Abstract

Optoelectronic performance of nano-/microscale porous and wired silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) layers was theoretically studied. Within the nanoscale region, Ag porous and wired layers – possessing stronger surface plasmon response over the whole visible spectrum –demonstrate up to a 20% higher average transmittance in comparison to identic Al design. In the microscale region, difference in the average transmittance between the above mentioned metallic layers decreases to 5%. Moreover, the microscale Ag and Al layers exhibit up to a 5% higher average transmittance. The obtained results allow deeper analysis of the pattern scale of metallic transparent conductive layers for various optoelectronic applications, such as displays, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, touch screens and smart windows.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Lee, S. Hong, K. Yang, and K. Choi, “Fabrication of 100nm metal lines on flexible plastic substrate using ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143112 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Layani, A. Kamyshny, and S. Magdassi, “Transparent conductors composed of nanomaterials,” Nanoscale 6(11), 5581–5591 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  7. G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. Q. G. Du, K. Sathiyamoorthy, L. P. Zhang, H. V. Demir, C. H. Kam, and X. W. Sun, “A two-dimensional nanopatterned thin metallic transparent conductor with high transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181112 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. H. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires by Nanoimprinting for Transparent Flexible Electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Hubarevich, M. Marus, W. Fan, A. Smirnov, X. W. Sun, and H. Wang, “Theoretical comparison of optical and electronic properties of uniformly and randomly arranged nano-porous ultra-thin layers,” Opt. Express 23(14), 17860–17865 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W.-G. Yan, Z.-B. Li, and J.-G. Tian, “Tunable fabrication and optical properties of metal nano hole arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(2), 1704–1707 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Marus, A. Hubarevich, H. Wang, A. Smirnov, X. Sun, and W. Fan, “Optoelectronic performance optimization for transparent conductive layers based on randomly arranged silver nanorods,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6209–6214 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  19. S. Kirkpatrick, “Percolation and conduction,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 45(4), 574–588 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. L. Hu, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Metal nanogrids, nanowires, and nanofibers for transparent electrodes,” MRS Bull. 36(10), 760–765 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Xie, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(103), A355–A362 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. G. Kang and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted Semitransparent Metal Electrodes and Their Application in Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. G. Kang, M. S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. H. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires by Nanoimprinting for Transparent Flexible Electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

W.-G. Yan, Z.-B. Li, and J.-G. Tian, “Tunable fabrication and optical properties of metal nano hole arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(2), 1704–1707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hubarevich, M. Marus, A. Stsiapanau, A. Smirnov, J. Zhao, W. Fan, H. Wang, and X. Sun, “Transparent conductive nanoporous aluminium mesh prepared by electrochemical anodizing,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(10), 2174–2178 (2015).
[Crossref]

G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Marus, A. Hubarevich, H. Wang, A. Smirnov, X. Sun, and W. Fan, “Optoelectronic performance optimization for transparent conductive layers based on randomly arranged silver nanorods,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6209–6214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hubarevich, M. Marus, W. Fan, A. Smirnov, X. W. Sun, and H. Wang, “Theoretical comparison of optical and electronic properties of uniformly and randomly arranged nano-porous ultra-thin layers,” Opt. Express 23(14), 17860–17865 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Marus, A. Hubarevich, H. Wang, A. Stsiapanau, A. Smirnov, X. W. Sun, and W. Fan, “Comparative analysis of opto-electronic performance of aluminium and silver nano-porous and nano-wired layers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26794–26799 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Layani, A. Kamyshny, and S. Magdassi, “Transparent conductors composed of nanomaterials,” Nanoscale 6(11), 5581–5591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. Xie, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, and M. Gu, “Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(103), A355–A362 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. G. Du, K. Sathiyamoorthy, L. P. Zhang, H. V. Demir, C. H. Kam, and X. W. Sun, “A two-dimensional nanopatterned thin metallic transparent conductor with high transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181112 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

L. Hu, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Metal nanogrids, nanowires, and nanofibers for transparent electrodes,” MRS Bull. 36(10), 760–765 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Nanopatterned metallic films for use as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2944–2949 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. V. Coe, J. M. Heer, S. Teeters-Kennedy, H. Tian, and K. R. Rodriguez, “Extraordinary transmission of metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 179–202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Kang, M. S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. G. Kang and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted Semitransparent Metal Electrodes and Their Application in Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Lee, S. Hong, K. Yang, and K. Choi, “Fabrication of 100nm metal lines on flexible plastic substrate using ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143112 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

J. Fitzpatrick, R. Malt, and F. Spaepen, “Percolation theory and the conductivity of random close packed mixtures of hard spheres,” Phys. Lett. A 47(3), 207–208 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, “Percolation and conduction,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 45(4), 574–588 (1973).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

B. Last and D. Thouless, “Percolation theory and electrical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27(25), 1719–1721 (1971).
[Crossref]

Aryal, M.

