Abstract

The optical properties of several commonly used single-crystal oxide substrates were explored by spectroscopic ellipsometry over a wide spectral range from 0.74 eV to 8.8 eV. The crystals examined are (100) SrTiO3, 0.7 % wt Nb-doped (100) SrTiO3,(100) (LaAlO3)0.29(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7, (011) DyScO3, (100) MgAl2O4, (100) MgO, and (100) LaAlO3, all of which enable epitaxial growth of numerous perovskite-type and other optical thin films. An analytic form for the complex dielectric function was derived from ellipsometric data through a physically consistent modeling process. The obtained dielectric spectra were further utilized to calculate the complex index of refraction and absorption coefficient for each substrate material. The absorption spectra and optical band gap were analyzed using Tauc plots. The parameters for reconstructing the dielectric functions are given in detail, allowing for extensive applications of the results of this work.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (3)

C. Duan, D. Hook, Y. Chen, J. Tong, and R. O’Hayre, “Zr and Y co-doped perovskite as a stable, high performance cathode for solid oxide fuel cells operating below 500 C,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 176–182 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Liu, M. Zhao, M. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Li, and M. Li, “Electric field modulation of resistive switching and related magnetism in the Pt/NiFe2O4/Nb: SrTiO3 heterostructures,” J. Alloys Compd. 693, 945–949 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Suchaneck, E. Chernova, A. Kleiner, R. Liebschner, L. Jastrabik, D. Meyer, A. Dejneka, and G. Gerlach, “Vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry spectra and optical properties of Ba(Zr, Ti)O3 films,” Thin Solid Films 621, 58–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

A. Barnes, H. Haneef, D. Schlom, and N. Podraza, “Optical band gap and infrared phonon modes of (La0.29Sr0.71)(Al0.65Ta0.36)O3 (LSAT) single crystal from infrared to ultraviolet range spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3210–3216 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. N. Nunley, T. I. Willett-Gies, J. A. Cooke, F. S. Manciu, P. Marsik, C. Bernhard, and S. Zollner, “Optical constants, band gap, and infrared-active phonons of (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.35 (LSAT) from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 34(5), 051507 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Li, S. Li, Y. Wang, H. Sarvari, P. Zhang, M. Wang, and Z. Chen, “A modified sequential deposition method for fabrication of perovskite solar cells,” Solar Energy 126, 243–251, (2016).
[Crossref]

P. K. Gogoi and D. Schmidt, “Temperature-dependent dielectric function of bulk SrTiO3: Urbach tail, band edges, and excitonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075204 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

R. R. Kmail and A. Qasrawi, “Physical design and dynamical analysis of resonant–antiresonant Ag/MgO/GaSe/Al optoelectronic microwave devices,” J. Electron. Mater. 44(11), 4191–4198 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nature Nanotech. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Tyunina, D. Chvostova, L. Yao, A. Dejneka, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, and S. van Dijken, “Interband transitions in epitaxial ferroelectric films of NaNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B 92(10), 104101 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Chernova, O. Pacherova, D. Chvostova, A. Dejneka, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, and M. Tyunina, “Strain-controlled optical absorption in epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192903 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Verma, S. Raghavan, S. Stemmer, and D. Jena, “Ferroelectric transition in compressively strained SrTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(19), 192908 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

C. J. Zollner, T. I. Willett-Gies, S. Zollner, and S. Choi, “Infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry studies of spinel (MgAl2O4),” Thin Solid Films 571, 689–694 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Tyunina, D. Chvostova, O. Pacherova, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, L. Jastrabik, and A. Dejneka, “Ambience-sensitive optical refraction in ferroelectric nanofilms of NaNbO3,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 15(4), 045001 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Willett-Gies, E. DeLong, and S. Zollner, “Vibrational properties of bulk LaAlO3 from Fourier-transform infrared ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 571, 620–624 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Li, “Magnetic and charge ordering in nanosized manganites,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(3), 031302 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

R. Guo, L. You, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Lim, X. Zou, L. Chen, R. Ramesh, and J. Wang, “Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect,” Nature Commun. 4, 1990 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, H. Yang, and G. Li, “Achieve high-quality gan films on La0.3Sr1.7AlTaO6 (LSAT) substrates by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Cryst Eng Comm,  15(14), 2669–2674 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Ganesh, “A review on magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel: synthesis, processing and applications,” Int. Mater. Rev. 58(2), 63–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. B. Posadas, C. Lin, A. A. Demkov, and S. Zollner, “Bandgap engineering in perovskite oxides: Al-doped SrTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 142906 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. M. Nelson, M. Spies, L. S. Abdallah, S. Zollner, Y. Xu, and H. Luo, “Dielectric function of LaAlO3 from 0.8 to 6 eV between 77 and 700 k,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(6), 061404 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Vailionis, H. Boschker, W. Siemons, E. Houwman, D. Blank, G. Rijnders, and G. Koster, “Misfit strain accommodation in epitaxial ABO3 perovskites: Lattice rotations and lattice modulations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(6), 064101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Krockenberger, M. Uchida, K. Takahashi, M. Nakamura, M. Kawasaki, and Y. Tokura, “Growth of superconducting Sr2RuO4 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 082502 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

