Abstract

Gallium-nitride (GaN) is a promising material platform for integrated electro-optic devices due to its wide direct bandgap, pronounced nonlinearities and high optical damage threshold. Low-loss ridge waveguides in GaN layers were recently demonstrated. In this work, we provide the first report of four-wave mixing in a GaN waveguide at telecommunication wavelengths, and observe comparatively high nonlinear propagation parameters. The nonlinear coefficient of the waveguide is measured as 1.6 ± 0.45 [W × m]−1, and the corresponding third-order nonlinear parameter of GaN is estimated as 3.4 ± 1e-18 [m2/W]. The results suggest that GaN waveguides could be instrumental in nonlinear-optical signal processing applications.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  4. S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Gromovyi, J. Brault, A. Courville, S. Rennesson, F. Semond, G. Feuillet, P. Baldi, P. Boucaud, J. Y. Duboz, and M. P. De Micheli, “Efficient second harmonic generation in low-loss planar GaN waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23035–23044 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
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  11. A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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  16. D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
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  17. B. Taheri, J. Hays, J. J. Song, and B. Goldenberg, “Picosecond four-wave-mixing in GaN epilayers at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 587–589 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).
  25. O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaNbased ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide‐glass fibers by self‐phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153–1154 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  27. K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12987–12994 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. O. Westreich, M. Katz, G. Atar, Y. Paltiel, and N. Sicron, “Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022103 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1−xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

M. Gromovyi, J. Brault, A. Courville, S. Rennesson, F. Semond, G. Feuillet, P. Baldi, P. Boucaud, J. Y. Duboz, and M. P. De Micheli, “Efficient second harmonic generation in low-loss planar GaN waveguides,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23035–23044 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

O. Westreich, M. Katz, G. Atar, Y. Paltiel, and N. Sicron, “Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022103 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaNbased ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Ikeda, R. E. Saperstein, N. Alic, and Y. Fainman, “Thermal and Kerr nonlinear properties of plasma-deposited silicon nitride/ silicon dioxide waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12987–12994 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguides for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093107 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1−xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. Taheri, J. Hays, J. J. Song, and B. Goldenberg, “Picosecond four-wave-mixing in GaN epilayers at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 587–589 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “High-power InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2390–2392 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide‐glass fibers by self‐phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153–1154 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abare, A. C.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

Alonzo, M.

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide‐glass fibers by self‐phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153–1154 (1992).
[Crossref]

Atar, G.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, G. Atar, Y. Paltiel, and N. Sicron, “Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Baldi, P.

Baumann, E.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Belardini, A.

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, M. J.

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1−xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, M.

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brault, J.

Bruch, A. W.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calvez, S.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J. F.

N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J.-F.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Casey, H. C.

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1−xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Courville, A.

Cryan, M. J.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dahal, R.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Micheli, M. P.

Denbaars, S. P.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
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Dharanipathy, U.

N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
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Diao, Z.

N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
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Duboz, J. Y.

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).

Engin, E.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
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Estes, M.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
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Everitt, H. O.

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1−xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
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Fan, Z.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
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E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feltin, E.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feuillet, G.

Fleischer, S. B.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fong, K. Y.

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, H.

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galli, M.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

Gan, K. G.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gerace, D.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

Giorgetta, F.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goldenberg, B.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Taheri, J. Hays, J. J. Song, and B. Goldenberg, “Picosecond four-wave-mixing in GaN epilayers at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 587–589 (1996).
[Crossref]

Golka, S.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gromovyi, M.

Gu, E.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hays, J.

B. Taheri, J. Hays, J. J. Song, and B. Goldenberg, “Picosecond four-wave-mixing in GaN epilayers at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 587–589 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hofstetter, D.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Houdre, R.

N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

Hu, E.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. L.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hui, R.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241105 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Iizuka, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguides for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, K.

Jiang, H.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241105 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jin, S.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. X.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Julien, F. H.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kanamori, T.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide‐glass fibers by self‐phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153–1154 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, K.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguides for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kao, F. J.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Katz, M.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, G. Atar, Y. Paltiel, and N. Sicron, “Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022103 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaNbased ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, W.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Krishnankutty, S.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Krotkus, A.