M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergin, S. M.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catrysse, P. B.

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Nanopatterned metallic films for use as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2944–2949 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, A.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D. Y.

D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K.

H. Lee, S. Hong, K. Yang, and K. Choi, “Fabrication of 100nm metal lines on flexible plastic substrate using ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cobley, C. M.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coe, J. V.

J. V. Coe, J. M. Heer, S. Teeters-Kennedy, H. Tian, and K. R. Rodriguez, “Extraordinary transmission of metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 179–202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

L. Hu, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Metal nanogrids, nanowires, and nanofibers for transparent electrodes,” MRS Bull. 36(10), 760–765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

Q. G. Du, K. Sathiyamoorthy, L. P. Zhang, H. V. Demir, C. H. Kam, and X. W. Sun, “A two-dimensional nanopatterned thin metallic transparent conductor with high transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, Q. G.

Q. G. Du, K. Sathiyamoorthy, L. P. Zhang, H. V. Demir, C. H. Kam, and X. W. Sun, “A two-dimensional nanopatterned thin metallic transparent conductor with high transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Nanopatterned metallic films for use as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2944–2949 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

Fitzpatrick, J.

J. Fitzpatrick, R. Malt, and F. Spaepen, “Percolation theory and the conductivity of random close packed mixtures of hard spheres,” Phys. Lett. A 47(3), 207–208 (1974).
[Crossref]

Geddes, J.

M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

González-García, L.

J. H. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires by Nanoimprinting for Transparent Flexible Electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Guo, L. J.

M. G. Kang, M. S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kang and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted Semitransparent Metal Electrodes and Their Application in Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
[Crossref]

Han, S.-H.

G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heer, J. M.

J. V. Coe, J. M. Heer, S. Teeters-Kennedy, H. Tian, and K. R. Rodriguez, “Extraordinary transmission of metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 179–202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, S.

H. Lee, S. Hong, K. Yang, and K. Choi, “Fabrication of 100nm metal lines on flexible plastic substrate using ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

L. Hu, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Metal nanogrids, nanowires, and nanofibers for transparent electrodes,” MRS Bull. 36(10), 760–765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hua, Y. L.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubarevich, A.

Jeong, G.-J.

G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

Jin, W.-Y.

G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kam, C. H.

Q. G. Du, K. Sathiyamoorthy, L. P. Zhang, H. V. Demir, C. H. Kam, and X. W. Sun, “A two-dimensional nanopatterned thin metallic transparent conductor with high transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kamyshny, A.

M. Layani, A. Kamyshny, and S. Magdassi, “Transparent conductors composed of nanomaterials,” Nanoscale 6(11), 5581–5591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanelidis, I.

J. H. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires by Nanoimprinting for Transparent Flexible Electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H. W.

D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.-W.

G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, M. G.

M. G. Kang, M. S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kang and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted Semitransparent Metal Electrodes and Their Application in Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, E.

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

M. G. Kang, M. S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. S.

M. G. Kang, M. S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. S.

D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, “Percolation and conduction,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 45(4), 574–588 (1973).
[Crossref]

Ko, H.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, S. H.

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, S.-J.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobrin, B.

M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kraus, T.

J. H. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires by Nanoimprinting for Transparent Flexible Electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Last, B.

B. Last and D. Thouless, “Percolation theory and electrical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27(25), 1719–1721 (1971).
[Crossref]

Layani, M.

M. Layani, A. Kamyshny, and S. Magdassi, “Transparent conductors composed of nanomaterials,” Nanoscale 6(11), 5581–5591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, S. Hong, K. Yang, and K. Choi, “Fabrication of 100nm metal lines on flexible plastic substrate using ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-N.

G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Y.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.-B.

W.-G. Yan, Z.-B. Li, and J.-G. Tian, “Tunable fabrication and optical properties of metal nano hole arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(2), 1704–1707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magdassi, S.

M. Layani, A. Kamyshny, and S. Magdassi, “Transparent conductors composed of nanomaterials,” Nanoscale 6(11), 5581–5591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malt, R.

