Abstract

Raman scattering spectra of 4H-SiC with different carrier concentrations were measured from 90 K to 660 K. By using the improved empirical formula and the energy-time uncertainty relation, temperature and doping dependence of Raman shift and phonon lifetimes were studied. For the folded transverse acoustic (FTA) and longitudinal optical (FLO) mode with E2 symmetry, the doping process induced the decrease of the c- and a-axis lattice constants which led to the changes of the vibrational frequencies and was the dominant contribution to the difference of the first- and second-order temperature coefficients. And the anharmonic decay of the phonons was established as the dominant mechanism affecting the phonon lifetimes of E2(FTO) mode at all temperatures. It is observed the phonon-carrier interaction directly determines the Raman shift and lifetimes of the folded longitudinal optical (FLO) mode with A1 symmetry.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Noborio, J. Suda, and T. Kimoto, “1.5kV lateral dobule resurf MOSFETs on 4H-SiC (000-1)C face,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 757–760 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Morel, D. Bergogne, D. Planson, B. Allard, and R. Meuret, “New aoolications in power electronics based on SiC power devices,” Mater. Sci. Forum 600–603, 925–930 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Hamad, C. Raynaud, P. Bevilacqua, S. Scharnholz, and D. Planson, “Temperature dependence of 4H-SiC ionization rates using optical beam induced current,” Mater. Sci. Forum 821–823, 223–228 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in semi-insulated and n-type 4H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113520 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Artús, R. Cusco, J. Ibanez, N. Blanco, and G. Gonzalez-Dıaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5456–5463 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. S. Dobal, H. D. Bist, S. K. Mehta, and R. K. Jain, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of the free carrier concentration in GaAs oval defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(8), 3934–3937 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Kuball, “Raman spectroscopy of GaN, AlGaN and AlN for process and growth monitoring/control,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 987–999 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Harima, H. Sakashita, T. Inoue, and S. Nakashima, “Electronic properties in doped GaN studied by Raman Scattering,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 672–676 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. R. Hart, R. I. Aggarwal, and B. Lax, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 1(2), 638–642 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Temperature denpendence of the first-order Raman scattering by phonons in Si, Ge, and α-Sn: Anharmonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B 29(4), 2051–2059 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Verma, S. C. Abbi, and K. P. Jain, “Raman-scattering probe of anharmonic effects in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(23), 16660–16667 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. S. Li, Z. X. Shen, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in hexagonal gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3332–3337 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. T. Beechem and S. Graham, “Temperature and doping dependence of phonon lifetimes and decay pathways in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093507 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Phonon lifetimes in bulk AlN and their temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1958–1960 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Han, B. Han, D. H. Wang, and C. Li, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering from 4H-SiC with hexagonal defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011912 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. Han, B. Han, M. Zhang, X. Y. Fan, and C. Li, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering in round pit of 4H–SiC,” Diamond Related Materials 20(9), 1282–1286 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. Y. Sun, S. C. Lien, Z. R. Qiu, H. C. Wang, T. Mei, C. W. Liu, and Z. C. Feng, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in bulk 4H-SiC with different carrier concentration,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26475–26482 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and T. Uemura, “Raman scattering from anisotropic LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled mode in n-type 4H- and 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(3), 1996–2005 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. Hamad, C. Raynaud, P. Bevilacqua, S. Scharnholz, and D. Planson, “Temperature dependence of 4H-SiC ionization rates using optical beam induced current,” Mater. Sci. Forum 821–823, 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in semi-insulated and n-type 4H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113520 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Han, B. Han, D. H. Wang, and C. Li, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering from 4H-SiC with hexagonal defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011912 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Han, B. Han, M. Zhang, X. Y. Fan, and C. Li, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering in round pit of 4H–SiC,” Diamond Related Materials 20(9), 1282–1286 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Noborio, J. Suda, and T. Kimoto, “1.5kV lateral dobule resurf MOSFETs on 4H-SiC (000-1)C face,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 757–760 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Morel, D. Bergogne, D. Planson, B. Allard, and R. Meuret, “New aoolications in power electronics based on SiC power devices,” Mater. Sci. Forum 600–603, 925–930 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Beechem and S. Graham, “Temperature and doping dependence of phonon lifetimes and decay pathways in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093507 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Kuball, “Raman spectroscopy of GaN, AlGaN and AlN for process and growth monitoring/control,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 987–999 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Phonon lifetimes in bulk AlN and their temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1958–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. S. Li, Z. X. Shen, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in hexagonal gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3332–3337 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Artús, R. Cusco, J. Ibanez, N. Blanco, and G. Gonzalez-Dıaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Harima, H. Sakashita, T. Inoue, and S. Nakashima, “Electronic properties in doped GaN studied by Raman Scattering,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 672–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

