Abstract

The structure and optoelectronic properties of sputtered In2MgO4 (IMO) films as the novel channel material of thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. The IMO films have a nano-crystalline structure with electrical resistivity decreased from 0.25 to 0.11 Ω. cm and carrier concentration increased from 2.5 × 1018 to 1.3 × 1020 cm−3 and Hall mobility increased from 5.0 to 15.0 cm2/(V.s) when deposited at an increased power which raises the crystalline of films. Besides the higher visible transmittance and wider band gap (Eg) of IMO film (>80%, 4.7 eV) than amorphous InGaZnO4 (a-IGZO) film (<80%, 4.1 eV), the IMO film has lower Urbach energy (Eu) and electron affinity (χ) and ionization potential (Ip) and larger oxygen vacancy formation energy (EVo) and conduction band offset (△Ec) at Al2O3 dielectric/channel interface (65 meV, 1.2, 5.9, 5.4 and 3.8 eV) than a-IGZO film. The IMO TFT shows better stabilities with shift of threshold voltage (△Vth = 2 V) after positive bias stress (PBS: the gate voltage, Vg = 20 V for 500 s) and |△Vth| = 0.5 V after 450-850 nm light illumination than a-IGZO TFT (|△Vth| = 7, 2 V) fabricated in the same process in our lab. The low Eu and large EVo and Ec of IMO film are the origins of improved PBS stability of IMO TFT. The wide Eg of IMO film is the factor of visible-blindness for IMO TFT. The findings reveal that IMO TFT is a stable promising alternative for the next flat panel display.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  8. H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. J. K. Yao, L. Gong, and S. Zhang, “Band offsets in ZrO2/InGaZnO4 hetero-junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 093508 (2012).
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  22. Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. D. Hays, B. Gila, S. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Energy band offsets of dielectrics on InGaZnO4,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(2), 021301 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Wu, B. Chiou, and S. Hsieh, “Effect of sputtering power on the structural and optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered ITO films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1242–1249 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. Kresse and J. Hafner, “Ab initio molecular dynamics for open-shell transition metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(17), 13115–13118 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. G. Kresse and J. Furthmuller, “Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 6(1), 15–50 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. E. Blöchl, “Projector augmented-wave method,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(24), 17953–17979 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. G. Kresse and D. Joubert, “From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented -wave method,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 59(3), 1758–1775 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. Bouhemadou, R. Khenata, and F. Zerarga, “Ab initio study of the structural and elastic properties of spinels MgX2O4(X = Al, Ga, In) under pressure,” Eur. Phys. J. B 56(1), 1–5 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. Wei and S. Zhang, “First-principles study of cation distribution in eighteen closed-shell AIIBIII2O4 and AIVBII2O4 spinel oxides,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 63(4), 045112 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  36. E. Chong, K. Jo, and S. Lee, “High stability of amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 152102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

H. Lu, X. Zhou, T. Liang, L. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Oxide Thin-Film Transistors With IMO and IGZO Stacked Active Layers for UV Detection,” J. Electron Devices Soc. 5(6), 504–508 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, L. X. Qian, Z. Wu, and X. Liu, “Amorphous InGaMgO Ultraviolet Photo-TFT with Ultrahigh Photosensitivity and Extremely Large Responsivity,” Materials (Basel) 10(2), 168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hays, B. Gila, S. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Energy band offsets of dielectrics on InGaZnO4,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(2), 021301 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. Lu, X. Bi, S. Zhang, and H. Zhou, “Ultraviolet detecting properties of amorphous MgInO thin film photo-transistors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 125010 (2015).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. K. Yao, L. Gong, and S. Zhang, “Band offsets in ZrO2/InGaZnO4 hetero-junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 093508 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

E. Chong, K. Jo, and S. Lee, “High stability of amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 152102 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, and H. Hosono, “Origins of High Mobility and Low Operation Voltage of Amorphous Oxide TFTs: Electronic Structure, Electron Transport, Defects and Doping,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(12), 468–483 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Park, K. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Mo, H. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Novel ZrInZnO Thin-film Transistor with Excellent Stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 329–333 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, and C. Wu, “Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors and their sub-gap density of states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Specific contact resistances between amorphous oxide semiconductor In–Ga–Zn–O and metallic electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5899–5902 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Bouhemadou, R. Khenata, and F. Zerarga, “Ab initio study of the structural and elastic properties of spinels MgX2O4(X = Al, Ga, In) under pressure,” Eur. Phys. J. B 56(1), 1–5 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Robertson, “High dielectric constant gate oxides for metal oxide Si transistors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 327–396 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Miyakawa, K. Ueda, and H. Hosono, “Carrier control in transparent semiconducting oxide thin films by ion implantation: MgIn2O4 and ZnO”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 191, 173–177 (2002).