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kubodera, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide‐glass fibers by self‐phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153–1154 (1992).
[Crossref]

Larciprete, M. C.

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leszczynski, M.

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leung, B.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liang, J. C.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241105 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lupu, A.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).

Mack, M. P.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

McKnight, L.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Minkov, M.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

Minsky, M. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mohamed, M. S.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

Montes, J. A.

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morandotti, R.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mosca, M.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

D. J. Moss, R. Morandotti, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “New CMOS-compatible platforms based on silicon nitride and Hydex for nonlinear optics,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 597–607 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “High-power InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2390–2392 (1993).
[Crossref]

Muth, J. F.

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1−xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “High-power InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2390–2392 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ng, H. M.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nicolay, S.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

O’brien, J. L.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ozgur, U.

M. J. Bergmann, U. Ozgur, H. C. Casey, H. O. Everitt, and J. F. Muth, “Ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices for AlxGa1−xN epitaxial layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 67–69 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pacebutas, V.

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
[Crossref]

Palacios, T.

Paltiel, Y.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, G. Atar, Y. Paltiel, and N. Sicron, “Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022103 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaNbased ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Passaseo, A.

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Perlin, P.

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pernice, W.

Poot, M.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pozzovivo, G.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rennesson, S.

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).

Ryu, K. K.

Salvador, A.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Saperstein, R. E.

Savona, V.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuck, C.

Semond, F.

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “High-power InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2390–2392 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sibilia, C.

E. Fazio, A. Passaseo, M. Alonzo, A. Belardini, C. Sibilia, M. C. Larciprete, and M. Bertolotti, “Measurement of pure Kerr nonlinearity in GaN thin films at 800 nm by means of eclipsing Z-scan experiments,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(2), L3–L4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sicron, N.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, G. Atar, Y. Paltiel, and N. Sicron, “Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022103 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaNbased ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Simbula, A.

M. S. Mohamed, A. Simbula, J.-F. Carlin, M. Minkov, D. Gerace, V. Savona, N. Grandjean, M. Galli, and R. Houdré, “Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Photon. 2(3), 031301 (2017).

Smith, G.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Song, J. J.

B. Taheri, J. Hays, J. J. Song, and B. Goldenberg, “Picosecond four-wave-mixing in GaN epilayers at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 587–589 (1996).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stalnionis, A.

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
[Crossref]

Strasser, G.

A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, S. Golka, G. Pozzovivo, G. Strasser, E. Baumann, F. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Nicolay, M. Mosca, E. Feltin, J.-F. Carlin, and N. Grandjean, “Lattice-matched GaN–InAlN waveguides at λ= 1.55 μm grown by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(2), 102–104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. K.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

Suski, T.

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, K.

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide‐glass fibers by self‐phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153–1154 (1992).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Polarization dependent loss in III-nitride optical waveguides for telecommunication devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taheri, B.

B. Taheri, J. Hays, J. J. Song, and B. Goldenberg, “Picosecond four-wave-mixing in GaN epilayers at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 587–589 (1996).
[Crossref]

Taherion, S.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ternyak, O.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaNbased ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. G.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vico Triviño, N.

N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wan, Y.

R. Hui, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. Jin, J. Lin, and H. Jiang, “III-nitride-based planar lightwave circuits for long wavelength optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(1), 100–110 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. C.

C. K. Sun, Y. L. Huang, J. C. Liang, J. C. Wang, K. G. Gan, F. J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Large near resonance third order nonlinearity in GaN,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32(4), 619–640 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weimann, N. G.

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

Westreich, O.

O. Westreich, M. Katz, G. Atar, Y. Paltiel, and N. Sicron, “Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(2), 022103 (2017).
[Crossref]

O. Westreich, M. Katz, Y. Paltiel, O. Ternyak, and N. Sicron, “Low propagation loss in GaN/AlGaNbased ridge waveguides,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(5), 1043–1048 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Z.

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiong, C.

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G. Y.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, F.