T. Uchino, D. Okutsu, R. Katayama, and S. Sawai, “Mechanism of stimulated optical emission from MgO microcrystals with color centers,” Phys. Rev. B 79(16), 165107 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Thomas, R. Melgarejo, N. Murari, S. Pavunny, and R. Katiyar, “Metalorganic chemical vapor deposited DyScO3 buffer layer in Pt/Bi,” Solid State Commun. 149, 2013–2016 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Coey, M. Viret, and S. Von Molnar, “Mixed-valence manganites,” Adv. Phys. 58(6), 571–697 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Nuzhnyy, J. Petzelt, S. Kamba, T. Yamada, M. Tyunina, A. Tagantsev, J. Levoska, and N. Setter, “Polar phonons in some compressively stressed epitaxial and polycrystalline SrTiO3 thin films,” J. Electroceram. 22(1–3), 297–301 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Raekers, K. Kuepper, S. Bartkowski, M. Prinz, A. Postnikov, K. Potzger, S. Zhou, A. Arulraj, N. Stusser, R. Uecker, and et al., “Electronic and magnetic structure of R ScO3 (R= Sm, Gd, Dy) from x-ray spectroscopies and first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125114 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

R. Uecker, B. Velickov, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, M. Bernhagen, M. Rabe, M. Albrecht, R. Fornari, and D. Schlom, “Properties of rare-earth scandate single crystals (Re=Nd−Dy),” J. Cryst. Growth 310(10), 2649–2658 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Deren, A. Bednarkiewicz, P. Goldner, and O. Guillot-Noel, “Laser action in LaAlO3:Nd3+ single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(4), 043102 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Qin, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “High efficient photovoltaics in nanoscaled ferroelectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122904 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

J. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. Hawley, B. Craigo, and et al., “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Synowicki and T. E. Tiwald, “Optical properties of bulk c-ZrO2, c-MgO and a-As2S3 determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 455, 248–255 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Ohtomo and H. Hwang, “A high-mobility electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface,” Nature 427(6973), 423–426 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zeng, L. Zhang, G. Zhao, J. Xu, Y. Hang, H. Pang, M. Jie, C. Yan, and X. He, “Crystal growth and optical properties of LaAlO3 and Ce-doped LaAlO3 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 271(1), 319–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. Boeuf, “Plasma display panels: physics, recent developments and key issues,” Journal Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 36(6), R53 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, X. Chen, Y. Sun, L. Sun, X. Zhou, and W. Lu, “Electronic band structure of Nb doped SrTiO3 from first principles calculation,” Phys. Lett. A 317(5), 501–506 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

H. Shen, Y. Song, H. Gu, P. Wang, and Y. Xi, “A high-permittivity SrTiO3-based grain boundary barrier layer capacitor material single-fired under low temperature,” Mater. Lett. 56(5), 802–805 (2002).
[Crossref]

S.-G. Lim, S. Kriventsov, T. N. Jackson, J. Haeni, D. Schlom, A. Balbashov, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, J. Freeouf, and G. Lucovsky, “Dielectric functions and optical bandgaps of high-K dielectrics for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by far ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4500–4505 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

J. Philipp, D. Reisinger, M. Schonecke, A. Marx, A. Erb, L. Alff, R. Gross, and J. Klein, “Spin-dependent transport in the double-perovskite Sr2CrWO6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3654–3656 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. Van Benthem, C. Elsasser, and R. French, “Bulk electronic structure of SrTiO3: Experiment and theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(12), 6156–6164 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

K. Yumashev, I. Denisov, N. Posnov, P. Prokoshin, and V. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+: MgAl2O4 crystal,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 70(2), 179–184 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, and R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. Chakoumakos, D. Schlom, M. Urbanik, and J. Luine, “Thermal expansion of LaAlO3 and (La, Sr)(Al, Ta)O3, substrate materials for superconducting thin-film device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(4), 1979–1982 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. He, P. Ehrhart, and P. Meuffels, “Optical band gap and urbach tail in Y-doped BaCeO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(6), 3219–3223, (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. Tomio, H. Miki, H. Tabata, T. Kawai, and S. Kawai, “Control of electrical conductivity in laser deposited SrTiO3 thin films with Nb doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(10), 5886–5890 (1994).
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1993 (1)

G. Gusmano, G. Montesperelli, E. Traversa, and G. Mattogno, “Microstructure and electrical properties of MgAl2O4 thin films for humidity sensing,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society,  76(3), 743–750, (1993).
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1990 (1)

M. Bortz, R. French, D. Jones, R. Kasowski, and F. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of oxides: MgO, MgAl2O4 and Al2O3,” Physica Scripta 41(4), 537 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. W. Simon, C. E. Platt, A. E. Lee, G. S. Lee, K. P. Daly, M. S. Wire, J. Luine, and M. Urbanik, “Low-loss substrate for epitaxial growth of high-temperature superconductor thin films,” Applied physics letters,  53(26), 2677–2679, (1988).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. Whited, C. J. Flaten, and W. Walker, “Exciton thermoreflectance of MgO and CaO,” Solid State Commun. 13(11), 1903–1905 (1973).
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1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium,” physica status solidi (b) 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
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C. M. Nelson, M. Spies, L. S. Abdallah, S. Zollner, Y. Xu, and H. Luo, “Dielectric function of LaAlO3 from 0.8 to 6 eV between 77 and 700 k,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(6), 061404 (2012).
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G. Villalobos, J. Sanghera, and I. Aggarwal, “Transparent Ceramics: Magnesium Aluminate Spinel,” tech. rep., DTIC Document, (2005).

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R. Uecker, B. Velickov, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, M. Bernhagen, M. Rabe, M. Albrecht, R. Fornari, and D. Schlom, “Properties of rare-earth scandate single crystals (Re=Nd−Dy),” J. Cryst. Growth 310(10), 2649–2658 (2008).
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Alff, L.