2001 (1)

S. Wei and S. Zhang, “First-principles study of cation distribution in eighteen closed-shell AIIBIII2O4 and AIVBII2O4 spinel oxides,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 63(4), 045112 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

R. Wehrspohn, S. Deane, I. French, I. Gale, M. Powell, and R. Bruggemann, “Urbach energy dependence of the stability in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3374–3376 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Kresse and D. Joubert, “From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented -wave method,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 59(3), 1758–1775 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. Kudo, H. Yanagi, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Enhancement of carrier generation in MgIn2O4 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 54(1-2), 51–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Minami, T. Miyata, and T. Yamamoto, “Work function of transparent conducting multi-component oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 108–109, 583–587 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

T. Minami, S. Takata, and T. Kakumu, “New multi-component transparent conducting oxide films for transparent electrodes of flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1689–1693 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Kresse and J. Furthmuller, “Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 6(1), 15–50 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

T. Minami, S. Takata, T. Kakumu, and H. Sonohara, “New transparent conducting MgIn2O4-Zn2In2O5 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 22–26 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, H. Unno, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, N. Matsunami, and H. Tanoue, “Conversion of insulating thin films of MgIn2O4 into transparent conductors by ion implantation”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 106, 517–521 (1995).

1994 (3)

H. Kawazoea, N. Ueda, H. Omata, H. Hosono, and H. Tanoue, “Generation of electron carriers in insulating thin film of MgIn2O4 spinel by Li+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(12), 7935–7941 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. E. Blöchl, “Projector augmented-wave method,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(24), 17953–17979 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wu, B. Chiou, and S. Hsieh, “Effect of sputtering power on the structural and optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered ITO films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1242–1249 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

G. Kresse and J. Hafner, “Ab initio molecular dynamics for open-shell transition metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(17), 13115–13118 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bi, X.

H. Lu, X. Bi, S. Zhang, and H. Zhou, “Ultraviolet detecting properties of amorphous MgInO thin film photo-transistors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 125010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Blöchl, P. E.

P. E. Blöchl, “Projector augmented-wave method,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(24), 17953–17979 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouhemadou, A.

A. Bouhemadou, R. Khenata, and F. Zerarga, “Ab initio study of the structural and elastic properties of spinels MgX2O4(X = Al, Ga, In) under pressure,” Eur. Phys. J. B 56(1), 1–5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bruggemann, R.

R. Wehrspohn, S. Deane, I. French, I. Gale, M. Powell, and R. Bruggemann, “Urbach energy dependence of the stability in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3374–3376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chai, J.

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiou, B.

W. Wu, B. Chiou, and S. Hsieh, “Effect of sputtering power on the structural and optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered ITO films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1242–1249 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chong, E.

E. Chong, K. Jo, and S. Lee, “High stability of amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 152102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chuang, C.

T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deane, S.

R. Wehrspohn, S. Deane, I. French, I. Gale, M. Powell, and R. Bruggemann, “Urbach energy dependence of the stability in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3374–3376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deng, S.

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

French, I.

R. Wehrspohn, S. Deane, I. French, I. Gale, M. Powell, and R. Bruggemann, “Urbach energy dependence of the stability in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3374–3376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fung, T.

T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Furthmuller, J.

G. Kresse and J. Furthmuller, “Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 6(1), 15–50 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gale, I.

R. Wehrspohn, S. Deane, I. French, I. Gale, M. Powell, and R. Bruggemann, “Urbach energy dependence of the stability in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3374–3376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gila, B.

D. Hays, B. Gila, S. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Energy band offsets of dielectrics on InGaZnO4,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(2), 021301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gong, L.

J. K. Yao, L. Gong, and S. Zhang, “Band offsets in ZrO2/InGaZnO4 hetero-junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 093508 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hafner, J.

