U.-I. Chung, I.-K. Yoo, and K. Kim, “A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta2O5-x/TaO2-x bilayer structures,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 625–630 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

F. Rao, Z. Song, L. Wu, Y. Gong, S. Feng, and B. Chen, “Phase change memory cell based on Sb2Te3/TiN/Ge2Sb2Te5 sandwich-structure,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 276–278 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

Y. Zhang, S. J. Wei, X. Y. Yi, S. Cheng, K. Chen, H. F. Zhu, J. Li, and L. Lv, “Improvement of phase change behavior in titanium-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 34, 658–662 (2015).

Chen, K. N.

C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, L. Krusin-Elbaum, and V. Deline, “Irreversible modification of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material by nanometer-thin Ti adhesion layers in a device-compatible stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051908 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Krusin-Elbaum, C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, M. Copel, D. W. Abraham, K. B. Reuter, S. M. Rossnagel, J. Bruley, and V. R. Deline, “Evidence for segregation of Te in Ge2Sb2Te5 films: Effect on the “phase-change” stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

X. Yi, Z. Wang, F. Dong, S. Cheng, J. Wang, C. Liu, J. Li, S. Wang, T. Yang, W.-S. Su, and L. Chen, “Structural and optical properties of Ge60Te40: experimental and theoretical verification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(15), 155105 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wei, J. Li, X. Wu, P. Zhou, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, L. Chen, F. Gan, X. Zhang, and G. Li, “Phase change characteristics of aluminum doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10584–10590 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.

X. Yi, Z. Wang, F. Dong, S. Cheng, J. Wang, C. Liu, J. Li, S. Wang, T. Yang, W.-S. Su, and L. Chen, “Structural and optical properties of Ge60Te40: experimental and theoretical verification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(15), 155105 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Cheng, S. Wei, X. Yi, J. Wang, C. Liu, J. Li, and T. Yang, “Investigations on phase change characteristics of Ti-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 system,” J. Phys. D-Applied Phys. 48(47), 475108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, S. J. Wei, X. Y. Yi, S. Cheng, K. Chen, H. F. Zhu, J. Li, and L. Lv, “Improvement of phase change behavior in titanium-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao 34, 658–662 (2015).

Cheong, B. K.

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheong, W. S.

Y. G. Yoo, D. S. Yang, H. J. Ryu, W. S. Cheong, and M. C. Baek, “Local structural and optical properties of GeSb phase-change materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 449–451, 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-M.

B. G. Kim, J.-H. Bae, S.-M. Jeong, S.-M. Choi, and H.-L. Lee, “Crystallization Properties of Ge1-x Sbx Thin Films (x = 0.58–0.88),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4R), 045805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chung, U.-I.

M.-J. Lee, C. B. Lee, D. Lee, S. R. Lee, M. Chang, J. H. Hur, Y.-B. Kim, C.-J. Kim, D. H. Seo, S. Seo, U.-I. Chung, I.-K. Yoo, and K. Kim, “A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta2O5-x/TaO2-x bilayer structures,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 625–630 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, S. J.

S. J. Clark, M. D. Segall, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, M. I. J. Probert, K. Refson, and M. C. Payne, “First principles methods using CASTEP,” Zeitschrift fur Krist. 220, 567–570 (2005).

S. J. Clark and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation : ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14(11), 2717–2744 (2002).
[Crossref]

Copel, M.

L. Krusin-Elbaum, C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, M. Copel, D. W. Abraham, K. B. Reuter, S. M. Rossnagel, J. Bruley, and V. R. Deline, “Evidence for segregation of Te in Ge2Sb2Te5 films: Effect on the “phase-change” stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dana, A.

G. Bakan, S. Ayas, T. Saidzoda, K. Celebi, and A. Dana, “Ultrathin phase-change coatings on metals for electrothermally tunable colors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(7), 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

De Hosson, J. T. M.

R. Pandian, B. J. Kooi, J. T. M. De Hosson, and A. Pauza, “Influence of electron beam exposure on crystallization of phase-change materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 0–6 (2007).

Deline, V.

