Abstract

A micro-sensor based on selenide glasses for evanescent wave detection in mid-infrared spectral range was designed and fabricated. Ge-Sb-Se thin films were successfully deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. In order to characterize them spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements were employed to study near and middle infrared refractive index, surface roughness and the wettability, respectively. Selenide sputtered films were micro-patterned by means of reactive ion etching with inductively coupled plasma process enabling single-mode propagation at a wavelength of 7.7 µm for a waveguide width between 8 and 12 µm. Finally, optical waveguide surface was functionalized by deposition of a hydrophobic polymer, which will permit detection of organic molecules in water. Thus, the optical transducer is a ridge waveguide composed by cladding and guiding Ge-Sb-Se sputtered layers exhibiting a tailored refractive index contrast and a polymer layer onto its surface ready for environmental detections in middle infrared.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 141106 (2016).

2015 (8)

D. McMullin, B. Mizaikoff, and R. Krska, “Advancements in IR spectroscopic approaches for the determination of fungal derived contaminations in food crops,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(3), 653–660 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Møller, Y. Yu, I. Kubat, C. R. Petersen, X. Gai, L. Brilland, D. Méchin, C. Caillaud, J. Troles, B. Luther-Davies, and O. Bang, “Multi-milliwatt mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended core chalcogenide fiber,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3282–3291 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, D. D. Hudson, R. Wang, E. C. Mägi, D.-Y. Choi, C. Grillet, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, and B. J. Eggleton, “Positive and negative phototunability of chalcogenide (AMTIR-1) microdisk resonator,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8681–8686 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Y. Yu, Z. Yang, K. Vu, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, B. Luther-Davies, and S. Madden, “High Q factor chalcogenide ring resonators for cavity-enhanced MIR spectroscopic sensing,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19969–19979 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Lu, W. W. Li, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, H. Q. Yu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Probing the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin during heat-induced denaturation using mid-infrared fiberoptic sensors,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 765–770 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Olivier, P. Nemec, G. Boudebs, R. Boidin, C. Focsa, and V. Nazabal, “Photosensitivity of pulsed laser deposited Ge-Sb-Se thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 781–793 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, A. Rao, S. Novak, K. Richardson, and S. Fathpour, “Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111110 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Němec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendová, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)100−x(Sb2Se3)x glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Olivier, J. C. Tchahame, P. Nemec, M. Chauvet, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, G. Boudebs, G. Renversez, R. Boidin, E. Baudet, and V. Nazabal, “Structure, nonlinear properties, and photosensitivity of (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(3), 525–540 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, M. Baudisch, D. Werdehausen, B. J. Eggleton, and J. Biegert, “1.9 octave supercontinuum generation in a As2S3 step-index fiber driven by mid-IR OPCPA,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5752–5755 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct quantification of aromatic hydrocarbons in geochemical fluids with a mid-infrared attenuated total reflection sensor,” Org. Geochem. 55, 63–71 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Mizaikoff, “Waveguide-enhanced mid-infrared chem/bio sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(22), 8683–8699 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Verger, V. Nazabal, F. Colas, P. Nemec, C. Cardinaud, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, I. Peron, S. Deputier, M. Guilloux-Viry, J. P. Guin, H. Lhermite, A. Moreac, C. Compere, and B. Bureau, “RF sputtered amorphous chalcogenide thin films for surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2112–2131 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater. 59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vigreux, E. Barthélémy, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, M. Barillot, S. Ménard, G. Parent, and A. Pradel, “Realization of single-mode telluride rib waveguides for mid-IR applications between 10 and 20 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2922–2924 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

J. Amalric and J. Marchand-Brynaert, “Surface modification of amorphous substrates by disulfide derivatives: A photo-assisted route to direct functionalization of chalcogenide glasses,” Surf. Sci. 605(23-24), 2006–2016 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

