Abstract

Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) were prepared within bulk Ge-Sn-Se chalcogenide glass (ChG) by the thermal treatment method. In the ChG matrix, growth of the Au-NPs with optical activity gives rise to a threshold behavior of optical bandgap of the ChG. By using Z-scan and optical parametric amplify techniques, improved mid-infrared third-order optical nonlinearity, namely larger nonlinear refraction without multi-photon absorption, was observed in the nanocomposites at a mid-infrared wavelength of 3 μm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

Y. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. Jin, J. Zhang, G. Hu, S. Lin, R. Yuan, X. Liang, and W. Xiang, “Construction and nonlinear optical characterization of CuO quantum dots doped Na2O-CaO-B2O3-SiO2 bulk glass,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 28(17), 13201–13208 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, J. Cheng, S. Dai, Z. Xu, W. Ji, R. Tan, and Q. Zhang, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at 800 and 1300 nm in bismuthate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13438–13447 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

F. Chen, S. Dai, C. Lin, Q. Yu, and Q. Zhang, “Performance improvement of transparent germanium-gallium-sulfur glass ceramic by gold doping for third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24847–24855 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, X. Zhao, and Q. Liu, “Optical non-linearity in nano- and micro-crystallized glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 146–150 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, N. Venkatram, J. Gosciniak, Y. Cui, G. Qian, W. Ji, and D. T. Tan, “Multi-photon absorption and third-order nonlinearity in silicon at mid-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32192–32198 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, J. Cheng, S. Dai, Y. Xu, and Q. Yu, “Formation and third-order optical nonlinearities of silver nano-crystals embedded bismuthate glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 48(11), 4667–4672 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

Q. M. Liu, X. He, X. Zhou, F. Ren, X. H. Xiao, C. Z. Jiang, H. Zhou, X. J. Zhao, L. P. Lu, and S. X. Qian, “Third-order nonlinearity in Ag-nanoparticles embedded 56GeS2-24Ga2S3-20KBr chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2320–2323 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Singh and B. Karmakar, “Single-Step Synthesis and Surface Plasmons of Bismuth-Coated Spherical to Hexagonal Silver Nanoparticles in Dichroic Ag:Bismuth Glass Nanocomposites,” Plasmonics 6(3), 457–467 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1−xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45(10), 1501–1505 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics: Nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticles in dielectric nanocomposites with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence: A new paradigm in antimony glasses,” Nano Res. 2(8), 607–616 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

W. C. Hurlbut, Y. S. Lee, K. L. Vodopyanov, P. S. Kuo, and M. M. Fejer, “Multiphoton absorption and nonlinear refraction of GaAs in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 668–670 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, W. Liu, L. Liu, L. Xu, Y. Xu, and G. Chen, “Large and opposite changes of the third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses by femtosecond and continuous-wave laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181917 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Size and temperature dependence of the plasmon absorption of colloidal gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(21), 4212–4217 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(9), 2235–2249 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. M. Mikrut and L. E. McNeil, “Fragmentation of the molecular cluster network of amorphous Ge1−xSnxSe2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 109(2-3), 237–246 (1989).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

D. C. Skillman and C. R. Berry, “Effect of particle shape on the spectral absorption of colloidal silver in gelatin,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(7), 3305–3316 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Moneim, N.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allix, M.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barbano, E. C.

Barthélémy, A.

F. Smektala, C. Quemard, L. Leneindre, J. Lucas, A. Barthélémy, and C. De Angelis, “Chalcogenide glasses with large non-linear refractive indices,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 139–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

Benson, T.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4–13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berry, C. R.

D. C. Skillman and C. R. Berry, “Effect of particle shape on the spectral absorption of colloidal silver in gelatin,” J. Chem. Phys. 48(7), 3305–3316 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bureau, B.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calvez, L.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl system,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakraborty, P.

P. Chakraborty, “Metal nanoclusters in glasses as non-linear photonic materials,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(9), 2235–2249 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

Y. Huang, F. Chen, B. Qiao, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Zhang, “Improved nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in Ge-Sn-Se ternary system by thermal treatment,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(5), 1644–1652 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, F. Chen, R. Lin, X. Zhang, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Zhang, “Glass formation and mid-infrared optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses in germanium-tin-sulfur ternary system,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3053–3062 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Qiao, S. Dai, Y. Xu, P. Zhang, X. Shen, T. Xu, Q. Nie, W. Ji, and F. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses within Ge-Sn-Se ternary system at a mid-infrared window,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2359–2365 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Qiao, S. Dai, Y. Xu, P. Zhang, X. Shen, T. Xu, Q. Nie, W. Ji, and F. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses within Ge-Sn-Se ternary system at a mid-infrared window,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2359–2365 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, J. Cheng, S. Dai, Z. Xu, W. Ji, R. Tan, and Q. Zhang, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at 800 and 1300 nm in bismuthate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13438–13447 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, S. Dai, C. Lin, Q. Yu, and Q. Zhang, “Performance improvement of transparent germanium-gallium-sulfur glass ceramic by gold doping for third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24847–24855 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, J. Cheng, S. Dai, Y. Xu, and Q. Yu, “Formation and third-order optical nonlinearities of silver nano-crystals embedded bismuthate glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 48(11), 4667–4672 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, F. Chen, X. Shen, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Wang, “Observation of surface plasmon resonance of silver particles and enhanced third-order optical nonlinearities in AgCl doped Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 ternary glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 45(10), 1501–1505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Q. Zhang, W. Liu, L. Liu, L. Xu, Y. Xu, and G. Chen, “Large and opposite changes of the third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses by femtosecond and continuous-wave laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181917 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. Q.