C. Cabral, L. Krusin-Elbaum, J. Bruley, S. Raoux, V. Deline, A. Madan, and T. Pinto, “Direct evidence for abrupt postcrystallization germanium precipitation in thin phase-change films of Sb-15at.% Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071906 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, L. Krusin-Elbaum, and V. Deline, “Irreversible modification of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material by nanometer-thin Ti adhesion layers in a device-compatible stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deline, V. R.

L. Krusin-Elbaum, C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, M. Copel, D. W. Abraham, K. B. Reuter, S. M. Rossnagel, J. Bruley, and V. R. Deline, “Evidence for segregation of Te in Ge2Sb2Te5 films: Effect on the “phase-change” stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Desai, R. R.

R. R. Desai, D. Lakshminarayana, P. B. Patel, and C. J. Panchal, “Electrical and optical properties of Indium sesquitelluride (In2Te3) thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(7), 2019–2023 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dirisaglik, F.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dong, F.

X. Yi, Z. Wang, F. Dong, S. Cheng, J. Wang, C. Liu, J. Li, S. Wang, T. Yang, W.-S. Su, and L. Chen, “Structural and optical properties of Ge60Te40: experimental and theoretical verification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(15), 155105 (2016).
[Crossref]

El-Shazly, A. A.

N. A. Hegab, A. E. Bekheet, M. A. Afifi, and A. A. El-Shazly, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of In2Te3 thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 66(2), 235–240 (1998).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

Y. Gu, T. Zhang, Z. Song, Y. Liu, B. Liu, and S. Feng, “Characterization of the properties for phase-change material GeSb,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 205–209 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Rao, Z. Song, L. Wu, Y. Gong, S. Feng, and B. Chen, “Phase change memory cell based on Sb2Te3/TiN/Ge2Sb2Te5 sandwich-structure,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 276–278 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gan, F.

S. Wei, J. Li, X. Wu, P. Zhou, S. Wang, Y. Zheng, L. Chen, F. Gan, X. Zhang, and G. Li, “Phase change characteristics of aluminum doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10584–10590 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, F. Gan, Z. Gu, Q. Xie, H. Ruan, and P. Liang, “Determination of optical parameters of GeTe semiconductor films after thermal treatment,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 337–343 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gerislioglu, B.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gholipour, B.

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. C. Giessen and C. Borromee-Gautier, “Structure and alloy chemistry of metastable GeSb,” J. Solid State Chem. 4(3), 447–452 (1972).
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Gokirmak, A.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

F. Rao, Z. Song, L. Wu, Y. Gong, S. Feng, and B. Chen, “Phase change memory cell based on Sb2Te3/TiN/Ge2Sb2Te5 sandwich-structure,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 276–278 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, T. Zhang, Z. Song, Y. Liu, B. Liu, and S. Feng, “Characterization of the properties for phase-change material GeSb,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 99(1), 205–209 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, Z.

J. Li, F. Gan, Z. Gu, Q. Xie, H. Ruan, and P. Liang, “Determination of optical parameters of GeTe semiconductor films after thermal treatment,” Opt. Mater. 14(4), 337–343 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hasnip, P. J.

S. J. Clark, M. D. Segall, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, M. I. J. Probert, K. Refson, and M. C. Payne, “First principles methods using CASTEP,” Zeitschrift fur Krist. 220, 567–570 (2005).

Hegab, N. A.

N. A. Hegab, A. E. Bekheet, M. A. Afifi, and A. A. El-Shazly, “Effect of annealing on the optical properties of In2Te3 thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 66(2), 235–240 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hewak, D. W.

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hur, J. H.

M.-J. Lee, C. B. Lee, D. Lee, S. R. Lee, M. Chang, J. H. Hur, Y.-B. Kim, C.-J. Kim, D. H. Seo, S. Seo, U.-I. Chung, I.-K. Yoo, and K. Kim, “A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta2O5-x/TaO2-x bilayer structures,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 625–630 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, Y. N.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jae-Hee, O. H.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jang, J.