P. Nemec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023509 (2009).

B. Pejcic, M. Myers, and A. Ross, “Mid-infrared sensing of organic pollutants in aqueous environments,” Sensors (Basel) 9(8), 6232–6253 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, “First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16659–16669 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Choi, S. Maden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of AS(2)S(3) films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011115 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Flavin, H. Hughes, V. Dobbyn, P. Kirwan, K. Murphy, H. Steiner, B. Mizaikoff, and P. McLoughlin, “A comparison of polymeric materials as pre-concentrating media for use with ATR/FTIR sensing,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 86(6), 401–415 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Karlowatz, M. Kraft, and B. Mizaikoff, “Simultaneous quantitative determination of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water using mid-infrared evanescent field spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76(9), 2643–2648 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5140–5145 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. M. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Zakery, “Low loss waveguides in pulsed laser deposited arsenic sulfide chalcogenide films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(22), 2909–2913 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Nemec, M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Jedelsky, “Pulsed laser deposition of pure and praseodymium-doped Ge-Ga-Se amorphous chalcogenide films,” Opt. Mater. 15(3), 191–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2137 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photoinduced changes in the optical-properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin-films,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Ga-La-S Chalcogenide Glass Thin-Film Optical Wave-Guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

M. Frumar, H. Ticha, M. Vlcek, J. Klikorka, and L. Tichy, “Photostructural changes in some ternary Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide layers,” Czech. J. Phys. 31(4), 441–446 (1981).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 141106 (2016).

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater. 59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A. M.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

Amalric, J.

J. Amalric and J. Marchand-Brynaert, “Surface modification of amorphous substrates by disulfide derivatives: A photo-assisted route to direct functionalization of chalcogenide glasses,” Surf. Sci. 605(23-24), 2006–2016 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anne, M. L.

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

Barillot, M.

Barthélémy, E.

Bastard, L.

Baudet, E.

Baudisch, M.

Benda, P.

P. Němec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendová, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)100−x(Sb2Se3)x glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).
[Crossref]

Besse, V.

Biegert, J.

Bishop, S. G.

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196 (1998).
[Crossref]

Boesewetter, D. E.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boidin, R.

Bosc, D.

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boudebs, G.

Boukerma, K.

Boussard-Pledel, C.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boyd, L.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct quantification of aromatic hydrocarbons in geochemical fluids with a mid-infrared attenuated total reflection sensor,” Org. Geochem. 55, 63–71 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brandily, M. L.

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brandily, M.-L.

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

Braud, A.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brilland, L.

Broquin, J. E.

Bureau, B.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Verger, V. Nazabal, F. Colas, P. Nemec, C. Cardinaud, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, I. Peron, S. Deputier, M. Guilloux-Viry, J. P. Guin, H. Lhermite, A. Moreac, C. Compere, and B. Bureau, “RF sputtered amorphous chalcogenide thin films for surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2112–2131 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Caillaud, C.

Camy, P.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cardinaud, C.

Carlie, N.

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater. 59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cassagne, C.

Cathelinaud, M.

Chahal, R.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Verger, V. Nazabal, F. Colas, P. Nemec, C. Cardinaud, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, I. Peron, S. Deputier, M. Guilloux-Viry, J. P. Guin, H. Lhermite, A. Moreac, C. Compere, and B. Bureau, “RF sputtered amorphous chalcogenide thin films for surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2112–2131 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charpentier, F.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charrier, J.

J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chauvet, M.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiles, J.

J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, A. Rao, S. Novak, K. Richardson, and S. Fathpour, “Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, D. Y.

D. Y. Choi, S. Maden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of AS(2)S(3) films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication of low loss Ge33As12Se55 (AMTIR-1) planar waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(1), 011115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.-Y.

Colas, F.

Collier, J.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Pledel, and B. Bureau, “Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 119(2), 355–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Collins, R. W.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. M. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Compere, C.

Danto, S.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

de Rooij, N. F.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, F.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

Deng, X. M.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. M. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Deol, R. S.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Ga-La-S Chalcogenide Glass Thin-Film Optical Wave-Guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

Deputier, S.

Di Francesco, J.

Y.-C. Chang, P. Wägli, V. Paeder, A. Homsy, L. Hvozdara, P. van der Wal, J. Di Francesco, N. F. de Rooij, and H. Peter Herzig, “Cocaine detection by a mid-infrared waveguide integrated with a microfluidic chip,” Lab Chip 12(17), 3020–3023 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dinev, B.

K. Petkov and B. Dinev, “Photoinduced changes in the optical-properties of amorphous As-Ge-S thin-films,” J. Mater. Sci. 29(2), 468–472 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dobbyn, V.

K. Flavin, H. Hughes, V. Dobbyn, P. Kirwan, K. Murphy, H. Steiner, B. Mizaikoff, and P. McLoughlin, “A comparison of polymeric materials as pre-concentrating media for use with ATR/FTIR sensing,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 86(6), 401–415 (2006).
[Crossref]

Doualan, J. L.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eason, R. W.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Ga-La-S Chalcogenide Glass Thin-Film Optical Wave-Guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

Eggleton, B. J.