G. Kresse and J. Hafner, “Ab initio molecular dynamics for open-shell transition metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(17), 13115–13118 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, T.

H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hays, D.

D. Hays, B. Gila, S. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Energy band offsets of dielectrics on InGaZnO4,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(2), 021301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hikuma, N.

H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hirano, M.

Y. Shimura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Specific contact resistances between amorphous oxide semiconductor In–Ga–Zn–O and metallic electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5899–5902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, and H. Hosono, “Origins of High Mobility and Low Operation Voltage of Amorphous Oxide TFTs: Electronic Structure, Electron Transport, Defects and Doping,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(12), 468–483 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, and C. Wu, “Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors and their sub-gap density of states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Specific contact resistances between amorphous oxide semiconductor In–Ga–Zn–O and metallic electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5899–5902 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Miyakawa, K. Ueda, and H. Hosono, “Carrier control in transparent semiconducting oxide thin films by ion implantation: MgIn2O4 and ZnO”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 191, 173–177 (2002).

A. Kudo, H. Yanagi, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Enhancement of carrier generation in MgIn2O4 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 54(1-2), 51–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, H. Unno, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, N. Matsunami, and H. Tanoue, “Conversion of insulating thin films of MgIn2O4 into transparent conductors by ion implantation”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 106, 517–521 (1995).

H. Kawazoea, N. Ueda, H. Omata, H. Hosono, and H. Tanoue, “Generation of electron carriers in insulating thin film of MgIn2O4 spinel by Li+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(12), 7935–7941 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, H.

H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, and C. Wu, “Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors and their sub-gap density of states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, S.

W. Wu, B. Chiou, and S. Hsieh, “Effect of sputtering power on the structural and optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered ITO films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1242–1249 (1994).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ikenaga, E.

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ikuhara, Y.

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J.

J. Park, K. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Mo, H. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Novel ZrInZnO Thin-film Transistor with Excellent Stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 329–333 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeong, W.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jo, K.

E. Chong, K. Jo, and S. Lee, “High stability of amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 152102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Joubert, D.

G. Kresse and D. Joubert, “From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented -wave method,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 59(3), 1758–1775 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kakumu, T.

T. Minami, S. Takata, and T. Kakumu, “New multi-component transparent conducting oxide films for transparent electrodes of flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1689–1693 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Minami, S. Takata, T. Kakumu, and H. Sonohara, “New transparent conducting MgIn2O4-Zn2In2O5 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 22–26 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kamiya, T.

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, and H. Hosono, “Origins of High Mobility and Low Operation Voltage of Amorphous Oxide TFTs: Electronic Structure, Electron Transport, Defects and Doping,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(12), 468–483 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, and C. Wu, “Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors and their sub-gap density of states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Specific contact resistances between amorphous oxide semiconductor In–Ga–Zn–O and metallic electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5899–5902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kanicki, J.

T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kawazoe, H.

A. Kudo, H. Yanagi, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Enhancement of carrier generation in MgIn2O4 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 54(1-2), 51–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, H. Unno, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, N. Matsunami, and H. Tanoue, “Conversion of insulating thin films of MgIn2O4 into transparent conductors by ion implantation”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 106, 517–521 (1995).

H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kawazoea, H.

H. Kawazoea, N. Ueda, H. Omata, H. Hosono, and H. Tanoue, “Generation of electron carriers in insulating thin film of MgIn2O4 spinel by Li+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(12), 7935–7941 (1994).
[Crossref]

Khenata, R.

A. Bouhemadou, R. Khenata, and F. Zerarga, “Ab initio study of the structural and elastic properties of spinels MgX2O4(X = Al, Ga, In) under pressure,” Eur. Phys. J. B 56(1), 1–5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Park, K. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Mo, H. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Novel ZrInZnO Thin-film Transistor with Excellent Stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 329–333 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

J. Park, K. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Mo, H. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Novel ZrInZnO Thin-film Transistor with Excellent Stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 329–333 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, K.

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koide, H.

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koumoto, K.

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kresse, G.

G. Kresse and D. Joubert, “From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented -wave method,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 59(3), 1758–1775 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Kresse and J. Furthmuller, “Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 6(1), 15–50 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Kresse and J. Hafner, “Ab initio molecular dynamics for open-shell transition metals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 48(17), 13115–13118 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kudo, A.

