Abstract

Er3+ doped CaxSr1-xF2 (x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, 1) single crystals were successfully grown by the temperature gradient technique (TGT) and their compositional dependence of various spectral properties has been systematically studied. The spectroscopic investigation showed that with the variation of x, there was a significant difference for the spectral parameters including stimulated emission cross section around 2.8 μm and the related fluorescent lifetimes. The lifetime gap between Er3+: 4I13/2 and Er3+: 4I13/2 was effectively narrowed for x = 0.5, which contributed to the high efficient mid-infrared (MIR) laser.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Highly-efficient mid-infrared CW laser operation in a lightly-doped 3 at.% Er:SrF2 single crystal

Liangbi Su, Xinsheng Guo, Dapeng Jiang, Qinghui Wu, Zhipeng Qin, and Guoqiang Xie
Opt. Express 26(5) 5558-5563 (2018)

Dual function of Nd3+ in Nd,Er:LuYSGG crystal for LD pumped ~3.0 μm mid-infrared laser

Yan Wang, Jianfu Li, Zhaojie Zhu, Zhenyu You, Jinlong Xu, and Chaoyang Tu
Opt. Express 23(14) 18554-18562 (2015)

Effect of erbium concentration on spectroscopic properties and 2.79 μm laser performance of Er:CaF2 crystals

Weiwei Ma, Liangbi Su, Xiaodong Xu, Jingya Wang, Dapeng Jiang, Lihe Zheng, Xiuwei Fan, Chun Li, Jie Liu, and Jun Xu
Opt. Mater. Express 6(2) 409-415 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. L. Vodopyanov and C. C. Phillips, “Mid-IR nonlinear spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductor structures using an OPG,” Proc. SPIE 2801, 11–18 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “cw and pulsed 2.8 μm laser emission from diode‐pumped Er3+: LiYF4 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(22), 1553–1555 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, T. Jensen, G. Huber, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. A. McFarlane, “Investigation of diode-pumped 2.8-μm laser performance in Er:BaY2F8,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 48–50 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Sandrock, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “Laser emission of erbium-doped fluoride bulk glasses in the spectral range from 2.7 to 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 382–384 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. T. Li, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient high-power continuous wave Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.85 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2568–2570 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Guo, Y. Tian, L. Zhang, L. Hu, N. K. Chen, and J. Zhang, “Pr3+-sensitized Er3+-doped bismuthate glass for generating high inversion rates at 2.7 µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3387–3389 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. Lin, D. Chen, Y. Yu, A. Yang, and Y. Wang, “Enhanced mid-infrared emissions of Er3+ at 2.7 μm via Nd3+ sensitization in chalcohalide glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1815–1817 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. J. Dinerman and P. F. Moulton, “3-μm cw laser operations in erbium-doped YSGG, GGG, and YAG,” Opt. Lett. 19(15), 1143–1145 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient resonantly pumped 2.8-μm Er3+:GSGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(11), 816–818 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. J. Booth and B. R. McGarvey, “19F NMR studies of CaF2 crystals doped with NdF3, EuF3, DyF3, HoF3, or TmF3,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 21(4), 1627–1635 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. B. Seelbinder and J. C. Wright, “Identification of higher order clusters in charge compensated materials using three‐body energy transfer,” J. Chem. Phys. 75(10), 5070–5079 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Ponader, R. Youngman, and C. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Kaminskii, L. Bohaty, P. Becker, H. Eichler, and H. Rhee, “Many-wavelength picosecond Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes comb lasing of cubic SrF2 single crystal in the visible and near-IR,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(9), 668–673 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. Labbe, J. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Tuau, “The 2.8μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. Klimm, M. Rabe, R. Bertram, R. Uecker, and L. Parthier, “Phase diagram analysis and crystal growth of solid solutions Ca1-xSrxF2,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(1), 152–155 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. E. Youngman and C. M. Smith, “Multinuclear NMR studies of mixed Ca1−xSrxF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 78(1), 014112 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr) F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Liu, X. Feng, X. Fan, Z. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Liu, and L. Su, “Efficient continuous-wave and passive Q-switched mode-locked Er3+ : CaF2-SrF2 lasers in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2418–2421 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157(2), 262–272 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Guo, S. Z. Zhao, T. Li, K. J. Yang, W. C. Qiao, D. C. Li, G. Q. Li, S. Y. Zhang, J. T. Bian, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Diode-wing-pumped electro-optically Q-switched 2 μm laser with pulse energy scaling over ten millijoules,” Opt. Express 26(13), 17731–17738 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (4)