P. S. Dobal, H. D. Bist, S. K. Mehta, and R. K. Jain, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of the free carrier concentration in GaAs oval defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(8), 3934–3937 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Verma, S. C. Abbi, and K. P. Jain, “Raman-scattering probe of anharmonic effects in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(23), 16660–16667 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and T. Uemura, “Raman scattering from anisotropic LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled mode in n-type 4H- and 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(3), 1996–2005 (1995).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Temperature denpendence of the first-order Raman scattering by phonons in Si, Ge, and α-Sn: Anharmonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B 29(4), 2051–2059 (1984).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

T. R. Hart, R. I. Aggarwal, and B. Lax, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 1(2), 638–642 (1970).
[Crossref]

Abbi, S. C.

P. Verma, S. C. Abbi, and K. P. Jain, “Raman-scattering probe of anharmonic effects in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(23), 16660–16667 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, R. I.

T. R. Hart, R. I. Aggarwal, and B. Lax, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 1(2), 638–642 (1970).
[Crossref]

Alarcon-Llado, E.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alexson, D.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Allard, B.

H. Morel, D. Bergogne, D. Planson, B. Allard, and R. Meuret, “New aoolications in power electronics based on SiC power devices,” Mater. Sci. Forum 600–603, 925–930 (2009).
[Crossref]

Artus, L.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Artús, L.

L. Artús, R. Cusco, J. Ibanez, N. Blanco, and G. Gonzalez-Dıaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

Balkas, C.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Beechem, T.

T. Beechem and S. Graham, “Temperature and doping dependence of phonon lifetimes and decay pathways in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bergman, L.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bergogne, D.

H. Morel, D. Bergogne, D. Planson, B. Allard, and R. Meuret, “New aoolications in power electronics based on SiC power devices,” Mater. Sci. Forum 600–603, 925–930 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bevilacqua, P.

H. Hamad, C. Raynaud, P. Bevilacqua, S. Scharnholz, and D. Planson, “Temperature dependence of 4H-SiC ionization rates using optical beam induced current,” Mater. Sci. Forum 821–823, 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bist, H. D.

P. S. Dobal, H. D. Bist, S. K. Mehta, and R. K. Jain, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of the free carrier concentration in GaAs oval defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(8), 3934–3937 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blanco, N.

L. Artús, R. Cusco, J. Ibanez, N. Blanco, and G. Gonzalez-Dıaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bursill, L. A.

M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
[Crossref]

Callahan, M. J.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cardona, M.

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Temperature denpendence of the first-order Raman scattering by phonons in Si, Ge, and α-Sn: Anharmonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B 29(4), 2051–2059 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J.

W. S. Li, Z. X. Shen, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in hexagonal gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3332–3337 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. X.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cusco, R.

L. Artús, R. Cusco, J. Ibanez, N. Blanco, and G. Gonzalez-Dıaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cuscó, R.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Davis, R. F.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dhar, S.

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dobal, P. S.

P. S. Dobal, H. D. Bist, S. K. Mehta, and R. K. Jain, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of the free carrier concentration in GaAs oval defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(8), 3934–3937 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dutta, M.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Edgar, J. H.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Phonon lifetimes in bulk AlN and their temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1958–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fan, X. Y.

R. Han, B. Han, M. Zhang, X. Y. Fan, and C. Li, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering in round pit of 4H–SiC,” Diamond Related Materials 20(9), 1282–1286 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z. C.

H. Y. Sun, S. C. Lien, Z. R. Qiu, H. C. Wang, T. Mei, C. W. Liu, and Z. C. Feng, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in bulk 4H-SiC with different carrier concentration,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26475–26482 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Li, Z. X. Shen, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in hexagonal gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3332–3337 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y. Q.