J. Philipp, D. Reisinger, M. Schonecke, A. Marx, A. Erb, L. Alff, R. Gross, and J. Klein, “Spin-dependent transport in the double-perovskite Sr2CrWO6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3654–3656 (2001).
[Crossref]

Alluri, P.

S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
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Arulraj, A.

M. Raekers, K. Kuepper, S. Bartkowski, M. Prinz, A. Postnikov, K. Potzger, S. Zhou, A. Arulraj, N. Stusser, R. Uecker, and et al., “Electronic and magnetic structure of R ScO3 (R= Sm, Gd, Dy) from x-ray spectroscopies and first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125114 (2009).
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Babu, S.

S. Babu, Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) (Woodhead Publishing, 2016).

Balbashov, A.

S.-G. Lim, S. Kriventsov, T. N. Jackson, J. Haeni, D. Schlom, A. Balbashov, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, J. Freeouf, and G. Lucovsky, “Dielectric functions and optical bandgaps of high-K dielectrics for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by far ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4500–4505 (2002).
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Barnes, A.

Bartkowski, S.

M. Raekers, K. Kuepper, S. Bartkowski, M. Prinz, A. Postnikov, K. Potzger, S. Zhou, A. Arulraj, N. Stusser, R. Uecker, and et al., “Electronic and magnetic structure of R ScO3 (R= Sm, Gd, Dy) from x-ray spectroscopies and first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125114 (2009).
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G. Bauer and W. Richter, Optical Characterization of Epitaxial Semiconductor Layers (Springer Science & Business Media, 2012).

Bednarkiewicz, A.

P. Deren, A. Bednarkiewicz, P. Goldner, and O. Guillot-Noel, “Laser action in LaAlO3:Nd3+ single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(4), 043102 (2008).
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Bernhagen, M.

R. Uecker, B. Velickov, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, M. Bernhagen, M. Rabe, M. Albrecht, R. Fornari, and D. Schlom, “Properties of rare-earth scandate single crystals (Re=Nd−Dy),” J. Cryst. Growth 310(10), 2649–2658 (2008).
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Bernhard, C.

T. N. Nunley, T. I. Willett-Gies, J. A. Cooke, F. S. Manciu, P. Marsik, C. Bernhard, and S. Zollner, “Optical constants, band gap, and infrared-active phonons of (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.35 (LSAT) from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 34(5), 051507 (2016).
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F. Lyzwa, P. Marsik, V. Roddatis, C. Bernhard, M. Jungbauer, and V. Moshnyaga, “In situ monitoring of atomic layer epitaxy via optical ellipsometry,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.06979 (2017).

Bertram, R.

R. Uecker, B. Velickov, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, M. Bernhagen, M. Rabe, M. Albrecht, R. Fornari, and D. Schlom, “Properties of rare-earth scandate single crystals (Re=Nd−Dy),” J. Cryst. Growth 310(10), 2649–2658 (2008).
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Blank, D.

A. Vailionis, H. Boschker, W. Siemons, E. Houwman, D. Blank, G. Rijnders, and G. Koster, “Misfit strain accommodation in epitaxial ABO3 perovskites: Lattice rotations and lattice modulations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(6), 064101 (2011).
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J. Boeuf, “Plasma display panels: physics, recent developments and key issues,” Journal Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 36(6), R53 (2003).
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Bortz, M.

M. Bortz, R. French, D. Jones, R. Kasowski, and F. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of oxides: MgO, MgAl2O4 and Al2O3,” Physica Scripta 41(4), 537 (1990).
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Boschker, H.

A. Vailionis, H. Boschker, W. Siemons, E. Houwman, D. Blank, G. Rijnders, and G. Koster, “Misfit strain accommodation in epitaxial ABO3 perovskites: Lattice rotations and lattice modulations,” Phys. Rev. B 83(6), 064101 (2011).
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Bungay, C. L.

J. A. Woollam, J. N. Hilfiker, T. E. Tiwald, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, D. E. Meyer, C. M. Herzinger, G. L. Pfeiffer, G. T. Cooney, and S. E. Green, “Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the vacuum ultraviolet,” in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, 197–205 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000).

Chakoumakos, B.

B. Chakoumakos, D. Schlom, M. Urbanik, and J. Luine, “Thermal expansion of LaAlO3 and (La, Sr)(Al, Ta)O3, substrate materials for superconducting thin-film device applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(4), 1979–1982 (1998).
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Chang, W.

J. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. Hawley, B. Craigo, and et al., “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
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Chen, L.

R. Guo, L. You, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Lim, X. Zou, L. Chen, R. Ramesh, and J. Wang, “Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect,” Nature Commun. 4, 1990 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

X. Guo, X. Chen, Y. Sun, L. Sun, X. Zhou, and W. Lu, “Electronic band structure of Nb doped SrTiO3 from first principles calculation,” Phys. Lett. A 317(5), 501–506 (2003).
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Chen, Y.

C. Duan, D. Hook, Y. Chen, J. Tong, and R. O’Hayre, “Zr and Y co-doped perovskite as a stable, high performance cathode for solid oxide fuel cells operating below 500 C,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 176–182 (2017).
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Chen, Z.

H. Li, S. Li, Y. Wang, H. Sarvari, P. Zhang, M. Wang, and Z. Chen, “A modified sequential deposition method for fabrication of perovskite solar cells,” Solar Energy 126, 243–251, (2016).
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Chernova, E.