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Feng, X. Fan, Z. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Liu, and L. Su, “Efficient continuous-wave and passive Q-switched mode-locked Er3+ : CaF2-SrF2 lasers in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2418–2421 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Guo, S. Z. Zhao, T. Li, K. J. Yang, W. C. Qiao, D. C. Li, G. Q. Li, S. Y. Zhang, J. T. Bian, L. H. Zheng, L. B. Su, and J. Xu, “Diode-wing-pumped electro-optically Q-switched 2 μm laser with pulse energy scaling over ten millijoules,” Opt. Express 26(13), 17731–17738 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. Klimm, M. Rabe, R. Bertram, R. Uecker, and L. Parthier, “Phase diagram analysis and crystal growth of solid solutions Ca1-xSrxF2,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(1), 152–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. E. Youngman and C. M. Smith, “Multinuclear NMR studies of mixed Ca1−xSrxF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 78(1), 014112 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Kaminskii, L. Bohaty, P. Becker, H. Eichler, and H. Rhee, “Many-wavelength picosecond Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes comb lasing of cubic SrF2 single crystal in the visible and near-IR,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(9), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr) F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Ponader, R. Youngman, and C. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Labbe, J. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Tuau, “The 2.8μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1996 (3)

M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. L. Vodopyanov and C. C. Phillips, “Mid-IR nonlinear spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductor structures using an OPG,” Proc. SPIE 2801, 11–18 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, T. Jensen, G. Huber, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. A. McFarlane, “Investigation of diode-pumped 2.8-μm laser performance in Er:BaY2F8,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 48–50 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “cw and pulsed 2.8 μm laser emission from diode‐pumped Er3+: LiYF4 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(22), 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

M. B. Seelbinder and J. C. Wright, “Identification of higher order clusters in charge compensated materials using three‐body energy transfer,” J. Chem. Phys. 75(10), 5070–5079 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. J. Booth and B. R. McGarvey, “19F NMR studies of CaF2 crystals doped with NdF3, EuF3, DyF3, HoF3, or TmF3,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 21(4), 1627–1635 (1980).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157(2), 262–272 (1967).
[Crossref]

Allen, R.

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “cw and pulsed 2.8 μm laser emission from diode‐pumped Er3+: LiYF4 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(22), 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

Becker, P.

A. Kaminskii, L. Bohaty, P. Becker, H. Eichler, and H. Rhee, “Many-wavelength picosecond Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes comb lasing of cubic SrF2 single crystal in the visible and near-IR,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(9), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beil, K.

Bertram, R.

D. Klimm, M. Rabe, R. Bertram, R. Uecker, and L. Parthier, “Phase diagram analysis and crystal growth of solid solutions Ca1-xSrxF2,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(1), 152–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bezhanov, V. A.

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bian, J. T.

Bohaty, L.

A. Kaminskii, L. Bohaty, P. Becker, H. Eichler, and H. Rhee, “Many-wavelength picosecond Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes comb lasing of cubic SrF2 single crystal in the visible and near-IR,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(9), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref]

Booth, R. J.

R. J. Booth and B. R. McGarvey, “19F NMR studies of CaF2 crystals doped with NdF3, EuF3, DyF3, HoF3, or TmF3,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 21(4), 1627–1635 (1980).
[Crossref]

Camy, P.

C. Labbe, J. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Tuau, “The 2.8μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

Cassanho, A.

Chen, D.

F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, D. Chen, Y. Yu, A. Yang, and Y. Wang, “Enhanced mid-infrared emissions of Er3+ at 2.7 μm via Nd3+ sensitization in chalcohalide glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1815–1817 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, N. K.

Chernov, S. P.

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

Diening, A.

Dinerman, B. J.

Doualan, J.

C. Labbe, J. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Tuau, “The 2.8μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eichler, H.