J. Fitzpatrick, R. Malt, and F. Spaepen, “Percolation theory and the conductivity of random close packed mixtures of hard spheres,” Phys. Lett. A 47(3), 207–208 (1974).
[Crossref]

Marus, M.

Maurer, J. H.

J. H. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires by Nanoimprinting for Transparent Flexible Electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMackin, I.

M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moran, C. H.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouyang, Z.

Paeng, D.

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, D.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rathmell, A. R.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiser, B.

J. H. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires by Nanoimprinting for Transparent Flexible Electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, K. R.

J. V. Coe, J. M. Heer, S. Teeters-Kennedy, H. Tian, and K. R. Rodriguez, “Extraordinary transmission of metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 179–202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rycenga, M.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sathiyamoorthy, K.

Q. G. Du, K. Sathiyamoorthy, L. P. Zhang, H. V. Demir, C. H. Kam, and X. W. Sun, “A two-dimensional nanopatterned thin metallic transparent conductor with high transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seitz, O.

M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, A.

Spaepen, F.

J. Fitzpatrick, R. Malt, and F. Spaepen, “Percolation theory and the conductivity of random close packed mixtures of hard spheres,” Phys. Lett. A 47(3), 207–208 (1974).
[Crossref]

Spinelli, P.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stsiapanau, A.

M. Marus, A. Hubarevich, H. Wang, A. Stsiapanau, A. Smirnov, X. W. Sun, and W. Fan, “Comparative analysis of opto-electronic performance of aluminium and silver nano-porous and nano-wired layers,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26794–26799 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hubarevich, M. Marus, A. Stsiapanau, A. Smirnov, J. Zhao, W. Fan, H. Wang, and X. Sun, “Transparent conductive nanoporous aluminium mesh prepared by electrochemical anodizing,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(10), 2174–2178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

M. Marus, A. Hubarevich, H. Wang, A. Smirnov, X. Sun, and W. Fan, “Optoelectronic performance optimization for transparent conductive layers based on randomly arranged silver nanorods,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6209–6214 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hubarevich, M. Marus, A. Stsiapanau, A. Smirnov, J. Zhao, W. Fan, H. Wang, and X. Sun, “Transparent conductive nanoporous aluminium mesh prepared by electrochemical anodizing,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(10), 2174–2178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Sung, H. J.

D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teeters-Kennedy, S.

J. V. Coe, J. M. Heer, S. Teeters-Kennedy, H. Tian, and K. R. Rodriguez, “Extraordinary transmission of metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 179–202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thouless, D.

B. Last and D. Thouless, “Percolation theory and electrical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27(25), 1719–1721 (1971).
[Crossref]

Tian, H.

J. V. Coe, J. M. Heer, S. Teeters-Kennedy, H. Tian, and K. R. Rodriguez, “Extraordinary transmission of metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 179–202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.-G.

W.-G. Yan, Z.-B. Li, and J.-G. Tian, “Tunable fabrication and optical properties of metal nano hole arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(2), 1704–1707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van de Groep, J.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wassei, J.

M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wiley, B. J.

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

L. Hu, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Metal nanogrids, nanowires, and nanofibers for transparent electrodes,” MRS Bull. 36(10), 760–765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

Yan, W.-G.

W.-G. Yan, Z.-B. Li, and J.-G. Tian, “Tunable fabrication and optical properties of metal nano hole arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(2), 1704–1707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.

H. Lee, S. Hong, K. Yang, and K. Choi, “Fabrication of 100nm metal lines on flexible plastic substrate using ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yeo, J.

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, J. H.

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, J.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. P.

Q. G. Du, K. Sathiyamoorthy, L. P. Zhang, H. V. Demir, C. H. Kam, and X. W. Sun, “A two-dimensional nanopatterned thin metallic transparent conductor with high transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

A. Hubarevich, M. Marus, A. Stsiapanau, A. Smirnov, J. Zhao, W. Fan, H. Wang, and X. Sun, “Transparent conductive nanoporous aluminium mesh prepared by electrochemical anodizing,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(10), 2174–2178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