J. Jang, F. Pan, K. Braam, and V. Subramanian, “Resistance switching characteristics of solid electrolyte chalcogenide Ag2Se nanoparticles for flexible nonvolatile memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(26), 3573–3576 (2012).
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Jeong, C. W.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, G. T.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H. S.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J. H.

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.-M.

B. G. Kim, J.-H. Bae, S.-M. Jeong, S.-M. Choi, and H.-L. Lee, “Crystallization Properties of Ge1-x Sbx Thin Films (x = 0.58–0.88),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4R), 045805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeong, W. C.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
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Jordan-Sweet, J. L.

S. Raoux, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and A. J. Kellock, “Crystallization properties of ultrathin phase change films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(11), 114310 (2008).
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Jurado, Z.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kaes, M.

M. Rütten, M. Kaes, A. Albert, M. Wuttig, and M. Salinga, “Relation between bandgap and resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17362 (2015).
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Kang, D. H.

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kellock, A. J.

S. Raoux, J. L. Jordan-Sweet, and A. J. Kellock, “Crystallization properties of ultrathin phase change films,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(11), 114310 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ketelaars, B. W. S. M. M.

M. H. R. Lankhorst, B. W. S. M. M. Ketelaars, and R. A. M. Wolters, “Low-cost and nanoscale non-volatile memory concept for future silicon chips,” Nat. Mater. 4(4), 347–352 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B. G.

B. G. Kim, J.-H. Bae, S.-M. Jeong, S.-M. Choi, and H.-L. Lee, “Crystallization Properties of Ge1-x Sbx Thin Films (x = 0.58–0.88),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(4R), 045805 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.-J.

M.-J. Lee, C. B. Lee, D. Lee, S. R. Lee, M. Chang, J. H. Hur, Y.-B. Kim, C.-J. Kim, D. H. Seo, S. Seo, U.-I. Chung, I.-K. Yoo, and K. Kim, “A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta2O5-x/TaO2-x bilayer structures,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 625–630 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. M.

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, I. H.

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. I.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

M.-J. Lee, C. B. Lee, D. Lee, S. R. Lee, M. Chang, J. H. Hur, Y.-B. Kim, C.-J. Kim, D. H. Seo, S. Seo, U.-I. Chung, I.-K. Yoo, and K. Kim, “A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta2O5-x/TaO2-x bilayer structures,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 625–630 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. B.

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-B.

M.-J. Lee, C. B. Lee, D. Lee, S. R. Lee, M. Chang, J. H. Hur, Y.-B. Kim, C.-J. Kim, D. H. Seo, S. Seo, U.-I. Chung, I.-K. Yoo, and K. Kim, “A fast, high-endurance and scalable non-volatile memory device made from asymmetric Ta2O5-x/TaO2-x bilayer structures,” Nat. Mater. 10(8), 625–630 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koh, G. H.

C. W. Jeong, S. J. Ahn, Y. N. Hwang, Y. J. Song, O. H. Jae-Hee, S. Y. Lee, S. H. Lee, K. C. Ryoo, J. H. Park, J. H. Park, J. M. Shin, F. Yeung, W. C. Jeong, J. I. Kim, G. H. Koh, G. T. Jeong, H. S. Jeong, and K. Kim, “Highly reliable ring-type contact for high-density phase change memory,” Japanese J. Appl. Physics, Part 1 Regul. Pap. Short Notes Rev. Pap. 45(4B), 3233–3237 (2006).
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Köhler, H.

W. Richter, H. Köhler, and C. R. Becker, “A Raman and Far-Infrared Investigation of Phonons in the Rhombohedra1 V2-VI3 Compounds,” Phys. Status Solidi 84, 619–628 (1977).
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Kooi, B. J.

R. Pandian, B. J. Kooi, J. T. M. De Hosson, and A. Pauza, “Influence of electron beam exposure on crystallization of phase-change materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 0–6 (2007).

Krusin-Elbaum, L.