Fathpour, S.

J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, A. Rao, S. Novak, K. Richardson, and S. Fathpour, “Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fedus, K.

Ferlauto, A. S.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. M. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, G. M.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. M. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Flavin, K.

K. Flavin, H. Hughes, V. Dobbyn, P. Kirwan, K. Murphy, H. Steiner, B. Mizaikoff, and P. McLoughlin, “A comparison of polymeric materials as pre-concentrating media for use with ATR/FTIR sensing,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 86(6), 401–415 (2006).
[Crossref]

Focsa, C.

Frumar, M.

P. Nemec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023509 (2009).

P. Nemec, M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Jedelsky, “Pulsed laser deposition of pure and praseodymium-doped Ge-Ga-Se amorphous chalcogenide films,” Opt. Mater. 15(3), 191–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Frumar, H. Ticha, M. Vlcek, J. Klikorka, and L. Tichy, “Photostructural changes in some ternary Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide layers,” Czech. J. Phys. 31(4), 441–446 (1981).
[Crossref]

Frumarova, B.

P. Nemec, M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Jedelsky, “Pulsed laser deposition of pure and praseodymium-doped Ge-Ga-Se amorphous chalcogenide films,” Opt. Mater. 15(3), 191–197 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gai, X.

Ganguly, G.

A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. M. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
[Crossref]

Giammarco, J.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

Grevatt, T.

K. E. Youden, T. Grevatt, R. W. Eason, H. N. Rutt, R. S. Deol, and G. Wylangowski, “Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Ga-La-S Chalcogenide Glass Thin-Film Optical Wave-Guides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(12), 1601–1603 (1993).
[Crossref]

Grillet, C.

Guilloux-Viry, M.

Guin, J. P.

F. Verger, V. Nazabal, F. Colas, P. Nemec, C. Cardinaud, E. Baudet, R. Chahal, E. Rinnert, K. Boukerma, I. Peron, S. Deputier, M. Guilloux-Viry, J. P. Guin, H. Lhermite, A. Moreac, C. Compere, and B. Bureau, “RF sputtered amorphous chalcogenide thin films for surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2112–2131 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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Henrio, F.

J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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C. C. Huang, C. C. Wu, K. Knight, and D. W. Hewak, “Optical properties of CVD grown amorphous Ge-Sb-S thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(4-5), 281–285 (2010).
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Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
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J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater. 59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
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C. C. Huang, C. C. Wu, K. Knight, and D. W. Hewak, “Optical properties of CVD grown amorphous Ge-Sb-S thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(4-5), 281–285 (2010).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 141106 (2016).

Kimerling, L. C.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater. 59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
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K. Flavin, H. Hughes, V. Dobbyn, P. Kirwan, K. Murphy, H. Steiner, B. Mizaikoff, and P. McLoughlin, “A comparison of polymeric materials as pre-concentrating media for use with ATR/FTIR sensing,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 86(6), 401–415 (2006).
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C. C. Huang, C. C. Wu, K. Knight, and D. W. Hewak, “Optical properties of CVD grown amorphous Ge-Sb-S thin films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(4-5), 281–285 (2010).
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M. Karlowatz, M. Kraft, and B. Mizaikoff, “Simultaneous quantitative determination of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water using mid-infrared evanescent field spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76(9), 2643–2648 (2004).
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D. McMullin, B. Mizaikoff, and R. Krska, “Advancements in IR spectroscopic approaches for the determination of fungal derived contaminations in food crops,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(3), 653–660 (2015).
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Kubat, I.

Lancok, J.

P. Nemec, M. Frumar, B. Frumarova, M. Jelinek, J. Lancok, and J. Jedelsky, “Pulsed laser deposition of pure and praseodymium-doped Ge-Ga-Se amorphous chalcogenide films,” Opt. Mater. 15(3), 191–197 (2000).
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J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, F. Charpentier, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide Ga(x)Ge(25-x)Sb(10)S(65(x=0,5)) sputtered films: Fabrication and optical characterizations of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

Li, M.

Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
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Li, W.

Li, W. W.

R. Lu, W. W. Li, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, H. Q. Yu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Probing the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin during heat-induced denaturation using mid-infrared fiberoptic sensors,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 765–770 (2015).
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Y. Chen, H. Lin, J. Hu, and M. Li, “Heterogeneously integrated silicon photonics for the mid-infrared and spectroscopic sensing,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6955–6961 (2014).
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V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

Lin, P.