A. Kudo, H. Yanagi, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Enhancement of carrier generation in MgIn2O4 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 54(1-2), 51–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Chong, K. Jo, and S. Lee, “High stability of amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 152102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, T.

H. Lu, X. Zhou, T. Liang, L. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Oxide Thin-Film Transistors With IMO and IGZO Stacked Active Layers for UV Detection,” J. Electron Devices Soc. 5(6), 504–508 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, P.

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Y. Zhang, L. X. Qian, Z. Wu, and X. Liu, “Amorphous InGaMgO Ultraviolet Photo-TFT with Ultrahigh Photosensitivity and Extremely Large Responsivity,” Materials (Basel) 10(2), 168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H.

H. Lu, X. Zhou, T. Liang, L. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Oxide Thin-Film Transistors With IMO and IGZO Stacked Active Layers for UV Detection,” J. Electron Devices Soc. 5(6), 504–508 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lu, X. Bi, S. Zhang, and H. Zhou, “Ultraviolet detecting properties of amorphous MgInO thin film photo-transistors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 125010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matsunami, N.

H. Hosono, H. Unno, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, N. Matsunami, and H. Tanoue, “Conversion of insulating thin films of MgIn2O4 into transparent conductors by ion implantation”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 106, 517–521 (1995).

Minami, T.

T. Minami, T. Miyata, and T. Yamamoto, “Work function of transparent conducting multi-component oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 108–109, 583–587 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Minami, S. Takata, and T. Kakumu, “New multi-component transparent conducting oxide films for transparent electrodes of flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1689–1693 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Minami, S. Takata, T. Kakumu, and H. Sonohara, “New transparent conducting MgIn2O4-Zn2In2O5 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 22–26 (1995).
[Crossref]

Miyakawa, M.

M. Miyakawa, K. Ueda, and H. Hosono, “Carrier control in transparent semiconducting oxide thin films by ion implantation: MgIn2O4 and ZnO”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 191, 173–177 (2002).

Miyata, T.

T. Minami, T. Miyata, and T. Yamamoto, “Work function of transparent conducting multi-component oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 108–109, 583–587 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mizoguchi, H.

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mo, Y.

J. Park, K. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Mo, H. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Novel ZrInZnO Thin-film Transistor with Excellent Stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 329–333 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nagao, Y.

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nomura, K.

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, and H. Hosono, “Origins of High Mobility and Low Operation Voltage of Amorphous Oxide TFTs: Electronic Structure, Electron Transport, Defects and Doping,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(12), 468–483 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, and C. Wu, “Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors and their sub-gap density of states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Specific contact resistances between amorphous oxide semiconductor In–Ga–Zn–O and metallic electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5899–5902 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohta, H.

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Omata, H.

H. Kawazoea, N. Ueda, H. Omata, H. Hosono, and H. Tanoue, “Generation of electron carriers in insulating thin film of MgIn2O4 spinel by Li+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(12), 7935–7941 (1994).
[Crossref]

Omata, T.

H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

J. Park, K. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Mo, H. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Novel ZrInZnO Thin-film Transistor with Excellent Stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 329–333 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, K.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

J. Park, K. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Mo, H. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Novel ZrInZnO Thin-film Transistor with Excellent Stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 329–333 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S.

D. Hays, B. Gila, S. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Energy band offsets of dielectrics on InGaZnO4,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(2), 021301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Powell, M.

R. Wehrspohn, S. Deane, I. French, I. Gale, M. Powell, and R. Bruggemann, “Urbach energy dependence of the stability in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3374–3376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qian, L. X.

Y. Zhang, L. X. Qian, Z. Wu, and X. Liu, “Amorphous InGaMgO Ultraviolet Photo-TFT with Ultrahigh Photosensitivity and Extremely Large Responsivity,” Materials (Basel) 10(2), 168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, F.

D. Hays, B. Gila, S. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Energy band offsets of dielectrics on InGaZnO4,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(2), 021301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Robertson, J.

J. Robertson, “High dielectric constant gate oxides for metal oxide Si transistors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 327–396 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ryu, M.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seon, J.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

She, J.

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H.

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shimura, Y.

Y. Shimura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Specific contact resistances between amorphous oxide semiconductor In–Ga–Zn–O and metallic electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5899–5902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shin, H.

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sonohara, H.