C. Cabral, L. Krusin-Elbaum, J. Bruley, S. Raoux, V. Deline, A. Madan, and T. Pinto, “Direct evidence for abrupt postcrystallization germanium precipitation in thin phase-change films of Sb-15at.% Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 071906 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Krusin-Elbaum, C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, M. Copel, D. W. Abraham, K. B. Reuter, S. M. Rossnagel, J. Bruley, and V. R. Deline, “Evidence for segregation of Te in Ge2Sb2Te5 films: Effect on the “phase-change” stress,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141902 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Cabral, K. N. Chen, L. Krusin-Elbaum, and V. Deline, “Irreversible modification of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material by nanometer-thin Ti adhesion layers in a device-compatible stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(5), 051908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lakshminarayana, D.

R. R. Desai, D. Lakshminarayana, P. B. Patel, and C. J. Panchal, “Electrical and optical properties of Indium sesquitelluride (In2Te3) thin films,” J. Mater. Sci. 41(7), 2019–2023 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lam, C.

G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lankhorst, M. H. R.

M. H. R. Lankhorst, B. W. S. M. M. Ketelaars, and R. A. M. Wolters, “Low-cost and nanoscale non-volatile memory concept for future silicon chips,” Nat. Mater. 4(4), 347–352 (2005).
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Zheludev, N. I.

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
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B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
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Hongwai Yu Haomibo Xuebao (1)

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G. Bakan, B. Gerislioglu, F. Dirisaglik, Z. Jurado, L. Sullivan, A. Dana, C. Lam, A. Gokirmak, and H. Silva, “Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(16), 164504 (2016).
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D. H. Kang, I. H. Kim, J. H. Jeong, B. K. Cheong, D. H. Ahn, D. Lee, H. M. Kim, K. B. Kim, and S. H. Kim, “An experimental investigation on the switching reliability of a phase change memory device with an oxidized TiN electrode,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054506 (2006).
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G. W. Burr, M. J. Breitwisch, M. Franceschini, D. Garetto, K. Gopalakrishnan, B. Jackson, B. Kurdi, C. Lam, L. A. Lastras, A. Padilla, B. Rajendran, S. Raoux, and R. S. Shenoy, “Phase change memory technology,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B Microelectron. Nanom. Struct. 28, 23 (2010).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) XRD patterns of GeSb annealed at 300°C, 360°C, 420°C and 480°C with indices of crystallographic plane. (b) Crystalline ball-stick structure of GeSb in A7 rhombohedral phase. The green and purple balls are represented to Ge and Sb atoms, respectively. (c) Refractive index n and (d) extinction coefficient ĸ of GeSb thin films annealed at 300°C, 360°C, 420°C and 480°C.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Band structure of crystalline GeSb with a narrow band gap of 0.149 eV. (b) Partial and total density of electronic state (DOS) of crystalline GeSb.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The optical band-gaps of both (a) amorphous and (b) crystalline GeSb that fitted by Tauc plot.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The comparison of calculated and experimental dielectric functions of A7 rhombohedral GeSb.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Reflectivity spectrum of GeSb thin films annealed at 300°C, 360°C, 420°C and 480°C. (b) Reflectivity contrast between amorphous and crystalline GeSb at the visible spectral region.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) X-ray diffraction spectra of TGS1, TGS2, and TGS3 sample films that annealed at 300°C, 360°C, respectively. (b) Refractive index n of TGS1~3 sample films under amorphous and crystalline states, respectively. (c) Extinction coefficient ĸ of TGS1~3 sample films under amorphous and crystalline states, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Optical band-gap that fitted by Tauc plot of (a) TGS1 under amorphous and crystalline phases, (b) TGS2 under amorphous and crystalline phases, and (c) TGS3 under amorphous and crystalline phases.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Reflectivity contrast spectra of TGS1, TGS2, TGS3 thin films between amorphous and crystalline phases at the visible spectral region.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Experimental parameters of GeSb and Ti-doped GeSb samples

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Table 2 The comparison between experimental and theoretical lattice constants

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Table 3 FWHM of (012) diffraction peak and mean grain size of undoped GeSb and TGS1~3 thin films

Equations (3)

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( α h ν ) = A ( h ν E g ) m
C = 2 × | R i R f R i + R f | × 100 %
d = K λ β cos θ

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