G. Suchaneck, E. Chernova, A. Kleiner, R. Liebschner, L. Jastrabik, D. Meyer, A. Dejneka, and G. Gerlach, “Vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry spectra and optical properties of Ba(Zr, Ti)O3 films,” Thin Solid Films 621, 58–62 (2017).
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E. Chernova, O. Pacherova, D. Chvostova, A. Dejneka, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, and M. Tyunina, “Strain-controlled optical absorption in epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192903 (2015).
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Choi, S.

C. J. Zollner, T. I. Willett-Gies, S. Zollner, and S. Choi, “Infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry studies of spinel (MgAl2O4),” Thin Solid Films 571, 689–694 (2014).
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Choudhury, S.

J. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. Hawley, B. Craigo, and et al., “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
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Chvostova, D.

E. Chernova, O. Pacherova, D. Chvostova, A. Dejneka, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, and M. Tyunina, “Strain-controlled optical absorption in epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192903 (2015).
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M. Tyunina, D. Chvostova, L. Yao, A. Dejneka, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, and S. van Dijken, “Interband transitions in epitaxial ferroelectric films of NaNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B 92(10), 104101 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Tyunina, D. Chvostova, O. Pacherova, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, L. Jastrabik, and A. Dejneka, “Ambience-sensitive optical refraction in ferroelectric nanofilms of NaNbO3,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 15(4), 045001 (2014).
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Coey, J.

J. Coey, M. Viret, and S. Von Molnar, “Mixed-valence manganites,” Adv. Phys. 58(6), 571–697 (2009).
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Collins, R. W.

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, and R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cooke, J. A.

T. N. Nunley, T. I. Willett-Gies, J. A. Cooke, F. S. Manciu, P. Marsik, C. Bernhard, and S. Zollner, “Optical constants, band gap, and infrared-active phonons of (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.35 (LSAT) from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 34(5), 051507 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cooney, G. T.

J. A. Woollam, J. N. Hilfiker, T. E. Tiwald, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, D. E. Meyer, C. M. Herzinger, G. L. Pfeiffer, G. T. Cooney, and S. E. Green, “Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the vacuum ultraviolet,” in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, 197–205 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000).

Craigo, B.

J. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. Hawley, B. Craigo, and et al., “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curless, J.

S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
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Daly, K. P.

R. W. Simon, C. E. Platt, A. E. Lee, G. S. Lee, K. P. Daly, M. S. Wire, J. Luine, and M. Urbanik, “Low-loss substrate for epitaxial growth of high-temperature superconductor thin films,” Applied physics letters,  53(26), 2677–2679, (1988).
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De Natale, P.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, and P. De Natale, Ferroelectric Crystals for Photonic Applications: Including Nanoscale Fabrication and Characterization Techniques (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).

Dejneka, A.

G. Suchaneck, E. Chernova, A. Kleiner, R. Liebschner, L. Jastrabik, D. Meyer, A. Dejneka, and G. Gerlach, “Vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry spectra and optical properties of Ba(Zr, Ti)O3 films,” Thin Solid Films 621, 58–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Tyunina, D. Chvostova, L. Yao, A. Dejneka, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, and S. van Dijken, “Interband transitions in epitaxial ferroelectric films of NaNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B 92(10), 104101 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Chernova, O. Pacherova, D. Chvostova, A. Dejneka, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, and M. Tyunina, “Strain-controlled optical absorption in epitaxial ferroelectric BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 192903 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Tyunina, D. Chvostova, O. Pacherova, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, L. Jastrabik, and A. Dejneka, “Ambience-sensitive optical refraction in ferroelectric nanofilms of NaNbO3,” Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 15(4), 045001 (2014).
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DeLong, E.

T. Willett-Gies, E. DeLong, and S. Zollner, “Vibrational properties of bulk LaAlO3 from Fourier-transform infrared ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 571, 620–624 (2014).
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Demkov, A.

S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
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Demkov, A. A.

A. B. Posadas, C. Lin, A. A. Demkov, and S. Zollner, “Bandgap engineering in perovskite oxides: Al-doped SrTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 142906 (2013).
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Denisov, I.

K. Yumashev, I. Denisov, N. Posnov, P. Prokoshin, and V. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+: MgAl2O4 crystal,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 70(2), 179–184 (2000).
[Crossref]

Deren, P.

P. Deren, A. Bednarkiewicz, P. Goldner, and O. Guillot-Noel, “Laser action in LaAlO3:Nd3+ single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(4), 043102 (2008).
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Droopad, R.

S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
[Crossref]

Duan, C.

C. Duan, D. Hook, Y. Chen, J. Tong, and R. O’Hayre, “Zr and Y co-doped perovskite as a stable, high performance cathode for solid oxide fuel cells operating below 500 C,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 176–182 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ehrhart, P.

T. He, P. Ehrhart, and P. Meuffels, “Optical band gap and urbach tail in Y-doped BaCeO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(6), 3219–3223, (1996).
[Crossref]

Elsasser, C.

K. Van Benthem, C. Elsasser, and R. French, “Bulk electronic structure of SrTiO3: Experiment and theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(12), 6156–6164 (2001).
[Crossref]

Erb, A.

J. Philipp, D. Reisinger, M. Schonecke, A. Marx, A. Erb, L. Alff, R. Gross, and J. Klein, “Spin-dependent transport in the double-perovskite Sr2CrWO6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3654–3656 (2001).
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T. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Li, “Magnetic and charge ordering in nanosized manganites,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(3), 031302 (2014).
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Fejes, P.