T. Minami, S. Takata, T. Kakumu, and H. Sonohara, “New transparent conducting MgIn2O4-Zn2In2O5 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 22–26 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, T.

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takasaki, Y.

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takata, S.

T. Minami, S. Takata, and T. Kakumu, “New multi-component transparent conducting oxide films for transparent electrodes of flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1689–1693 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. Minami, S. Takata, T. Kakumu, and H. Sonohara, “New transparent conducting MgIn2O4-Zn2In2O5 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 22–26 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tanoue, H.

H. Hosono, H. Unno, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, N. Matsunami, and H. Tanoue, “Conversion of insulating thin films of MgIn2O4 into transparent conductors by ion implantation”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 106, 517–521 (1995).

H. Kawazoea, N. Ueda, H. Omata, H. Hosono, and H. Tanoue, “Generation of electron carriers in insulating thin film of MgIn2O4 spinel by Li+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(12), 7935–7941 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

M. Miyakawa, K. Ueda, and H. Hosono, “Carrier control in transparent semiconducting oxide thin films by ion implantation: MgIn2O4 and ZnO”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 191, 173–177 (2002).

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ueda, N.

H. Hosono, H. Unno, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, N. Matsunami, and H. Tanoue, “Conversion of insulating thin films of MgIn2O4 into transparent conductors by ion implantation”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 106, 517–521 (1995).

H. Kawazoea, N. Ueda, H. Omata, H. Hosono, and H. Tanoue, “Generation of electron carriers in insulating thin film of MgIn2O4 spinel by Li+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(12), 7935–7941 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

Umemura, T.

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Un’no, H.

H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
[Crossref]

Unno, H.

H. Hosono, H. Unno, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, N. Matsunami, and H. Tanoue, “Conversion of insulating thin films of MgIn2O4 into transparent conductors by ion implantation”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 106, 517–521 (1995).

Wang, S.

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wehrspohn, R.

R. Wehrspohn, S. Deane, I. French, I. Gale, M. Powell, and R. Bruggemann, “Urbach energy dependence of the stability in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3374–3376 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wei, S.

S. Wei and S. Zhang, “First-principles study of cation distribution in eighteen closed-shell AIIBIII2O4 and AIVBII2O4 spinel oxides,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 63(4), 045112 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, and C. Wu, “Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors and their sub-gap density of states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133503 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, B. Chiou, and S. Hsieh, “Effect of sputtering power on the structural and optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered ITO films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1242–1249 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

Y. Zhang, L. X. Qian, Z. Wu, and X. Liu, “Amorphous InGaMgO Ultraviolet Photo-TFT with Ultrahigh Photosensitivity and Extremely Large Responsivity,” Materials (Basel) 10(2), 168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Minami, T. Miyata, and T. Yamamoto, “Work function of transparent conducting multi-component oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 108–109, 583–587 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, H.

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kudo, H. Yanagi, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Enhancement of carrier generation in MgIn2O4 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 54(1-2), 51–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, M.

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yao, J. K.

J. K. Yao, L. Gong, and S. Zhang, “Band offsets in ZrO2/InGaZnO4 hetero-junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 093508 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zerarga, F.

A. Bouhemadou, R. Khenata, and F. Zerarga, “Ab initio study of the structural and elastic properties of spinels MgX2O4(X = Al, Ga, In) under pressure,” Eur. Phys. J. B 56(1), 1–5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

H. Lu, X. Zhou, T. Liang, L. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Oxide Thin-Film Transistors With IMO and IGZO Stacked Active Layers for UV Detection,” J. Electron Devices Soc. 5(6), 504–508 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

H. Lu, X. Zhou, T. Liang, L. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Oxide Thin-Film Transistors With IMO and IGZO Stacked Active Layers for UV Detection,” J. Electron Devices Soc. 5(6), 504–508 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Lu, X. Bi, S. Zhang, and H. Zhou, “Ultraviolet detecting properties of amorphous MgInO thin film photo-transistors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 125010 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. K. Yao, L. Gong, and S. Zhang, “Band offsets in ZrO2/InGaZnO4 hetero-junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 093508 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Wei and S. Zhang, “First-principles study of cation distribution in eighteen closed-shell AIIBIII2O4 and AIVBII2O4 spinel oxides,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 63(4), 045112 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, L. X. Qian, Z. Wu, and X. Liu, “Amorphous InGaMgO Ultraviolet Photo-TFT with Ultrahigh Photosensitivity and Extremely Large Responsivity,” Materials (Basel) 10(2), 168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