A. Kaminskii, L. Bohaty, P. Becker, H. Eichler, and H. Rhee, “Many-wavelength picosecond Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes comb lasing of cubic SrF2 single crystal in the visible and near-IR,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(9), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref]

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient resonantly pumped 2.8-μm Er3+:GSGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(11), 816–818 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “cw and pulsed 2.8 μm laser emission from diode‐pumped Er3+: LiYF4 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(22), 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

J. Liu, X. Feng, X. Fan, Z. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Liu, and L. Su, “Efficient continuous-wave and passive Q-switched mode-locked Er3+ : CaF2-SrF2 lasers in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2418–2421 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

Ghisler, C.

M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

Guo, Y.

Guo, Z.

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Tian, L. Zhang, L. Hu, N. K. Chen, and J. Zhang, “Pr3+-sensitized Er3+-doped bismuthate glass for generating high inversion rates at 2.7 µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3387–3389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, F.

F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

Jackson, S.

S. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jensen, T.

Jenssen, H. P.

Jiang, D.

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kaminskii, A.

A. Kaminskii, L. Bohaty, P. Becker, H. Eichler, and H. Rhee, “Many-wavelength picosecond Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes comb lasing of cubic SrF2 single crystal in the visible and near-IR,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(9), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karimov, D. N.

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kintz, G. J.

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “cw and pulsed 2.8 μm laser emission from diode‐pumped Er3+: LiYF4 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(22), 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

Klimm, D.

D. Klimm, M. Rabe, R. Bertram, R. Uecker, and L. Parthier, “Phase diagram analysis and crystal growth of solid solutions Ca1-xSrxF2,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(1), 152–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Komar’kova, O. N.

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kränkel, C.

Kuleskii, L. A.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Labbe, C.

C. Labbe, J. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Tuau, “The 2.8μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, D. C.

Li, G. Q.

Li, T.

Li, X.

F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Liu, J.

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Feng, X. Fan, Z. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Liu, and L. Su, “Efficient continuous-wave and passive Q-switched mode-locked Er3+ : CaF2-SrF2 lasers in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2418–2421 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, X. Feng, X. Fan, Z. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Liu, and L. Su, “Efficient continuous-wave and passive Q-switched mode-locked Er3+ : CaF2-SrF2 lasers in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2418–2421 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luthy, W.

M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lüthy, W.

Ma, F.

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McFarlane, R. A.

McGarvey, B. R.

R. J. Booth and B. R. McGarvey, “19F NMR studies of CaF2 crystals doped with NdF3, EuF3, DyF3, HoF3, or TmF3,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 21(4), 1627–1635 (1980).
[Crossref]

Moncorge, R.

C. Labbe, J. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Tuau, “The 2.8μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moulton, P. F.

Murina, T. M.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Osiko, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Pang, S.

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Parthier, L.

D. Klimm, M. Rabe, R. Bertram, R. Uecker, and L. Parthier, “Phase diagram analysis and crystal growth of solid solutions Ca1-xSrxF2,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(1), 152–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phillips, C. C.

K. L. Vodopyanov and C. C. Phillips, “Mid-IR nonlinear spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductor structures using an OPG,” Proc. SPIE 2801, 11–18 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, T. Jensen, G. Huber, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. A. McFarlane, “Investigation of diode-pumped 2.8-μm laser performance in Er:BaY2F8,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 48–50 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponader, C.

C. Ponader, R. Youngman, and C. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ponader, C. W.

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr) F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

Popov, P. A.

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prokhorov, A. M.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Qian, X.

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, W. C.

Rabe, M.

D. Klimm, M. Rabe, R. Bertram, R. Uecker, and L. Parthier, “Phase diagram analysis and crystal growth of solid solutions Ca1-xSrxF2,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(1), 152–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

Rhee, H.

A. Kaminskii, L. Bohaty, P. Becker, H. Eichler, and H. Rhee, “Many-wavelength picosecond Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes comb lasing of cubic SrF2 single crystal in the visible and near-IR,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(9), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sandrock, T.

Savelev, A. D.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Seelbinder, M. B.

M. B. Seelbinder and J. C. Wright, “Identification of higher order clusters in charge compensated materials using three‐body energy transfer,” J. Chem. Phys. 75(10), 5070–5079 (1981).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Smith, C.

C. Ponader, R. Youngman, and C. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

Smith, C. M.

R. E. Youngman and C. M. Smith, “Multinuclear NMR studies of mixed Ca1−xSrxF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 78(1), 014112 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr) F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sobolev, B. P.

