Abstract

In recent years, the growing demand for silicon based light sources has boosted the research field of III-V/IV hybrid lasers. Here, the C/L-band light emission (1.53 μm-1.63 μm) of InAs/In0.25Ga0.75As quantum dots (QDs) epitaxially grown on Ge substrate by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is reported. By hybrid III-V/IV epitaxial growth, ultra-thin and anti-phase domains (APD) free III-V materials are achieved on Ge substrate. Step-graded InGaAs metamorphic buffer layers are applied to reduce the strain in InAs QDs in order to extend the emission wavelength. At last, a high quality InAs/In0.25Ga0.75As QD structure on Ge(001) substrate is obtained, which has a strong C/L-band emission centered at the wavelength of 1.6 μm with a full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 57 meV at room temperature.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

2016 (4)

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, H. Liu, and J. J. Zhang, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence characteristics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots directly grown on Si substrates,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 044207 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Tournié, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, H. Y. Liu, J. Wu, and S. Chen, “Metamorphic III–V semiconductor lasers grown on silicon,” MRS Bull. 41(03), 223–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

T. Wang, J. J. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Quantum dot lasers on silicon substrate for silicon photonic integration and their prospect,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 204209 (2015).

Z. P. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonic,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. J. Zhang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, and G. Bauer, “Role of the wetting layer for the SiGe Stranski-Krastanow island growth on planar and pit-patterned substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014028 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. Bhattacharya and Z. Mi, “High performance long wavelength quantum dot lasers on GaAs,” Proc. SPIE 6779,” Nanophotonics Communication: Materials, Devices, and Systems IV, 677908 (2007).

2004 (1)

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. C. Le Ru, J. Fack, and R. Murray, “Temperature and excitation density dependence of the photoluminescence from annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245318 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. P. Popescu, P. G. Eliseev, A. Stintz, and K. J. Malloy, “Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence emission from InAs quantum dots in a strained Ga0.85In0.15As quantum well,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2003).

2000 (1)

P. B. Joyce, T. J. Krzyzewski, G. R. Bell, T. S. Jones, S. Malik, D. Childs, and R. Murray, “Effect of growth rate on the size, composition, and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10891–10895 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Y. Kong, X. L. Wang, D. Pan, Y. P. Zeng, J. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “A comparison of photoluminescence properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots with a single quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(3), 3 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

D. I. Lubyshev, P. P. Gonzalez-Borrero, E. Marega, E. Petitprez, N. La Scala, and P. Basmaji, “Exciton localization and temperature stability in self- organized InAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 2 (1996).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Baskar, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Growth of high quality Al0.22Ga0.78As layers on Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4112 (1996).

1986 (1)

J. D. Lambkin, D. J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 19 (1986).
[Crossref]

Alcotte, R.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alferov, Zh. I.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bao, X. Y.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baron, T.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4632–4639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baskar, K.

K. Baskar, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Growth of high quality Al0.22Ga0.78As layers on Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4112 (1996).

Basmaji, P.

D. I. Lubyshev, P. P. Gonzalez-Borrero, E. Marega, E. Petitprez, N. La Scala, and P. Basmaji, “Exciton localization and temperature stability in self- organized InAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 2 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bassani, F.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bauer, G.

J. J. Zhang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, and G. Bauer, “Role of the wetting layer for the SiGe Stranski-Krastanow island growth on planar and pit-patterned substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bell, G. R.

P. B. Joyce, T. J. Krzyzewski, G. R. Bell, T. S. Jones, S. Malik, D. Childs, and R. Murray, “Effect of growth rate on the size, composition, and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10891–10895 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, P.

P. Bhattacharya and Z. Mi, “High performance long wavelength quantum dot lasers on GaAs,” Proc. SPIE 6779,” Nanophotonics Communication: Materials, Devices, and Systems IV, 677908 (2007).

Bimberg, D.

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bogumilowicz, Y.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[Crossref]

Caliste, D.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cerba, T.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cerutti, L.

E. Tournié, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, H. Y. Liu, J. Wu, and S. Chen, “Metamorphic III–V semiconductor lasers grown on silicon,” MRS Bull. 41(03), 223–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, L. L.

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, S. M.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Childs, D.

P. B. Joyce, T. J. Krzyzewski, G. R. Bell, T. S. Jones, S. Malik, D. Childs, and R. Murray, “Effect of growth rate on the size, composition, and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10891–10895 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cipro, R.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

David, S.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dunstan, D. J.