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (17)

G. Y. Xu, A. Salvador, W. Kim, Z. Fan, C. Lu, H. Tang, H. Morkoç, G. Smith, M. Estes, B. Goldenberg, W. Yang, and S. Krishnankutty, “High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN pin and AlGaN (p)-GaN (i)-GaN (n) structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(15), 2154–2156 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, and T. Sota, “Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 2006–2008 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Chowdhury, H. M. Ng, M. Bhardwaj, and N. G. Weimann, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1077–1079 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Vico Triviño, U. Dharanipathy, J. F. Carlin, Z. Diao, R. Houdre, and N. Grandjean, “Integrated photonics on silicon with wide bandgap GaN semiconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081120 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN-based waveguide devices for long wavelength optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(9), 1326–1328 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, R. Hui, R. Dahal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Carrier lifetime in erbium-doped GaN waveguide emitting in 1540 nm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, L. McKnight, E. Engin, I. M. Watson, M. J. Cryan, E. Gu, M. G. Thompson, S. Calvez, J. L. O’brien, and M. D. Dawson, “GaN directional couplers for integrated quantum photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161119 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. W. Bruch, C. Xiong, B. Leung, M. Poot, J. Han, and H. X. Tang, “Broadband nanophotonic waveguides and resonators based on epitaxial GaN thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 141113 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “High-power InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure violet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2390–2392 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. Taheri, J. Hays, J. J. Song, and B. Goldenberg, “Picosecond four-wave-mixing in GaN epilayers at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(5), 587–589 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Huang, C. K. Sun, J. C. Liang, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Femtosecond Z-scan measurement of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(22), 3524–3526 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Fang, Z. Xiao, X. Wu, F. Zhou, J. Yang, Y. Yang, and Y. Song, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast all-optical switching of m-plane GaN in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 251903 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, X. Huang, H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhang, J. A. Montes, and Y. Zhao, “Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(18), 181110 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Pačebutas, A. Stalnionis, A. Krotkus, T. Suski, P. Perlin, and M. Leszczynski, “Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(26), 4118–4120 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Asobe, K. Suzuki, T. Kanamori, and K. Kubodera, “Nonlinear refractive index measurement in chalcogenide‐glass fibers by self‐phase modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(10), 1153–1154 (1992).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a): Schematic illustration of a 4 µm-wide GaN ridge waveguide, presenting a cross section of the layers structure. (b): Calculated transverse profile of the fundamental transverse-electric mode supported by a 4 µm-wide GaN ridge waveguide. (c): Scanning electron microscope image of the facet of a 10 µm-wide GaN ridge waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Illustration of the setup used in four-wave mixing measurements in a GaN waveguide. EOM: electro-optic modulator. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier. PC: polarization controller. BPF: optical bandpass filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a): Top-view image of GaN waveguides alongside a lensed fiber. (b): Input and output lensed fibers coupled directly in a reference measurement, bypassing the waveguide under test.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a): Measured optical power spectral densities at the output of a GaN ridge waveguide (blue), and with the waveguide bypassed (red). Pump pulses were of 30 ns duration and 1 µs period. The peak power level of each pump pulse was 30.2 dBm. Four-wave mixing terms to the sides of the two incident pump waves are observed. The process efficiency at the waveguide output is higher than that of the reference trace. (b): Four-wave mixing efficiencies (dB) as a function of the peak power level of each pump pulse (dBm). Blue markers and lines represents measurements at the waveguide output, whereas red markers and lines correspond to reference measurements with the waveguide bypassed. Asterisk markers: four-wave mixing products at λ 3 = 1550.4 nm. Plus markers: four-wave mixing products at λ 4 = 1548.9 nm. Solid lines show linear fits for the log-scale efficiencies as a function of log-scale peak power. The fitting slopes are 1.9 ± 0.15, in agreement with the expected square-law dependence.

Equations (2)

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P 3 = η in η out P 1 2 P 2 ( γ F L F + η in γ WG L WG ) 2 ,
P 4 = η in η out P 2 2 P 1 ( γ F L F + η in γ WG L WG ) 2 .

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