S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ferraro, P.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, and P. De Natale, Ferroelectric Crystals for Photonic Applications: Including Nanoscale Fabrication and Characterization Techniques (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).

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R. Whited, C. J. Flaten, and W. Walker, “Exciton thermoreflectance of MgO and CaO,” Solid State Commun. 13(11), 1903–1905 (1973).
[Crossref]

Fornari, R.

R. Uecker, B. Velickov, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, M. Bernhagen, M. Rabe, M. Albrecht, R. Fornari, and D. Schlom, “Properties of rare-earth scandate single crystals (Re=Nd−Dy),” J. Cryst. Growth 310(10), 2649–2658 (2008).
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Freeouf, J.

S.-G. Lim, S. Kriventsov, T. N. Jackson, J. Haeni, D. Schlom, A. Balbashov, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, J. Freeouf, and G. Lucovsky, “Dielectric functions and optical bandgaps of high-K dielectrics for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors by far ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(7), 4500–4505 (2002).
[Crossref]

French, R.

K. Van Benthem, C. Elsasser, and R. French, “Bulk electronic structure of SrTiO3: Experiment and theory,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(12), 6156–6164 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Bortz, R. French, D. Jones, R. Kasowski, and F. Ohuchi, “Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of oxides: MgO, MgAl2O4 and Al2O3,” Physica Scripta 41(4), 537 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, J. Koh, P. I. Rovira, and R. W. Collins, “Assessment of effective-medium theories in the analysis of nucleation and microscopic surface roughness evolution for semiconductor thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10832–10844 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ganesh, I.

I. Ganesh, “A review on magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel: synthesis, processing and applications,” Int. Mater. Rev. 58(2), 63–112 (2013).
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Gerlach, G.

G. Suchaneck, E. Chernova, A. Kleiner, R. Liebschner, L. Jastrabik, D. Meyer, A. Dejneka, and G. Gerlach, “Vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry spectra and optical properties of Ba(Zr, Ti)O3 films,” Thin Solid Films 621, 58–62 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gogoi, P. K.

P. K. Gogoi and D. Schmidt, “Temperature-dependent dielectric function of bulk SrTiO3: Urbach tail, band edges, and excitonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goldner, P.

P. Deren, A. Bednarkiewicz, P. Goldner, and O. Guillot-Noel, “Laser action in LaAlO3:Nd3+ single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(4), 043102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Green, S. E.

J. A. Woollam, J. N. Hilfiker, T. E. Tiwald, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, D. E. Meyer, C. M. Herzinger, G. L. Pfeiffer, G. T. Cooney, and S. E. Green, “Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the vacuum ultraviolet,” in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, 197–205 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000).

Gregory, R.

S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
[Crossref]

Grigorovici, R.

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical Properties and Electronic Structure of Amorphous Germanium,” physica status solidi (b) 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

Grilli, S.

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, and P. De Natale, Ferroelectric Crystals for Photonic Applications: Including Nanoscale Fabrication and Characterization Techniques (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).

Gross, R.

J. Philipp, D. Reisinger, M. Schonecke, A. Marx, A. Erb, L. Alff, R. Gross, and J. Klein, “Spin-dependent transport in the double-perovskite Sr2CrWO6,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3654–3656 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gu, H.

H. Shen, Y. Song, H. Gu, P. Wang, and Y. Xi, “A high-permittivity SrTiO3-based grain boundary barrier layer capacitor material single-fired under low temperature,” Mater. Lett. 56(5), 802–805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guillot-Noel, O.

P. Deren, A. Bednarkiewicz, P. Goldner, and O. Guillot-Noel, “Laser action in LaAlO3:Nd3+ single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(4), 043102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Guo, R.

R. Guo, L. You, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Lim, X. Zou, L. Chen, R. Ramesh, and J. Wang, “Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect,” Nature Commun. 4, 1990 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, X. Chen, Y. Sun, L. Sun, X. Zhou, and W. Lu, “Electronic band structure of Nb doped SrTiO3 from first principles calculation,” Phys. Lett. A 317(5), 501–506 (2003).
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W. Wang, H. Yang, and G. Li, “Achieve high-quality gan films on La0.3Sr1.7AlTaO6 (LSAT) substrates by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Cryst Eng Comm,  15(14), 2669–2674 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

T. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Li, “Magnetic and charge ordering in nanosized manganites,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(3), 031302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

H. Li, S. Li, Y. Wang, H. Sarvari, P. Zhang, M. Wang, and Z. Chen, “A modified sequential deposition method for fabrication of perovskite solar cells,” Solar Energy 126, 243–251, (2016).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.

Q. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Liu, M. Zhao, M. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Li, and M. Li, “Electric field modulation of resistive switching and related magnetism in the Pt/NiFe2O4/Nb: SrTiO3 heterostructures,” J. Alloys Compd. 693, 945–949 (2017).
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R. Whited, C. J. Flaten, and W. Walker, “Exciton thermoreflectance of MgO and CaO,” Solid State Commun. 13(11), 1903–1905 (1973).
[Crossref]

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T. Willett-Gies, E. DeLong, and S. Zollner, “Vibrational properties of bulk LaAlO3 from Fourier-transform infrared ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 571, 620–624 (2014).
[Crossref]

Willett-Gies, T. I.