Cheng, J.

F. Chen, J. Cheng, S. Dai, Z. Xu, W. Ji, R. Tan, and Q. Zhang, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at 800 and 1300 nm in bismuthate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13438–13447 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, J. Cheng, S. Dai, Y. Xu, and Q. Yu, “Formation and third-order optical nonlinearities of silver nano-crystals embedded bismuthate glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 48(11), 4667–4672 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, D. Y.

Cui, Y.

Dai, S.

Y. Huang, F. Chen, B. Qiao, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Zhang, “Improved nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in Ge-Sn-Se ternary system by thermal treatment,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(5), 1644–1652 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, F. Chen, R. Lin, X. Zhang, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and X. Zhang, “Glass formation and mid-infrared optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses in germanium-tin-sulfur ternary system,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3053–3062 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Qiao, S. Dai, Y. Xu, P. Zhang, X. Shen, T. Xu, Q. Nie, W. Ji, and F. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses within Ge-Sn-Se ternary system at a mid-infrared window,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2359–2365 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Qiao, S. Dai, Y. Xu, P. Zhang, X. Shen, T. Xu, Q. Nie, W. Ji, and F. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses within Ge-Sn-Se ternary system at a mid-infrared window,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2359–2365 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, J. Cheng, S. Dai, Z. Xu, W. Ji, R. Tan, and Q. Zhang, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at 800 and 1300 nm in bismuthate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13438–13447 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, S. Dai, C. Lin, Q. Yu, and Q. Zhang, “Performance improvement of transparent germanium-gallium-sulfur glass ceramic by gold doping for third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24847–24855 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, J. Cheng, S. Dai, Y. Xu, and Q. Yu, “Formation and third-order optical nonlinearities of silver nano-crystals embedded bismuthate glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 48(11), 4667–4672 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Lin, S.

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T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Core-shell Au-Ag nanoparticles in dielectric nanocomposites with plasmon-enhanced fluorescence: A new paradigm in antimony glasses,” Nano Res. 2(8), 607–616 (2009).
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C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(2), 615–620 (2011).
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Q. M. Liu, X. He, X. Zhou, F. Ren, X. H. Xiao, C. Z. Jiang, H. Zhou, X. J. Zhao, L. P. Lu, and S. X. Qian, “Third-order nonlinearity in Ag-nanoparticles embedded 56GeS2-24Ga2S3-20KBr chalcohalide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2320–2323 (2011).
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Q. Zhang, W. Liu, L. Liu, L. Xu, Y. Xu, and G. Chen, “Large and opposite changes of the third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses by femtosecond and continuous-wave laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181917 (2007).
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Xu, Y.

B. Qiao, S. Dai, Y. Xu, P. Zhang, X. Shen, T. Xu, Q. Nie, W. Ji, and F. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses within Ge-Sn-Se ternary system at a mid-infrared window,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2359–2365 (2015).
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B. Qiao, S. Dai, Y. Xu, P. Zhang, X. Shen, T. Xu, Q. Nie, W. Ji, and F. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses within Ge-Sn-Se ternary system at a mid-infrared window,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2359–2365 (2015).
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Q. Zhang, W. Liu, L. Liu, L. Xu, Y. Xu, and G. Chen, “Large and opposite changes of the third-order optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses by femtosecond and continuous-wave laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181917 (2007).
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M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM images taken from GSSA-0 (a), GSSA-3 (b) and (c), GSSA-6 (e), GSSA-12 (f), GSSA-18 (g); (d) and (h) are the SEM images using backscattered electron probe for the comparison with (c) and (g) using the secondary electron probe.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Elemental distribution for the dark and light area in the backscattered electron image (as noted in the inset) taken from GSSA-18.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 XRD patterns of GSSA ChG and nanocomposites, as well as the identification for crystal phases in sample GSSA-30.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Raman spectra of GSSA ChG and nanocomposites; inset is the integrate area of the main Raman peak as a function of thermal treatment duration.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Absorption spectra of GSSA ChG and nanocomposites, inset is the enlarged spectral range of the absorption edge for the definition of Eg.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical bandgap of GSSA nanocomposites as a function of treatment duration.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Full-band transmittance spectra of the GSSA ChG and nanocomposites.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Closed-aperture Z-scans of sample GSSA-0 (a), GSSA-6 (b) and GSSA-18 (c); (d)-(f) are the corresponding open-aperture Z-scans.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Nonlinear refractive index versus optical bandgap of the GSSA ChG and nanocomposites.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical bandgap (Eg) and mid-infrared nonlinear refractive index (n2) of the GSSA nanocomposites and some other infrared materials reported previously.

Equations (1)

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2 Au + + Sn 2+ 2 Au 0 + Sn 4+

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