D. Paeng, J. H. Yoo, J. Yeo, D. Lee, E. Kim, S. H. Ko, and C. P. Grigoropoulos, “Low-Cost Facile Fabrication of Flexible Transparent Copper Electrodes by Nanosecond Laser Ablation,” Adv. Mater. 27(17), 2762–2767 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Rathmell, S. M. Bergin, Y. L. Hua, Z. Y. Li, and B. J. Wiley, “The growth mechanism of copper nanowires and their properties in flexible, transparent conducting films,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3558–3563 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Kang and L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprinted Semitransparent Metal Electrodes and Their Application in Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(10), 1391–1396 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. G. Kang, M. S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. V. Coe, J. M. Heer, S. Teeters-Kennedy, H. Tian, and K. R. Rodriguez, “Extraordinary transmission of metal films with arrays of subwavelength holes,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 179–202 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Lee, S. Hong, K. Yang, and K. Choi, “Fabrication of 100nm metal lines on flexible plastic substrate using ultraviolet curing nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(14), 143112 (2006).
[Crossref]

G.-J. Jeong, J.-H. Lee, S.-H. Han, W.-Y. Jin, J.-W. Kang, and S.-N. Lee, “Silver nanowires for transparent conductive electrode to GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(3), 031118 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. G. Du, K. Sathiyamoorthy, L. P. Zhang, H. V. Demir, C. H. Kam, and X. W. Sun, “A two-dimensional nanopatterned thin metallic transparent conductor with high transparency from the ultraviolet to the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. (1)

M. Aryal, J. Geddes, O. Seitz, J. Wassei, I. McMackin, and B. Kobrin, “Sub‐Micron Transparent Metal Mesh Conductor for Touch Screen Displays,” in SID Symposium Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 194–196 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

W.-G. Yan, Z.-B. Li, and J.-G. Tian, “Tunable fabrication and optical properties of metal nano hole arrays,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15(2), 1704–1707 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MRS Bull. (1)

L. Hu, H. Wu, and Y. Cui, “Metal nanogrids, nanowires, and nanofibers for transparent electrodes,” MRS Bull. 36(10), 760–765 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (4)

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kang, T. Kim, S. Cho, Y. Lee, A. Choe, B. Walker, S.-J. Ko, J. Y. Kim, and H. Ko, “Capillary printing of highly aligned silver nanowire transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 15(12), 7933–7942 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Maurer, L. González-García, B. Reiser, I. Kanelidis, and T. Kraus, “Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrathin Gold Nanowires by Nanoimprinting for Transparent Flexible Electronics,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 2921–2925 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Catrysse and S. Fan, “Nanopatterned metallic films for use as transparent conductive electrodes in optoelectronic devices,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 2944–2949 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

M. Layani, A. Kamyshny, and S. Magdassi, “Transparent conductors composed of nanomaterials,” Nanoscale 6(11), 5581–5591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, H. W. Kang, H. J. Sung, and S. S. Kim, “Annealing-free, flexible silver nanowire-polymer composite electrodes via a continuous two-step spray-coating method,” Nanoscale 5(3), 977–983 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

J. Fitzpatrick, R. Malt, and F. Spaepen, “Percolation theory and the conductivity of random close packed mixtures of hard spheres,” Phys. Lett. A 47(3), 207–208 (1974).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Last and D. Thouless, “Percolation theory and electrical conductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27(25), 1719–1721 (1971).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. Hubarevich, M. Marus, A. Stsiapanau, A. Smirnov, J. Zhao, W. Fan, H. Wang, and X. Sun, “Transparent conductive nanoporous aluminium mesh prepared by electrochemical anodizing,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 212(10), 2174–2178 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, “Percolation and conduction,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 45(4), 574–588 (1973).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Lumerical FDTD Solutions, Available from: https://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/ .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Geometrical models for the porous (a) and wired (b) metallic layers on the glass substrate. Yellow dash rectangles are the unit simulation cells, which equal to a2 × 3 and a2 for the pores and wired arrangements, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The average transmittance in the visible spectrum for Ag (a, c) and Al (b, d) porous layers against the interpore distance a and ratio d/a.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The calculated electric field distribution for nano- (a = 200 nm) and microscale (a = 2 µm) Ag (a, c) and Al (b, d) layers at 550 nm wavelength.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The average transmittance in the visible spectrum for Ag (a, c) and Al (b, d) wired layers against the interwire distance a and ratio d/a.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Average transmittance against sheet resistance for nano- (a) and microscale (b) porous Ag and Al layers. The interpore distance a = 200 nm and 2 μm for nano- and microscale configurations, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Average transmittance against sheet resistance for nano- (a) and microscale (b) wired Ag and Al layers. The interpore distance a = 200 nm and 2 μm for nano- and microscale configurations, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Difference in average transmittance between Ag and Al layers against interpore/interwire distance a at fixed sheet resistance of 5 Ohm/sq. Experimental results from [26–28].

Equations (1)

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R sh = 1 h σ 0 ( ϕ f ϕ crit ) t ,

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