J. D. Lambkin, D. J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 19 (1986).
[Crossref]

Eliott, S. N.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
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Eliseev, P. G.

D. P. Popescu, P. G. Eliseev, A. Stintz, and K. J. Malloy, “Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence emission from InAs quantum dots in a strained Ga0.85In0.15As quantum well,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2003).

Emeny, M. T.

J. D. Lambkin, D. J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 19 (1986).
[Crossref]

Fack, J.

E. C. Le Ru, J. Fack, and R. Murray, “Temperature and excitation density dependence of the photoluminescence from annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ge, W. K.

M. Y. Kong, X. L. Wang, D. Pan, Y. P. Zeng, J. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “A comparison of photoluminescence properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots with a single quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(3), 3 (1999).
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Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
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Gladyshev, A. G.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez-Borrero, P. P.

D. I. Lubyshev, P. P. Gonzalez-Borrero, E. Marega, E. Petitprez, N. La Scala, and P. Basmaji, “Exciton localization and temperature stability in self- organized InAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 2 (1996).
[Crossref]

Groom, K.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hogg, R.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

Homewood, K. P.

J. D. Lambkin, D. J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 19 (1986).
[Crossref]

Howard, L. K.

J. D. Lambkin, D. J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 19 (1986).
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Jiang, Q.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
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Jones, T. S.

P. B. Joyce, T. J. Krzyzewski, G. R. Bell, T. S. Jones, S. Malik, D. Childs, and R. Murray, “Effect of growth rate on the size, composition, and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10891–10895 (2000).
[Crossref]

Joyce, P. B.

P. B. Joyce, T. J. Krzyzewski, G. R. Bell, T. S. Jones, S. Malik, D. Childs, and R. Murray, “Effect of growth rate on the size, composition, and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10891–10895 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kong, M. Y.

M. Y. Kong, X. L. Wang, D. Pan, Y. P. Zeng, J. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “A comparison of photoluminescence properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots with a single quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(3), 3 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kovsh, A. R.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
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Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics 5(5), 268–270 (2011).
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Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Krzyzewski, T. J.

P. B. Joyce, T. J. Krzyzewski, G. R. Bell, T. S. Jones, S. Malik, D. Childs, and R. Murray, “Effect of growth rate on the size, composition, and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10891–10895 (2000).
[Crossref]

La Scala, N.

D. I. Lubyshev, P. P. Gonzalez-Borrero, E. Marega, E. Petitprez, N. La Scala, and P. Basmaji, “Exciton localization and temperature stability in self- organized InAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 2 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lambkin, J. D.

J. D. Lambkin, D. J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 19 (1986).
[Crossref]

Le Ru, E. C.

E. C. Le Ru, J. Fack, and R. Murray, “Temperature and excitation density dependence of the photoluminescence from annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ledentsov, N. N.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, A.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, W.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
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Liang, D.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
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Liao, M.

Liu, H.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4632–4639 (2017).
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T. Wang, H. Liu, and J. J. Zhang, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence characteristics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots directly grown on Si substrates,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 044207 (2016).
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T. Wang, J. J. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Quantum dot lasers on silicon substrate for silicon photonic integration and their prospect,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 204209 (2015).

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. Y.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
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E. Tournié, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, H. Y. Liu, J. Wu, and S. Chen, “Metamorphic III–V semiconductor lasers grown on silicon,” MRS Bull. 41(03), 223–233 (2016).
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Lu, Z. D.

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lubyshev, D. I.

D. I. Lubyshev, P. P. Gonzalez-Borrero, E. Marega, E. Petitprez, N. La Scala, and P. Basmaji, “Exciton localization and temperature stability in self- organized InAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 2 (1996).
[Crossref]

Maksimov, M. V.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maleev, N. A.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Malik, S.

P. B. Joyce, T. J. Krzyzewski, G. R. Bell, T. S. Jones, S. Malik, D. Childs, and R. Murray, “Effect of growth rate on the size, composition, and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10891–10895 (2000).
[Crossref]

Malloy, K. J.

D. P. Popescu, P. G. Eliseev, A. Stintz, and K. J. Malloy, “Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence emission from InAs quantum dots in a strained Ga0.85In0.15As quantum well,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2003).

Marega, E.

D. I. Lubyshev, P. P. Gonzalez-Borrero, E. Marega, E. Petitprez, N. La Scala, and P. Basmaji, “Exciton localization and temperature stability in self- organized InAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 2 (1996).
[Crossref]

Martin, M.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4632–4639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maximov, M. V.

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mi, Z.