T. N. Nunley, T. I. Willett-Gies, J. A. Cooke, F. S. Manciu, P. Marsik, C. Bernhard, and S. Zollner, “Optical constants, band gap, and infrared-active phonons of (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.35 (LSAT) from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 34(5), 051507 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zollner, T. I. Willett-Gies, S. Zollner, and S. Choi, “Infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry studies of spinel (MgAl2O4),” Thin Solid Films 571, 689–694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wire, M. S.

R. W. Simon, C. E. Platt, A. E. Lee, G. S. Lee, K. P. Daly, M. S. Wire, J. Luine, and M. Urbanik, “Low-loss substrate for epitaxial growth of high-temperature superconductor thin films,” Applied physics letters,  53(26), 2677–2679, (1988).
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J. Woollam, Guide to Using WVASE32 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Data Acquisition and Analysis Software (2005).

Woollam, J. A.

J. A. Woollam, J. N. Hilfiker, T. E. Tiwald, C. L. Bungay, R. A. Synowicki, D. E. Meyer, C. M. Herzinger, G. L. Pfeiffer, G. T. Cooney, and S. E. Green, “Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the vacuum ultraviolet,” in International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology, 197–205 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000).

Xi, Y.

H. Shen, Y. Song, H. Gu, P. Wang, and Y. Xi, “A high-permittivity SrTiO3-based grain boundary barrier layer capacitor material single-fired under low temperature,” Mater. Lett. 56(5), 802–805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

X. Zeng, L. Zhang, G. Zhao, J. Xu, Y. Hang, H. Pang, M. Jie, C. Yan, and X. He, “Crystal growth and optical properties of LaAlO3 and Ce-doped LaAlO3 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 271(1), 319–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

C. M. Nelson, M. Spies, L. S. Abdallah, S. Zollner, Y. Xu, and H. Luo, “Dielectric function of LaAlO3 from 0.8 to 6 eV between 77 and 700 k,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(6), 061404 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

D. Nuzhnyy, J. Petzelt, S. Kamba, T. Yamada, M. Tyunina, A. Tagantsev, J. Levoska, and N. Setter, “Polar phonons in some compressively stressed epitaxial and polycrystalline SrTiO3 thin films,” J. Electroceram. 22(1–3), 297–301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yan, C.

X. Zeng, L. Zhang, G. Zhao, J. Xu, Y. Hang, H. Pang, M. Jie, C. Yan, and X. He, “Crystal growth and optical properties of LaAlO3 and Ce-doped LaAlO3 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 271(1), 319–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

W. Wang, H. Yang, and G. Li, “Achieve high-quality gan films on La0.3Sr1.7AlTaO6 (LSAT) substrates by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Cryst Eng Comm,  15(14), 2669–2674 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, K.

M. Qin, K. Yao, and Y. C. Liang, “High efficient photovoltaics in nanoscaled ferroelectric thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 122904 (2008).
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Yao, L.

M. Tyunina, D. Chvostova, L. Yao, A. Dejneka, T. Kocourek, M. Jelinek, and S. van Dijken, “Interband transitions in epitaxial ferroelectric films of NaNbO3,” Phys. Rev. B 92(10), 104101 (2015).
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R. Guo, L. You, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Lim, X. Zou, L. Chen, R. Ramesh, and J. Wang, “Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect,” Nature Commun. 4, 1990 (2013).
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S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
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K. Yumashev, I. Denisov, N. Posnov, P. Prokoshin, and V. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+: MgAl2O4 crystal,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 70(2), 179–184 (2000).
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X. Zeng, L. Zhang, G. Zhao, J. Xu, Y. Hang, H. Pang, M. Jie, C. Yan, and X. He, “Crystal growth and optical properties of LaAlO3 and Ce-doped LaAlO3 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 271(1), 319–324 (2004).
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Zhang, F.

Q. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Liu, M. Zhao, M. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Li, and M. Li, “Electric field modulation of resistive switching and related magnetism in the Pt/NiFe2O4/Nb: SrTiO3 heterostructures,” J. Alloys Compd. 693, 945–949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

X. Zeng, L. Zhang, G. Zhao, J. Xu, Y. Hang, H. Pang, M. Jie, C. Yan, and X. He, “Crystal growth and optical properties of LaAlO3 and Ce-doped LaAlO3 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 271(1), 319–324 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

H. Li, S. Li, Y. Wang, H. Sarvari, P. Zhang, M. Wang, and Z. Chen, “A modified sequential deposition method for fabrication of perovskite solar cells,” Solar Energy 126, 243–251, (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Li, “Magnetic and charge ordering in nanosized manganites,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(3), 031302 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Q. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Liu, M. Zhao, M. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Li, and M. Li, “Electric field modulation of resistive switching and related magnetism in the Pt/NiFe2O4/Nb: SrTiO3 heterostructures,” J. Alloys Compd. 693, 945–949 (2017).
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Zhao, G.

X. Zeng, L. Zhang, G. Zhao, J. Xu, Y. Hang, H. Pang, M. Jie, C. Yan, and X. He, “Crystal growth and optical properties of LaAlO3 and Ce-doped LaAlO3 single crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 271(1), 319–324 (2004).
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Zhao, M.

Q. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Liu, M. Zhao, M. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Li, and M. Li, “Electric field modulation of resistive switching and related magnetism in the Pt/NiFe2O4/Nb: SrTiO3 heterostructures,” J. Alloys Compd. 693, 945–949 (2017).
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Zhou, S.

M. Raekers, K. Kuepper, S. Bartkowski, M. Prinz, A. Postnikov, K. Potzger, S. Zhou, A. Arulraj, N. Stusser, R. Uecker, and et al., “Electronic and magnetic structure of R ScO3 (R= Sm, Gd, Dy) from x-ray spectroscopies and first-principles calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125114 (2009).
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Zhou, X.

