C. Varin, R. Emms, G. Bart, T. Fennel, and T. Brabec, “Explicit formulation of second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 222, 70–83 (2018).

[Crossref]

A. Mock, “Modeling passive mode-locking via saturable absorption in graphene using the ﬁnite-difference time-domain method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(5), 1–10 (2017).

[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

D. Wu, J. Peng, Z. Cai, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “Gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber for visible 635 nm Q-switched pulse generation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24071–24076 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. Varin, G. Bart, R. Emms, and T. Brabec, “Saturable lorentz model for fully explicit three-dimensional modeling of nonlinear optics,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2686–2695 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and ﬁbers and their application to mode-locked ﬁber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1581–1583 (2004).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. H. Chang and A. Taflove, “Finite-difference time-domain model of lasing action in a four-level two-electron atomic system,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3827–3833 (2004).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

E. Ippen, C. Shank, and A. Dienes, “Passive mode locking of the CW dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(8), 348–350 (1972).

[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

C. Varin, R. Emms, G. Bart, T. Fennel, and T. Brabec, “Explicit formulation of second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 222, 70–83 (2018).

[Crossref]

C. Varin, G. Bart, R. Emms, and T. Brabec, “Saturable lorentz model for fully explicit three-dimensional modeling of nonlinear optics,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2686–2695 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. Varin, R. Emms, G. Bart, T. Fennel, and T. Brabec, “Explicit formulation of second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 222, 70–83 (2018).

[Crossref]

C. Varin, G. Bart, R. Emms, and T. Brabec, “Saturable lorentz model for fully explicit three-dimensional modeling of nonlinear optics,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2686–2695 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

E. Ippen, C. Shank, and A. Dienes, “Passive mode locking of the CW dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(8), 348–350 (1972).

[Crossref]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. Varin, R. Emms, G. Bart, T. Fennel, and T. Brabec, “Explicit formulation of second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 222, 70–83 (2018).

[Crossref]

C. Varin, G. Bart, R. Emms, and T. Brabec, “Saturable lorentz model for fully explicit three-dimensional modeling of nonlinear optics,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2686–2695 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. Varin, R. Emms, G. Bart, T. Fennel, and T. Brabec, “Explicit formulation of second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 222, 70–83 (2018).

[Crossref]

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: the ﬁnite-difference time-domain method(Artech house, 2005), chapter 9.

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

E. Ippen, C. Shank, and A. Dienes, “Passive mode locking of the CW dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(8), 348–350 (1972).

[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

A. Mock, “Modeling passive mode-locking via saturable absorption in graphene using the ﬁnite-difference time-domain method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(5), 1–10 (2017).

[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

E. Ippen, C. Shank, and A. Dienes, “Passive mode locking of the CW dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(8), 348–350 (1972).

[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

C. Varin, R. Emms, G. Bart, T. Fennel, and T. Brabec, “Explicit formulation of second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 222, 70–83 (2018).

[Crossref]

C. Varin, G. Bart, R. Emms, and T. Brabec, “Saturable lorentz model for fully explicit three-dimensional modeling of nonlinear optics,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2686–2695 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).

[Crossref]

E. Ippen, C. Shank, and A. Dienes, “Passive mode locking of the CW dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(8), 348–350 (1972).

[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).

[Crossref]

C. Varin, R. Emms, G. Bart, T. Fennel, and T. Brabec, “Explicit formulation of second and third order optical nonlinearity in the FDTD framework,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 222, 70–83 (2018).

[Crossref]

A. Mock, “Modeling passive mode-locking via saturable absorption in graphene using the ﬁnite-difference time-domain method,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53(5), 1–10 (2017).

[Crossref]

H. Ahmad, C. Lee, M. Ismail, Z. Ali, S. Reduan, N. Ruslan, M. Ismail, and S. Harun, “Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as saturable absorber in passively q-switched ﬁber laser,” Opt. Commun. 381, 72–76 (2016).

D. Wu, J. Peng, Z. Cai, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “Gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber for visible 635 nm Q-switched pulse generation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24071–24076 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

Y. Feng, N. Dong, G. Wang, Y. Li, S. Zhang, K. Wang, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Saturable absorption behavior of free-standing graphene polymer composite ﬁlms over broad wavelength and time ranges,” Opt. Express 23(1), 559–569 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

C. Varin, G. Bart, R. Emms, and T. Brabec, “Saturable lorentz model for fully explicit three-dimensional modeling of nonlinear optics,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2686–2695 (2015).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. H. Chang and A. Taflove, “Finite-difference time-domain model of lasing action in a four-level two-electron atomic system,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3827–3833 (2004).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

J. A. Morris and C. R. Pollock, “Passive Q switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser with a saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 15(8), 440–442 (1990).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and ﬁbers and their application to mode-locked ﬁber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1581–1583 (2004).

[Crossref]
[PubMed]

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: the ﬁnite-difference time-domain method(Artech house, 2005), chapter 9.

Lumerical Inc. http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/ .

COMSOL, Inc. https://www.comsol.com/wave-optics-module .