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geil, B.

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez-Diaz, G.

L. Artús, R. Cusco, J. Ibanez, N. Blanco, and G. Gonzalez-Dıaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

Graham, S.

T. Beechem and S. Graham, “Temperature and doping dependence of phonon lifetimes and decay pathways in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hamad, H.

H. Hamad, C. Raynaud, P. Bevilacqua, S. Scharnholz, and D. Planson, “Temperature dependence of 4H-SiC ionization rates using optical beam induced current,” Mater. Sci. Forum 821–823, 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, B.

R. Han, B. Han, D. H. Wang, and C. Li, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering from 4H-SiC with hexagonal defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011912 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Han, B. Han, M. Zhang, X. Y. Fan, and C. Li, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering in round pit of 4H–SiC,” Diamond Related Materials 20(9), 1282–1286 (2011).
[Crossref]

Han, R.

R. Han, B. Han, D. H. Wang, and C. Li, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering from 4H-SiC with hexagonal defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011912 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Han, B. Han, M. Zhang, X. Y. Fan, and C. Li, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering in round pit of 4H–SiC,” Diamond Related Materials 20(9), 1282–1286 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haney, S.

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Harima, H.

H. Harima, H. Sakashita, T. Inoue, and S. Nakashima, “Electronic properties in doped GaN studied by Raman Scattering,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 672–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and T. Uemura, “Raman scattering from anisotropic LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled mode in n-type 4H- and 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(3), 1996–2005 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hart, T. R.

T. R. Hart, R. I. Aggarwal, and B. Lax, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 1(2), 638–642 (1970).
[Crossref]

Hayes, J. M.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Phonon lifetimes in bulk AlN and their temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1958–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. B.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ibanez, J.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Artús, R. Cusco, J. Ibanez, N. Blanco, and G. Gonzalez-Dıaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

Inoue, T.

H. Harima, H. Sakashita, T. Inoue, and S. Nakashima, “Electronic properties in doped GaN studied by Raman Scattering,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 672–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ishizawa, A.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in semi-insulated and n-type 4H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113520 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jain, K. P.

P. Verma, S. C. Abbi, and K. P. Jain, “Raman-scattering probe of anharmonic effects in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(23), 16660–16667 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

P. S. Dobal, H. D. Bist, S. K. Mehta, and R. K. Jain, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of the free carrier concentration in GaAs oval defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(8), 3934–3937 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jiang, K.

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jimenez, J.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in semi-insulated and n-type 4H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113520 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kimoto, T.

M. Noborio, J. Suda, and T. Kimoto, “1.5kV lateral dobule resurf MOSFETs on 4H-SiC (000-1)C face,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 757–760 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuball, M.

M. Kuball, “Raman spectroscopy of GaN, AlGaN and AlN for process and growth monitoring/control,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 987–999 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Phonon lifetimes in bulk AlN and their temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1958–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lax, B.

T. R. Hart, R. I. Aggarwal, and B. Lax, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 1(2), 638–642 (1970).
[Crossref]

Lelis, A.

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

R. Han, B. Han, D. H. Wang, and C. Li, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering from 4H-SiC with hexagonal defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011912 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Han, B. Han, M. Zhang, X. Y. Fan, and C. Li, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering in round pit of 4H–SiC,” Diamond Related Materials 20(9), 1282–1286 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, W. S.

W. S. Li, Z. X. Shen, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in hexagonal gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3332–3337 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lien, S. C.

Liu, C. W.

Liu, M. S.

M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mehta, S. K.

P. S. Dobal, H. D. Bist, S. K. Mehta, and R. K. Jain, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of the free carrier concentration in GaAs oval defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(8), 3934–3937 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mei, T.

Menéndez, J.

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Temperature denpendence of the first-order Raman scattering by phonons in Si, Ge, and α-Sn: Anharmonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B 29(4), 2051–2059 (1984).
[Crossref]

Meuret, R.

H. Morel, D. Bergogne, D. Planson, B. Allard, and R. Meuret, “New aoolications in power electronics based on SiC power devices,” Mater. Sci. Forum 600–603, 925–930 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morel, H.