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sorokin, N. I.

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spring, R.

M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
[Crossref]

Starikov, B. P.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Stoneman, R. C.

Su, L.

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Feng, X. Fan, Z. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Liu, and L. Su, “Efficient continuous-wave and passive Q-switched mode-locked Er3+ : CaF2-SrF2 lasers in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2418–2421 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, L. B.

Tian, Y.

Timoshechkin, M. I.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Tuau, M.

C. Labbe, J. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Tuau, “The 2.8μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

Uecker, R.

D. Klimm, M. Rabe, R. Bertram, R. Uecker, and L. Parthier, “Phase diagram analysis and crystal growth of solid solutions Ca1-xSrxF2,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(1), 152–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov and C. C. Phillips, “Mid-IR nonlinear spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductor structures using an OPG,” Proc. SPIE 2801, 11–18 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, T. Jensen, G. Huber, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. A. McFarlane, “Investigation of diode-pumped 2.8-μm laser performance in Er:BaY2F8,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 48–50 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
[Crossref]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157(2), 262–272 (1967).
[Crossref]

Wittwer, S.

M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wright, J. C.

M. B. Seelbinder and J. C. Wright, “Identification of higher order clusters in charge compensated materials using three‐body energy transfer,” J. Chem. Phys. 75(10), 5070–5079 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, X.

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, A.

Yang, K. J.

Youngman, R.

C. Ponader, R. Youngman, and C. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

Youngman, R. E.

R. E. Youngman and C. M. Smith, “Multinuclear NMR studies of mixed Ca1−xSrxF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 78(1), 014112 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr) F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Tian, L. Zhang, L. Hu, N. K. Chen, and J. Zhang, “Pr3+-sensitized Er3+-doped bismuthate glass for generating high inversion rates at 2.7 µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3387–3389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S. Y.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, S. Z.

Zharikov, E. V.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Zhekov, V. I.

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L. H.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. J. Kintz, R. Allen, and L. Esterowitz, “cw and pulsed 2.8 μm laser emission from diode‐pumped Er3+: LiYF4 at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(22), 1553–1555 (1987).
[Crossref]

Crystallogr. Rep. (1)

D. N. Karimov, O. N. Komar’kova, N. I. Sorokin, V. A. Bezhanov, S. P. Chernov, P. A. Popov, and B. P. Sobolev, “Growth of congruently melting Ca0.59Sr0.41F2 crystals and study of their properties,” Crystallogr. Rep. 55(3), 518–524 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Pollnau, R. Spring, C. Ghisler, S. Wittwer, W. Luthy, and H. P. Weber, “Efficiency of erbium 3-/spl mu/m crystal and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 657–663 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

C. Ponader, R. Youngman, and C. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr)F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. W. Ponader, R. E. Youngman, and C. M. Smith, “Structural studies of (Ca, Sr) F2 single crystals with Raman and NMR spectroscopies,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88(9), 2447–2450 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

M. B. Seelbinder and J. C. Wright, “Identification of higher order clusters in charge compensated materials using three‐body energy transfer,” J. Chem. Phys. 75(10), 5070–5079 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D. Klimm, M. Rabe, R. Bertram, R. Uecker, and L. Parthier, “Phase diagram analysis and crystal growth of solid solutions Ca1-xSrxF2,” J. Cryst. Growth 310(1), 152–155 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Kaminskii, L. Bohaty, P. Becker, H. Eichler, and H. Rhee, “Many-wavelength picosecond Raman Stokes and anti-Stokes comb lasing of cubic SrF2 single crystal in the visible and near-IR,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(9), 668–673 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. Labbe, J. Doualan, P. Camy, R. Moncorge, and M. Tuau, “The 2.8μm laser properties of Er3+ doped CaF2 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 209(1–3), 193–199 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Li, J. Liu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, W. Ma, J. Wang, X. Xu, and L. Su, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Er: CaF2 mid-infrared laser,” Opt. Commun. 406, 158–162 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

F. Zhang, Y. Wu, J. Liu, S. Pang, F. Ma, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, and L. Su, “Mode locked Nd3+ and Gd3+ co-doped calcium fluoride crystal laser at dual gain lines,” Opt. Laser Technol. 100, 294–297 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (8)