P. Bhattacharya and Z. Mi, “High performance long wavelength quantum dot lasers on GaAs,” Proc. SPIE 6779,” Nanophotonics Communication: Materials, Devices, and Systems IV, 677908 (2007).

Michel, J.

Z. P. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonic,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mikhrin, S. S.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moeyaert, J.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Murray, R.

E. C. Le Ru, J. Fack, and R. Murray, “Temperature and excitation density dependence of the photoluminescence from annealed InAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245318 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. B. Joyce, T. J. Krzyzewski, G. R. Bell, T. S. Jones, S. Malik, D. Childs, and R. Murray, “Effect of growth rate on the size, composition, and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular-beam epitaxy,” Phys. Rev. B 62(16), 10891–10895 (2000).
[Crossref]

Musikhin, Yu. G.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nikitina, E. V.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pan, D.

M. Y. Kong, X. L. Wang, D. Pan, Y. P. Zeng, J. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “A comparison of photoluminescence properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots with a single quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(3), 3 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petitprez, E.

D. I. Lubyshev, P. P. Gonzalez-Borrero, E. Marega, E. Petitprez, N. La Scala, and P. Basmaji, “Exciton localization and temperature stability in self- organized InAs quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(2), 2 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pin, J. B.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pochet, P.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Popescu, D. P.

D. P. Popescu, P. G. Eliseev, A. Stintz, and K. J. Malloy, “Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence emission from InAs quantum dots in a strained Ga0.85In0.15As quantum well,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2003).

Pozzi, F.

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rastelli, A.

J. J. Zhang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, and G. Bauer, “Role of the wetting layer for the SiGe Stranski-Krastanow island growth on planar and pit-patterned substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rickman, A.

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, J. B.

E. Tournié, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, H. Y. Liu, J. Wu, and S. Chen, “Metamorphic III–V semiconductor lasers grown on silicon,” MRS Bull. 41(03), 223–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ross, I.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, E.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O. G.

J. J. Zhang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, and G. Bauer, “Role of the wetting layer for the SiGe Stranski-Krastanow island growth on planar and pit-patterned substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4632–4639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seeds, A. J.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Semenova, E. S.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shernayakov, Yu. M.

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shernyakov, Yu. M.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shutts, S.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Smowton, P. M.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sobiesierski, A.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soga, T.

K. Baskar, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Growth of high quality Al0.22Ga0.78As layers on Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4112 (1996).

Stintz, A.

D. P. Popescu, P. G. Eliseev, A. Stintz, and K. J. Malloy, “Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence emission from InAs quantum dots in a strained Ga0.85In0.15As quantum well,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, 1 (2003).

Tang, M.

Tang, M. C.

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tournié, E.

E. Tournié, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, H. Y. Liu, J. Wu, and S. Chen, “Metamorphic III–V semiconductor lasers grown on silicon,” MRS Bull. 41(03), 223–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tutu, F.

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

Umeno, M.

K. Baskar, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Growth of high quality Al0.22Ga0.78As layers on Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4112 (1996).

Ustinov, V. M.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vasil’ev, A. P.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

M. Y. Kong, X. L. Wang, D. Pan, Y. P. Zeng, J. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “A comparison of photoluminescence properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots with a single quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(3), 3 (1999).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, H. Liu, and J. J. Zhang, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence characteristics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots directly grown on Si substrates,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 044207 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, J. J. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Quantum dot lasers on silicon substrate for silicon photonic integration and their prospect,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 204209 (2015).

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, T. Wang, Q. Jiang, R. Hogg, F. Tutu, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “Long-wavelength InAs/GaAs quantum-dot laser diode monolithically grown on Ge substrate,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 416–419 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X. L.

M. Y. Kong, X. L. Wang, D. Pan, Y. P. Zeng, J. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “A comparison of photoluminescence properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots with a single quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(3), 3 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

S. Chen, M. Liao, M. Tang, J. Wu, M. Martin, T. Baron, A. Seeds, and H. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave 1.3 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers monolithically grown on on-axis Si (001) substrates,” Opt. Express 25(5), 4632–4639 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tournié, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, H. Y. Liu, J. Wu, and S. Chen, “Metamorphic III–V semiconductor lasers grown on silicon,” MRS Bull. 41(03), 223–233 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Chen, W. Lei, J. Wu, Q. Jiang, M. C. Tang, S. Shutts, S. N. Eliott, A. Sobiesierski, A. J. Seeds, I. Ross, P. M. Smowton, and H. Y. Liu, “Electrically pumped continuous-wave III-V quantum dot laser on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 10(5), 307–311 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. Z.