X. Guo, X. Chen, Y. Sun, L. Sun, X. Zhou, and W. Lu, “Electronic band structure of Nb doped SrTiO3 from first principles calculation,” Phys. Lett. A 317(5), 501–506 (2003).
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Zhou, Y.

R. Guo, L. You, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Lim, X. Zou, L. Chen, R. Ramesh, and J. Wang, “Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect,” Nature Commun. 4, 1990 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

Q. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Liu, M. Zhao, M. Wei, F. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Li, and M. Li, “Electric field modulation of resistive switching and related magnetism in the Pt/NiFe2O4/Nb: SrTiO3 heterostructures,” J. Alloys Compd. 693, 945–949 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zollner, C. J.

C. J. Zollner, T. I. Willett-Gies, S. Zollner, and S. Choi, “Infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry studies of spinel (MgAl2O4),” Thin Solid Films 571, 689–694 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zollner, S.

T. N. Nunley, T. I. Willett-Gies, J. A. Cooke, F. S. Manciu, P. Marsik, C. Bernhard, and S. Zollner, “Optical constants, band gap, and infrared-active phonons of (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.35 (LSAT) from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 34(5), 051507 (2016).
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C. J. Zollner, T. I. Willett-Gies, S. Zollner, and S. Choi, “Infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry studies of spinel (MgAl2O4),” Thin Solid Films 571, 689–694 (2014).
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T. Willett-Gies, E. DeLong, and S. Zollner, “Vibrational properties of bulk LaAlO3 from Fourier-transform infrared ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 571, 620–624 (2014).
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A. B. Posadas, C. Lin, A. A. Demkov, and S. Zollner, “Bandgap engineering in perovskite oxides: Al-doped SrTiO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 142906 (2013).
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C. M. Nelson, M. Spies, L. S. Abdallah, S. Zollner, Y. Xu, and H. Luo, “Dielectric function of LaAlO3 from 0.8 to 6 eV between 77 and 700 k,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(6), 061404 (2012).
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S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
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Zou, X.

R. Guo, L. You, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Lim, X. Zou, L. Chen, R. Ramesh, and J. Wang, “Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect,” Nature Commun. 4, 1990 (2013).
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T. Zhang, X. Wang, Q. Fang, and X. Li, “Magnetic and charge ordering in nanosized manganites,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(3), 031302 (2014).
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Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics (1)

K. Yumashev, I. Denisov, N. Posnov, P. Prokoshin, and V. Mikhailov, “Nonlinear absorption properties of Co2+: MgAl2O4 crystal,” Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 70(2), 179–184 (2000).
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R. W. Simon, C. E. Platt, A. E. Lee, G. S. Lee, K. P. Daly, M. S. Wire, J. Luine, and M. Urbanik, “Low-loss substrate for epitaxial growth of high-temperature superconductor thin films,” Applied physics letters,  53(26), 2677–2679, (1988).
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Cryst Eng Comm (1)

W. Wang, H. Yang, and G. Li, “Achieve high-quality gan films on La0.3Sr1.7AlTaO6 (LSAT) substrates by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy,” Cryst Eng Comm,  15(14), 2669–2674 (2013).
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C. Duan, D. Hook, Y. Chen, J. Tong, and R. O’Hayre, “Zr and Y co-doped perovskite as a stable, high performance cathode for solid oxide fuel cells operating below 500 C,” Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 176–182 (2017).
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R. Uecker, B. Velickov, D. Klimm, R. Bertram, M. Bernhagen, M. Rabe, M. Albrecht, R. Fornari, and D. Schlom, “Properties of rare-earth scandate single crystals (Re=Nd−Dy),” J. Cryst. Growth 310(10), 2649–2658 (2008).
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D. Nuzhnyy, J. Petzelt, S. Kamba, T. Yamada, M. Tyunina, A. Tagantsev, J. Levoska, and N. Setter, “Polar phonons in some compressively stressed epitaxial and polycrystalline SrTiO3 thin films,” J. Electroceram. 22(1–3), 297–301 (2009).
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R. R. Kmail and A. Qasrawi, “Physical design and dynamical analysis of resonant–antiresonant Ag/MgO/GaSe/Al optoelectronic microwave devices,” J. Electron. Mater. 44(11), 4191–4198 (2015).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

T. N. Nunley, T. I. Willett-Gies, J. A. Cooke, F. S. Manciu, P. Marsik, C. Bernhard, and S. Zollner, “Optical constants, band gap, and infrared-active phonons of (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.35 (LSAT) from spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 34(5), 051507 (2016).
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C. M. Nelson, M. Spies, L. S. Abdallah, S. Zollner, Y. Xu, and H. Luo, “Dielectric function of LaAlO3 from 0.8 to 6 eV between 77 and 700 k,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 30(6), 061404 (2012).
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S. Zollner, A. Demkov, R. Liu, P. Fejes, R. Gregory, P. Alluri, J. Curless, Z. Yu, J. Ramdani, R. Droopad, and et al., “Optical properties of bulk and thin-film SrTiO3 on Si and Pt,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(4), 2242–2254 (2000).
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Journal of the American Ceramic Society (1)

G. Gusmano, G. Montesperelli, E. Traversa, and G. Mattogno, “Microstructure and electrical properties of MgAl2O4 thin films for humidity sensing,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society,  76(3), 743–750, (1993).
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Mater. Lett. (1)