H. Lu, X. Bi, S. Zhang, and H. Zhou, “Ultraviolet detecting properties of amorphous MgInO thin film photo-transistors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 125010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

H. Lu, X. Zhou, T. Liang, L. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Oxide Thin-Film Transistors With IMO and IGZO Stacked Active Layers for UV Detection,” J. Electron Devices Soc. 5(6), 504–508 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Park, K. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Mo, H. Kim, and J. Jeong, “Novel ZrInZnO Thin-film Transistor with Excellent Stability,” Adv. Mater. 21(3), 329–333 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

E. Chong, K. Jo, and S. Lee, “High stability of amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 152102 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Wehrspohn, S. Deane, I. French, I. Gale, M. Powell, and R. Bruggemann, “Urbach energy dependence of the stability in amorphous silicon thin-film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(22), 3374–3376 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. Ueda, T. Omata, N. Hikuma, K. Ueda, H. Mizoguchi, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “New oxide phase with wide band gap and high electro-conductivity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(16), 1954–1955 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Koide, Y. Nagao, K. Koumoto, Y. Takasaki, T. Umemura, T. Kato, Y. Ikuhara, and H. Ohta, “Electric field modulation of thermo-power for transparent amorphous oxide thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 182105 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, W. Jeong, B. Ahn, H. Shin, and H. Kim, H. KM. Ryu, K. Park, J. Seon, and S. Lee, “Investigation of the effects of Mg incorporation into InZnO for high performance and high-stability solution-processed thin film transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(16), 163506 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Hsieh, T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, H. Hosono, and C. Wu, “Modeling of amorphous InGaZnO4 thin film transistors and their sub-gap density of states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133503 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Yao, L. Gong, and S. Zhang, “Band offsets in ZrO2/InGaZnO4 hetero-junction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 093508 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, M. Yang, Y. Feng, J. Chai, Z. Zhang, J. Pan, and S. Wang, “Band offsets of HfO2/ZnO interface: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement and ab initio calculation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 162104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Rev. (1)

D. Hays, B. Gila, S. Pearton, and F. Ren, “Energy band offsets of dielectrics on InGaZnO4,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(2), 021301 (2017).
[Crossref]

Comput. Mater. Sci. (1)

G. Kresse and J. Furthmuller, “Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 6(1), 15–50 (1996).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

A. Bouhemadou, R. Khenata, and F. Zerarga, “Ab initio study of the structural and elastic properties of spinels MgX2O4(X = Al, Ga, In) under pressure,” Eur. Phys. J. B 56(1), 1–5 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

J. K. Yao, N. Xu, S. Deng, J. Chen, J. She, H. Shieh, P. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Electrical and Photosensitive Characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs Related to Oxygen Vacancy,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 58(4), 1121–1126 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Lee, K. Nomura, H. Yanagi, T. Kamiya, E. Ikenaga, T. Sugiyama, K. Kobayashi, and H. Hosono, “Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(3), 033713 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Kawazoea, N. Ueda, H. Omata, H. Hosono, and H. Tanoue, “Generation of electron carriers in insulating thin film of MgIn2O4 spinel by Li+ implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(12), 7935–7941 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

T. Kamiya, K. Nomura, and H. Hosono, “Origins of High Mobility and Low Operation Voltage of Amorphous Oxide TFTs: Electronic Structure, Electron Transport, Defects and Doping,” J. Disp. Technol. 5(12), 468–483 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Electron Devices Soc. (1)

H. Lu, X. Zhou, T. Liang, L. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Oxide Thin-Film Transistors With IMO and IGZO Stacked Active Layers for UV Detection,” J. Electron Devices Soc. 5(6), 504–508 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Inform. Disp. (1)

T. Fung, C. Chuang, K. Nomura, H. Shieh, H. Hosono, and J. Kanicki, “Photofield-Effect in Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) Thin-Film Transistors,” J. Inform. Disp. 9(4), 21–29 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