H. Morel, D. Bergogne, D. Planson, B. Allard, and R. Meuret, “New aoolications in power electronics based on SiC power devices,” Mater. Sci. Forum 600–603, 925–930 (2009).
[Crossref]

Murphy, P. L.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakano, H.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in semi-insulated and n-type 4H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113520 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakashima, S.

H. Harima, H. Sakashita, T. Inoue, and S. Nakashima, “Electronic properties in doped GaN studied by Raman Scattering,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 672–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and T. Uemura, “Raman scattering from anisotropic LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled mode in n-type 4H- and 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(3), 1996–2005 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nemanich, R. J.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Noborio, M.

M. Noborio, J. Suda, and T. Kimoto, “1.5kV lateral dobule resurf MOSFETs on 4H-SiC (000-1)C face,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 757–760 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K. W.

M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oguri, K.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in semi-insulated and n-type 4H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113520 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y.

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

Planson, D.

H. Hamad, C. Raynaud, P. Bevilacqua, S. Scharnholz, and D. Planson, “Temperature dependence of 4H-SiC ionization rates using optical beam induced current,” Mater. Sci. Forum 821–823, 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Morel, D. Bergogne, D. Planson, B. Allard, and R. Meuret, “New aoolications in power electronics based on SiC power devices,” Mater. Sci. Forum 600–603, 925–930 (2009).
[Crossref]

Prawer, S.

M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qiu, Z. R.

Raynaud, C.

H. Hamad, C. Raynaud, P. Bevilacqua, S. Scharnholz, and D. Planson, “Temperature dependence of 4H-SiC ionization rates using optical beam induced current,” Mater. Sci. Forum 821–823, 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ryu, S. H.

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sakashita, H.

H. Harima, H. Sakashita, T. Inoue, and S. Nakashima, “Electronic properties in doped GaN studied by Raman Scattering,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 672–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

Scharnholz, S.

H. Hamad, C. Raynaud, P. Bevilacqua, S. Scharnholz, and D. Planson, “Temperature dependence of 4H-SiC ionization rates using optical beam induced current,” Mater. Sci. Forum 821–823, 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scozzie, C.

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

W. S. Li, Z. X. Shen, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in hexagonal gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3332–3337 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Phonon lifetimes in bulk AlN and their temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1958–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shin, H.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sogawa, T.

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in semi-insulated and n-type 4H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113520 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stroscio, M. A.

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

Suda, J.

M. Noborio, J. Suda, and T. Kimoto, “1.5kV lateral dobule resurf MOSFETs on 4H-SiC (000-1)C face,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 757–760 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. Y.

Tong, Y. Z.

M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
[Crossref]

Uemura, T.

H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and T. Uemura, “Raman scattering from anisotropic LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled mode in n-type 4H- and 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(3), 1996–2005 (1995).
[Crossref]

Verma, P.

P. Verma, S. C. Abbi, and K. P. Jain, “Raman-scattering probe of anharmonic effects in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(23), 16660–16667 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. H.

R. Han, B. Han, D. H. Wang, and C. Li, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering from 4H-SiC with hexagonal defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011912 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. C.

Xiao, L. F.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, X. J.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, H. Y.

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. G.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. L.

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. Y.

M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

R. Han, B. Han, M. Zhang, X. Y. Fan, and C. Li, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering in round pit of 4H–SiC,” Diamond Related Materials 20(9), 1282–1286 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. S. Liu, L. A. Bursill, S. Prawer, K. W. Nugent, Y. Z. Tong, and G. Y. Zhang, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in single crystal GaN films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3125–3127 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Kuball, J. M. Hayes, Y. Shi, and J. H. Edgar, “Phonon lifetimes in bulk AlN and their temperature dependence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1958–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Han, B. Han, D. H. Wang, and C. Li, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering from 4H-SiC with hexagonal defects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011912 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

Y. X. Cui, X. B. Hu, K. Yang, X. L. Yang, X. J. Xie, L. F. Xiao, and X. G. Xu, “Influence of Nitrogen Concentrations on the Lattice Constants and Resistivities of n-Type 4H-SiC Single Crystals,” Cryst. Growth Des. 15(7), 3131–3136 (2015).
[Crossref]