H. Shen, Y. Song, H. Gu, P. Wang, and Y. Xi, “A high-permittivity SrTiO3-based grain boundary barrier layer capacitor material single-fired under low temperature,” Mater. Lett. 56(5), 802–805 (2002).
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Nature (2)

J. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. Hawley, B. Craigo, and et al., “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
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R. Guo, L. You, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Lim, X. Zou, L. Chen, R. Ramesh, and J. Wang, “Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect,” Nature Commun. 4, 1990 (2013).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

X. Guo, X. Chen, Y. Sun, L. Sun, X. Zhou, and W. Lu, “Electronic band structure of Nb doped SrTiO3 from first principles calculation,” Phys. Lett. A 317(5), 501–506 (2003).
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Phys. Rev. B (6)

P. K. Gogoi and D. Schmidt, “Temperature-dependent dielectric function of bulk SrTiO3: Urbach tail, band edges, and excitonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B 93(7), 075204 (2016).
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H. Li, S. Li, Y. Wang, H. Sarvari, P. Zhang, M. Wang, and Z. Chen, “A modified sequential deposition method for fabrication of perovskite solar cells,” Solar Energy 126, 243–251, (2016).
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Solid State Commun. (2)

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C. J. Zollner, T. I. Willett-Gies, S. Zollner, and S. Choi, “Infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry studies of spinel (MgAl2O4),” Thin Solid Films 571, 689–694 (2014).
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T. Willett-Gies, E. DeLong, and S. Zollner, “Vibrational properties of bulk LaAlO3 from Fourier-transform infrared ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 571, 620–624 (2014).
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G. Suchaneck, E. Chernova, A. Kleiner, R. Liebschner, L. Jastrabik, D. Meyer, A. Dejneka, and G. Gerlach, “Vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry spectra and optical properties of Ba(Zr, Ti)O3 films,” Thin Solid Films 621, 58–62 (2017).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The expected imaginary component of the dielectric function, ε2 plotted with the Gaussian oscillators used to construct the model substrate layer and (b) the surface roughness profile of Nb-doped STO measured with a profiler. These graphs represent many of the fitting parameters used, and when combined with the fitting parameters of the UV pole, all necessary information is present for the construction of the full material model developed for Nb-doped STO.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The (a, b) experimentally obtained (red dashed lines) and model-generated (solid green lines) ellipsometric data (a) Ψ and (b) Δ in a (100)-oriented STO substrate for 60°, 65° and 70° angles of incidence., (c, d). Difference between the model-generated and experimental ellipsometric data for an angle of incidence of 60°.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of complex refractive index and (c) absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy E in the STO and Nb-doped STO substrates.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Tauc plots for indirect optical transition in STO and Nb-doped STO substrates. Data obtained by point-by-point fitting are shown as symbols. Dashed lines show the Tauc fits.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of complex refractive index, and (c) absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy E in the LSAT substrate.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of complex refractive index, and (c) absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy E in the DSO substrate.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of complex refractive index, and (c) absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy E in the MgAl2O4 substrate.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of complex refractive index, and (c) absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy E in the MgO substrate.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of complex refractive index, and (c) absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy E in the LaAlO3 substrate.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Both direct and indirect bandgaps for (LaAlO3)0.29(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7, direct bandgap for DyScO3, MgAl2O4, and MgO; indirect bandgap for LaAlO3 substrate.

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Summary of substrate properties: lattice parameter a, optical surface roughness, photon energy at which absorption coefficient α = 104 cm−1, Tauc bandgap energy and type, previously published bandgap energy, real part n of refraction index at photon energy of 2 eV. Legend: a (Å) is a lattice parameter; SR is a surface roughness; E0 (eV) is energy at α = 104 cm−1; BG is band gap energies from our research; TF is Tauc fit of band gap (D for direct and I for indirect); BG Ref is band gap energies published.

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Table 2 Parameters of Gaussian oscillators used for bulk (100) SrTiO3. Last line in the table shows parameters of UV oscillator.

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Table 3 Parameters of Gaussian oscillators used for bulk Nb-doped (100) SrTiO3. Last two lines in the table show parameters of UV and Drude oscillator.

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Table 4 Parameters of Gaussian oscillators used for bulk (100) (LaAlO3)0.29(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7. Last line in the table shows parameters of UV oscillator.

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Table 5 Parameters of Gaussian oscillators used for bulk (011) DyScO3. Last line in the table shows parameters of UV oscillator.

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Table 6 Parameters of Gaussian oscillators used for bulk (100) MgAl2O4. Last line in the table shows parameters of UV oscillator.

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Table 7 Parameters of two Tauc-Lorentz and one Lorentz oscillators used for bulk (100) MgO. Last line in the table shows parameters of UV oscillator.

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Table 8 Parameters of Gaussian oscillators used for bulk (100) LaAlO3. Last line in the table shows parameters of UV oscillator.

Equations (4)

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ε 2 = n ε 2 , n = n A n e [ E E n B r n ] 2 A n e [ E + E n B r n ] 2 ,
ε 1 , n = 2 π P 0 ζ ε 2 , n ( ζ ) ζ 2 E 2 d ζ ,
ε 1 , p o l e = A P o l e E p o l e 2 E 2 ,
ε = ε + A p o l e E p o l e 2 E 2 + [ 2 π P 0 ζ ε 2 , n ( ζ ) ζ 2 E 2 d ζ + i [ A n e [ E E n B r n ] 2 A n e [ E + E n B r n ] 2 ] ] ,

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