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X. P.

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yin, B.

Z. P. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonic,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Z. L.

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y. P.

M. Y. Kong, X. L. Wang, D. Pan, Y. P. Zeng, J. Wang, and W. K. Ge, “A comparison of photoluminescence properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots with a single quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(3), 3 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. J.

T. Wang, H. Liu, and J. J. Zhang, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence characteristics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots directly grown on Si substrates,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 33(4), 044207 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, J. J. Zhang, and H. Liu, “Quantum dot lasers on silicon substrate for silicon photonic integration and their prospect,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 204209 (2015).

J. J. Zhang, A. Rastelli, O. G. Schmidt, and G. Bauer, “Role of the wetting layer for the SiGe Stranski-Krastanow island growth on planar and pit-patterned substrates,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014028 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, B. Z.

Z. Y. Xu, Z. D. Lu, X. P. Yang, Z. L. Yuan, B. Z. Zheng, J. Z. Xu, W. K. Ge, Y. Wang, J. Wang, and L. L. Chang, “Carrier relaxation and thermal activation of localized excitons in self-organized InAs multilayers grown on GaAs substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(16), 11528–11531 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. P.

Z. P. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonic,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhukov, A. E.

M. V. Maksimov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. G. Musikhin, N. N. Ledentsov, A. E. Zhukov, A. P. Vasil’ev, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, E. V. Nikitina, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “High-power 1.5μm InAs-InGaAs quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrate,” Semiconductor 38(6), 732–735 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. N. Ledentsov, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, N. A. Maleev, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. S. Semenova, M. V. Maximov, Yu. M. Shernyakov, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, V. M. Ustinov, and D. Bimberg, “High performance quantum dot lasers on GaAs substrates operating in 1.5μm range,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1126 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. E. Zhukov, A. R. Kovsh, S. S. Mikhrin, E. S. Semenova, N. A. Maleev, A. P. Vasil’ev, E. V. Nikitina, N. V. Kryzhanovskaya, A. G. Gladyshev, Yu. M. Shernayakov, Yu. G. Musikhin, M. V. Maksimov, N. N. Ledentsov, V. M. Ustinov, and Zh. I. Alferov, “Metamorphic lasers for 1.3-μm spectral range grown on GaAs substrates by MBE,” Semiconductors 37(9), 1119–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Martin, D. Caliste, R. Cipro, R. Alcotte, J. Moeyaert, S. David, F. Bassani, T. Cerba, Y. Bogumilowicz, E. Sanchez, Z. Ye, X. Y. Bao, J. B. Pin, T. Baron, and P. Pochet, “Toward the III-V/Si co-tegration by controlling the biatomic steps on hydrogenated Si(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(25), 253103 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Baskar, T. Soga, T. Jimbo, and M. Umeno, “Growth of high quality Al0.22Ga0.78As layers on Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4112 (1996).

J. D. Lambkin, D. J. Dunstan, K. P. Homewood, L. K. Howard, and M. T. Emeny, “Thermal quenching of the photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs and InGaAs/AlGaAs strained-layer quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(19), 19 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, A. Lee, F. Tutu, A. Seeds, H. Liu, Q. Jiang, K. Groom, and R. Hogg, “The effect of growth temperature of GaAs nucleation layer on InAs/GaAs quantum dots monolithically grown on Ge susbtrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(5), 052113 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of self-organized InAs/InGaAs QDs on Ge(001) substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) A 5 x 5 μm 2 AFM image of In0.25Ga0.75As buffer layer epitaxial growth on Ge substrate. (b) XRD result of InGaAs metamorphic buffer on Ge(001) substrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The STEM image of the epitaxial layers. The white arrow shows the growth direction of the sample. (b) Bright-field TEM image of GaAs and Ge interface. (c) High-magnification STEM image of InAs QDs. The red-marked region represents the cross section of a top-flattened InAs QD. The white arrow shows growth direction. All images are taken along [110] direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of InAs/InGaAs QDs grown on Ge substrate and GaAs substrate, respectively. Inset: AFM image of surface InAs QDs on Ge substrate. (b) Peak intensity of room-temperature PL spectra with different thickness of In0.25Al0.75As capping layer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Temperature-dependent PL spectra analysis. (b) The variations in the peak wavelengths against temperature. (c) FWHM of PL spectra as a function of temperature. (d) Arrhenius plots of temperature-dependentt IPLI. The data have been normalized in the plot. The red solid line is the fitting result.

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