Diamond Related Materials (1)

R. Han, B. Han, M. Zhang, X. Y. Fan, and C. Li, “Temperature-dependent Raman scattering in round pit of 4H–SiC,” Diamond Related Materials 20(9), 1282–1286 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

W. S. Li, Z. X. Shen, Z. C. Feng, and S. J. Chua, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in hexagonal gallium nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3332–3337 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Beechem and S. Graham, “Temperature and doping dependence of phonon lifetimes and decay pathways in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093507 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Kato, K. Oguri, A. Ishizawa, H. Nakano, and T. Sogawa, “Ultrafast carrier and coherent phonon dynamics in semi-insulated and n-type 4H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113520 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Peng, X. G. Xu, X. B. Hu, K. Jiang, S. Song, Y. Q. Gao, and H. Y. Xu, “Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(9), 093519 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. S. Dobal, H. D. Bist, S. K. Mehta, and R. K. Jain, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of the free carrier concentration in GaAs oval defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(8), 3934–3937 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. Harima, S. Nakashima, and T. Uemura, “Raman scattering from anisotropic LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled mode in n-type 4H- and 6H-SiC,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(3), 1996–2005 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Harima, H. Sakashita, T. Inoue, and S. Nakashima, “Electronic properties in doped GaN studied by Raman Scattering,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 672–676 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Forum (4)

S. H. Ryu, S. Dhar, S. Haney, A. Agarwal, A. Lelis, B. Geil, and C. Scozzie, “Critical issues for MoS based power devices in 4H-SiC,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 743–748 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Noborio, J. Suda, and T. Kimoto, “1.5kV lateral dobule resurf MOSFETs on 4H-SiC (000-1)C face,” Mater. Sci. Forum 615–617, 757–760 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Morel, D. Bergogne, D. Planson, B. Allard, and R. Meuret, “New aoolications in power electronics based on SiC power devices,” Mater. Sci. Forum 600–603, 925–930 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hamad, C. Raynaud, P. Bevilacqua, S. Scharnholz, and D. Planson, “Temperature dependence of 4H-SiC ionization rates using optical beam induced current,” Mater. Sci. Forum 821–823, 223–228 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcon-Llado, J. Ibanez, L. Artus, J. Jimenez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Bergman, D. Alexson, P. L. Murphy, R. J. Nemanich, M. Dutta, M. A. Stroscio, C. Balkas, H. Shin, and R. F. Davis, “Raman analysis of phonon lifetimes in AlN and GaN of wurtzite structure,” Phys. Rev. B 59(20), 12977–12982 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. Artús, R. Cusco, J. Ibanez, N. Blanco, and G. Gonzalez-Dıaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60(8), 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. R. Hart, R. I. Aggarwal, and B. Lax, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in Silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 1(2), 638–642 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. Menéndez and M. Cardona, “Temperature denpendence of the first-order Raman scattering by phonons in Si, Ge, and α-Sn: Anharmonic effects,” Phys. Rev. B 29(4), 2051–2059 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

P. Verma, S. C. Abbi, and K. P. Jain, “Raman-scattering probe of anharmonic effects in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(23), 16660–16667 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Interface Anal. (1)

M. Kuball, “Raman spectroscopy of GaN, AlGaN and AlN for process and growth monitoring/control,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 987–999 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The typical Raman spectra of sample A at 90 K, 360 K and 660 K.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The Raman shift, FWHM of the E2(FTA) as function of temperature. The solid black line is the fitting result to Eq.Eq. (1).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The Raman shift, FWHM of the E2(FTO) as function of temperature. The solid black line is the fitting result to Eq.Eq. (1).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The Raman shift, FWHM of the A1(FLO) as function of temperature.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The intensity E2(FTA) normalized by E2(FTO) as function of temperature.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The intensity A1(FLO) normalized by E2(FTO) as function of temperature.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The details of the samples

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fitting parameter of Raman shift vs Temperature for E2(FTA)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Fitting parameter of Raman shift vs Temperature for E2(FTO)

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω = ω 0 + α 1 T + α 2 T 2
ΔE = 1 τ
1 τ = 1 τ A + 1 τ L

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