Z. Han, P. Lin, V. Singh, L. Kimerling, J. Hu, K. Richardson, A. Agarwal, and D. T. H. Tan, “On-chip mid-infrared gas detection using chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 141106 (2016).

Lin, P. T.

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. T. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Y. Ni, J. J. Hu, J. Giammarco, A. P. Soliani, B. Zdyrko, I. Luzinov, S. Novak, J. Novak, P. Wachtel, S. Danto, J. D. Musgraves, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. M. Agarwal, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15, 1 (2014).

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Lu, R.

R. Lu, W. W. Li, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, H. Q. Yu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Probing the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin during heat-induced denaturation using mid-infrared fiberoptic sensors,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 765–770 (2015).
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Ma, P.

Madden, S.

Maden, S.

D. Y. Choi, S. Maden, A. Rode, R. P. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of AS(2)S(3) films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
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McMullin, D.

D. McMullin, B. Mizaikoff, and R. Krska, “Advancements in IR spectroscopic approaches for the determination of fungal derived contaminations in food crops,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(3), 653–660 (2015).
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Méchin, D.

Ménard, S.

Michel, K.

F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
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J. Charrier, M.-L. Brandily, H. Lhermite, K. Michel, B. Bureau, F. Verger, and V. Nazabal, “Evanescent wave optical micro-sensor based on chalcogenide glass,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 173, 468–476 (2012).
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Mizaikoff, B.

D. McMullin, B. Mizaikoff, and R. Krska, “Advancements in IR spectroscopic approaches for the determination of fungal derived contaminations in food crops,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(3), 653–660 (2015).
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R. Lu, W. W. Li, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, H. Q. Yu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Probing the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin during heat-induced denaturation using mid-infrared fiberoptic sensors,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 765–770 (2015).
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B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct quantification of aromatic hydrocarbons in geochemical fluids with a mid-infrared attenuated total reflection sensor,” Org. Geochem. 55, 63–71 (2013).
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K. Flavin, H. Hughes, V. Dobbyn, P. Kirwan, K. Murphy, H. Steiner, B. Mizaikoff, and P. McLoughlin, “A comparison of polymeric materials as pre-concentrating media for use with ATR/FTIR sensing,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 86(6), 401–415 (2006).
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M. Karlowatz, M. Kraft, and B. Mizaikoff, “Simultaneous quantitative determination of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water using mid-infrared evanescent field spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76(9), 2643–2648 (2004).
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G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2137 (1996).
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F. Starecki, F. Charpentier, J. L. Doualan, L. Quetel, K. Michel, R. Chahal, J. Troles, B. Bureau, A. Braud, P. Camy, V. Moizan, and V. Nazabal, “Mid-IR optical sensor for CO2 detection based on fluorescence absorbance of Dy3+:Ga5Ge20Sb10S65 fibers,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 518–525 (2015).
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Moreac, A.

Murphy, K.

K. Flavin, H. Hughes, V. Dobbyn, P. Kirwan, K. Murphy, H. Steiner, B. Mizaikoff, and P. McLoughlin, “A comparison of polymeric materials as pre-concentrating media for use with ATR/FTIR sensing,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 86(6), 401–415 (2006).
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J. D. Musgraves, N. Carlie, J. Hu, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and K. A. Richardson, “Comparison of the optical, thermal and structural properties of Ge-Sb-S thin films deposited using thermal evaporation and pulsed laser deposition techniques,” Acta Mater. 59(12), 5032–5039 (2011).
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Myers, M.

B. Pejcic, L. Boyd, M. Myers, A. Ross, Y. Raichlin, A. Katzir, R. Lu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Direct quantification of aromatic hydrocarbons in geochemical fluids with a mid-infrared attenuated total reflection sensor,” Org. Geochem. 55, 63–71 (2013).
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D. McMullin, B. Mizaikoff, and R. Krska, “Advancements in IR spectroscopic approaches for the determination of fungal derived contaminations in food crops,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(3), 653–660 (2015).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