T. Minami, S. Takata, and T. Kakumu, “New multi-component transparent conducting oxide films for transparent electrodes of flat panel displays,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14(3), 1689–1693 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Un’no, N. Hikuma, T. Omata, N. Ueda, T. Hashimoto, and H. Kawazoe, “Preparation of MgIn2O4-X Thin Films on Glass Substrate by RF Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No. 9A), L1260–L1262 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

A. Kudo, H. Yanagi, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Enhancement of carrier generation in MgIn2O4 thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 54(1-2), 51–54 (1998).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

Y. Zhang, L. X. Qian, Z. Wu, and X. Liu, “Amorphous InGaMgO Ultraviolet Photo-TFT with Ultrahigh Photosensitivity and Extremely Large Responsivity,” Materials (Basel) 10(2), 168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B (1)

M. Miyakawa, K. Ueda, and H. Hosono, “Carrier control in transparent semiconducting oxide thin films by ion implantation: MgIn2O4 and ZnO”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 191, 173–177 (2002).

Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B (1)

H. Hosono, H. Unno, N. Ueda, H. Kawazoe, N. Matsunami, and H. Tanoue, “Conversion of insulating thin films of MgIn2O4 into transparent conductors by ion implantation”, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B 106, 517–521 (1995).

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G. Kresse and D. Joubert, “From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented -wave method,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 59(3), 1758–1775 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Wei and S. Zhang, “First-principles study of cation distribution in eighteen closed-shell AIIBIII2O4 and AIVBII2O4 spinel oxides,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 63(4), 045112 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. Robertson, “High dielectric constant gate oxides for metal oxide Si transistors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 327–396 (2006).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (2)

W. Wu, B. Chiou, and S. Hsieh, “Effect of sputtering power on the structural and optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered ITO films,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 9(6), 1242–1249 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. Lu, X. Bi, S. Zhang, and H. Zhou, “Ultraviolet detecting properties of amorphous MgInO thin film photo-transistors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 30(12), 125010 (2015).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

T. Minami, T. Miyata, and T. Yamamoto, “Work function of transparent conducting multi-component oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 108–109, 583–587 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (2)

T. Minami, S. Takata, T. Kakumu, and H. Sonohara, “New transparent conducting MgIn2O4-Zn2In2O5 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 22–26 (1995).
[Crossref]

Y. Shimura, K. Nomura, T. Kamiya, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono, “Specific contact resistances between amorphous oxide semiconductor In–Ga–Zn–O and metallic electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 516(17), 5899–5902 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. Takahashi, H. Kishida, A. Miyanaga, and S. Yamazaki, “Theoretical Analysis of IGZO Transparent Amorphous Oxide Semiconductor”, Internal Display Workshop 1637–1640 (2008).

C. Kagan and P. Andry, Thin-film transistors, ISBN: 0–8247–0959–4 (2003).

T. Iwasaki, M. Shi, N. Itagaki, and Y. Shi, “Field effect transistors”, United States Patent Application Publication, US 2010/0224870 A1.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Bottom gate TFT structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The XRD patterns of IMO films.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM micrograph of IMO films.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The relation of Ne, ρ and μ of IMO films.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The (a) transmittance and (b) Eg of a-IGZO and IMO films.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) In 3d (b) Mg 1s (c) Al 2p CL (d), (e) VBM, (f) work function and (g) O 1s spectra for IMO, Al2O3 films and Al2O3/IMO interface.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The band offsets at Al2O3/IMO interface.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The (a) transfer and (b) output curves of IMO TFTs.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The PBS reliability of a-IGZO and IMO TFTs.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Transfer curves of IGZO and IMO TFTs measured under IR to blue light illuminations (dark, IR, red, green, blue).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The binding energies and VBM (eV) values for samples.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ E V A l 2 O 3 /IMO =( E metalCL IMO E VBM IMO )( E Al2p A l 2 O 3 E VBM A l 2 O 3 )( E metalCL A l 2 O 3 /IMO E Al2p A l 2 O 3 /IMO ),
Δ E C A l 2 O 3 /IMO = E g A l 2 O 3 E g IMO Δ E V A l 2 O 3 /IMO ,
E VO =E( In 2 MgO 3 )+E( O )E( In 2 MgO 4 ),
I d =(W/L) μ l C( V g V th ) V d ,
I d =(W/2L) μ s C ( V g V th ) 2 ,
R on = L μ C i W( V g V th ) ,

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