B. J. Dinerman and P. F. Moulton, “3-μm cw laser operations in erbium-doped YSGG, GGG, and YAG,” Opt. Lett. 19(15), 1143–1145 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient resonantly pumped 2.8-μm Er3+:GSGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(11), 816–818 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, T. Jensen, G. Huber, A. Cassanho, H. P. Jenssen, and R. A. McFarlane, “Investigation of diode-pumped 2.8-μm laser performance in Er:BaY2F8,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 48–50 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Sandrock, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “Laser emission of erbium-doped fluoride bulk glasses in the spectral range from 2.7 to 2.8 μm,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 382–384 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient high-power continuous wave Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.85 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2568–2570 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, Y. Tian, L. Zhang, L. Hu, N. K. Chen, and J. Zhang, “Pr3+-sensitized Er3+-doped bismuthate glass for generating high inversion rates at 2.7 µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3387–3389 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, D. Chen, Y. Yu, A. Yang, and Y. Wang, “Enhanced mid-infrared emissions of Er3+ at 2.7 μm via Nd3+ sensitization in chalcohalide glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1815–1817 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, X. Feng, X. Fan, Z. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. Liu, and L. Su, “Efficient continuous-wave and passive Q-switched mode-locked Er3+ : CaF2-SrF2 lasers in the mid-infrared region,” Opt. Lett. 43(10), 2418–2421 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Huang, X. Li, X. Liu, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Sensitizing effect of Ho3+ on the Er3+: 2.7 μm-emission in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 921–925 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157(2), 262–272 (1967).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

R. J. Booth and B. R. McGarvey, “19F NMR studies of CaF2 crystals doped with NdF3, EuF3, DyF3, HoF3, or TmF3,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 21(4), 1627–1635 (1980).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (1)

R. E. Youngman and C. M. Smith, “Multinuclear NMR studies of mixed Ca1−xSrxF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 78(1), 014112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov and C. C. Phillips, “Mid-IR nonlinear spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductor structures using an OPG,” Proc. SPIE 2801, 11–18 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

W. Ma, X. Qian, J. Wang, J. Liu, X. Fan, J. Liu, L. Su, and J. Xu, “Highly efficient dual-wavelength mid-infrared CW Laser in diode end-pumped Er:SrF2 single crystals,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 36635 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. V. Zharikov, V. I. Zhekov, L. A. Kuleskii, T. M. Murina, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savelev, V. V. Smirnov, B. P. Starikov, and M. I. Timoshechkin, “Stimulated emission from Er3+ ions in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals at λ= 2.94 μ,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 4(8), 1039–1040 (1975).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the cross-relaxation cooperative process between adjacent Er3+ ions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the diode-end-pumped CW laser with a linear cavity.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Powder XRD patterns of Er: CaxSr1-xF2 (x = 0, 0.5, 0.7, 1) crystals. The red dot line and black dot line correspond to the diffraction peak positions of pure SrF2 (PDF chart: 06-0262) and CaF2 (PDF chart: 35-0816) as a guide for eyes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) the absorption spectra of the crystals and (b) the absorption cross sections corresponding to the transition of Er3+: 4I15/24I11/2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Emission spectra (a) around 1.5 μm corresponding to the transition of Er: 4I13/24I15/2 and (b) around 2.8 μm corresponding to the transition of Er: 4I11/24I13/2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Fluorescence decay curves of (a) Er3+: 4I11/2 manifold and (b) Er3+: 4I13/2 manifold in the crystals.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Lifetime variation with the composition (1-x) for Er3+ doped CaxSr1-xF2 crystals.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Up-conversion emission spectra for different composition Er-doped single crystals. The insert shows the corresponding normalized emission intensity.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The average output power as a function of the absorbed pump power for Er: Ca0.5Sr0.5F2 (a Ref [25], and b) and Er: Ca0.7Sr0.3F2 (c and d) crystals with 976nm and 980nm LD-pumping.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The detailed value of σabs, σem, τ and FWHM of the absorption bands around 980nm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ em J J ' ( λ ) = λ 5 A J J ' 8 π c n 2 × I ( λ ) λ I ( λ ) d λ
I ( t ) = I 0 + A ( e t t 0 τ 1 e t t 0 τ 2 )

Metrics