M. Karlowatz, M. Kraft, and B. Mizaikoff, “Simultaneous quantitative determination of benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water using mid-infrared evanescent field spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 76(9), 2643–2648 (2004).
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R. Lu, W. W. Li, A. Katzir, Y. Raichlin, H. Q. Yu, and B. Mizaikoff, “Probing the secondary structure of bovine serum albumin during heat-induced denaturation using mid-infrared fiberoptic sensors,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(3), 765–770 (2015).
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M. Frumar, H. Ticha, M. Vlcek, J. Klikorka, and L. Tichy, “Photostructural changes in some ternary Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide layers,” Czech. J. Phys. 31(4), 441–446 (1981).
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K. Flavin, H. Hughes, V. Dobbyn, P. Kirwan, K. Murphy, H. Steiner, B. Mizaikoff, and P. McLoughlin, “A comparison of polymeric materials as pre-concentrating media for use with ATR/FTIR sensing,” Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 86(6), 401–415 (2006).
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J. Charrier, M. L. Anne, H. Lhermite, V. Nazabal, J. P. Guin, T. Jouan, F. Henrio, D. Bosc, and J. L. Adam, “Sulphide GaxGe25-xSb10S65 (x =0, 5) sputtered films: fabrication and optical characterisation of planar and rib optical waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(7), 073110 (2008).
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A. S. Ferlauto, G. M. Ferreira, J. M. Pearce, C. R. Wronski, R. W. Collins, X. M. Deng, and G. Ganguly, “Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film photovoltaics,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2424–2436 (2002).
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P. Nemec, V. Nazabal, and M. Frumar, “Photoinduced phenomena in amorphous As4Se3 pulsed laser deposited thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023509 (2009).

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Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

P. Němec, M. Olivier, E. Baudet, A. Kalendová, P. Benda, and V. Nazabal, “Optical properties of (GeSe2)100−x(Sb2Se3)x glasses in near- and middle-infrared spectral regions,” Mater. Res. Bull. 51, 176–179 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

Opt. Express (7)

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J. Hu, “Ultra-sensitive chemical vapor detection using micro-cavity photothermal spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22174–22186 (2010).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Ge-Sb-Se ternary diagram with glass-forming region (orange line) showing studied compositions: (GeSe2)90(Sb2Se3)10 (Se-2) and (GeSe2)50(Sb2Se3)50 (Se-6) [16].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) AFM image of surface and Fig. 2(b) SEM image of top surface and cross-section of Ge12.5Sb25Se62.5 RF sputtered thin film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Image of contact angle measurement between water drop and Ge28.1Sb6.3Se65.6 thin film. Contact angle θ is defined geometrically as the angle formed at the three phases boundary where liquid, gas and solid intersect and described by Young equation γSSLLcosθ. Figure 3(b) Surface energy of chalcogenide thin films within Owens-Wendt approach using five liquids with A1 = γ L 2 γ L d and A2 = γ L p γ L d .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The colored area as function of the dimensions w and h of the guiding layer defines the area where the effective index of the guided mode is between that of the guiding layer and the cladding layer. This colorful area also represents the evolution of the power factor evanescent 7.7 um (inset illustrates scheme of simulated ridge waveguide).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) SEM image of MIR structure and Fig. 5(b) dispersion curves of refractive indices of Ge28.1Sb6.3Se65.6, Ge12.5Sb25Se62.5 single thin films, guiding and cladding layer of MIR structure estimated by the analysis of VASE data via Cody-Lorentz or Sellmeier model.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM image of selenide ridge waveguide (Ge12.5Sb25Se62.5 (Se-6) guiding layer and Ge28.1Sb6.3Se65.6 (Se-2) cladding layer) fabricated by RIE-ICP using CHF3 gas.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Near-field images in MIR (7.7 µm) representing the mode profile at the output of the planar waveguide and Fig. 7(b) the mode profile of single-mode ridge waveguide with 15 µm width.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 SEM image of polyisobutylene film deposited on chalcogenide waveguide constituted of Ge12.5Sb25Se62.5 (Se-6) guiding layer and Ge28.1Sb6.3Se65.6 (Se-2) cladding layer.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Chemical composition ( ± 1 at.%) of bulk targets and sputtered thin films estimated by EDS. Refractive index in NIR and MIR ( ± 0.01) extracted from VASE data of bulk targets and sputtered Ge28.1Sb6.3Se65.6 and Ge12.5Sb25Se62.5 thin films. Surface RMS roughness ( ± 0.01 nm) of fabricated thin films obtained by AFM.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Contact angle and surface tension data obtained for Ge28.1Sb6.3Se65.6 and Ge12.5Sb25Se62.5 thin films.

Equations (1)

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d p = λ 2π n 1 [ sin 2 θ ( n 2 n 1 ) 2 ] 1 2

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