Abstract

Electro-optic property of Ti4+-doped LiNbO3 single crystal is investigated. The electro-optic coefficients γ33 and γ13 of a series of bulk Ti4+-doped congruent LiNbO3 crystals with different Ti4+ concentrations up to 12 mol% in crystal were measured by Mach-Zehnder interferometric method and correlated with the Ti4+-doping concentration. Both clamped and unclamped coefficients were measured. The results show that both γ33 and γ13 reveal a degradation tendency with the increase of Ti4+ concentration in both cases of clamped and unclamped measurements. Nevertheless, the degradation is no more than 15% for the considered Ti4+ concentration up to 12 mol%. The little effect is explained qualitatively and comprehensibly.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Wan-Ying Du, Zi-Bo Zhang, Jia-Qi Xu, Wing-Han Wong, Daoyin Yu, Edwin Yue-Bun Pun, and De-Long Zhang, "Electro-optic coefficients of Ti:LiNbO3 single crystal: erratum," Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2734-2735 (2016)
http://proxy.osapublishing.org/ome/abstract.cfm?uri=ome-6-9-2734

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References

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    [Crossref]
  14. A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. H. Kang, B. K. Rhee, and G. T. Joo, “Variation of electro-optic coefficients in MgO-doped LiNbO3 single crystals,” Mater. Lett. 60(17-18), 2306–2308 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, N. Kokanyan, C. Teyssandier, and E. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of zirconium-doped congruent lithium–niobate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 179–189 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Chah, M. D. Fontana, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in undoped and Cr-doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 67(1), 65–71 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystals function of composition,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 261–265 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, and S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electrooptical effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(16), 992–994 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  23. I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, and N. Mario, “Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, “Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 403–409 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Méndez, G. De La Paliza, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient r33 in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 73(5-6), 485–488 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. L. Zhang, G. L. Ding, Y. M. Cui, and C. H. Chen, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Progress in Physics 21(1), 45–65 (2001).
  26. E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “High-temperature phase transformation in Ti-diffused waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1352–1354 (1998).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2010 (1)

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. H. Kang, B. K. Rhee, and G. T. Joo, “Variation of electro-optic coefficients in MgO-doped LiNbO3 single crystals,” Mater. Lett. 60(17-18), 2306–2308 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

A. Méndez, G. De La Paliza, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient r33 in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 73(5-6), 485–488 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. L. Zhang, G. L. Ding, Y. M. Cui, and C. H. Chen, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Progress in Physics 21(1), 45–65 (2001).

2000 (2)

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystals function of composition,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 261–265 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

A. Méndez, A. García Cabañes, E. Diéguez, and J. M. Cabrera, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic coefficients in congruent and quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 498–499 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 499–501 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

K. Chah, M. D. Fontana, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in undoped and Cr-doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 67(1), 65–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. García Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “High-temperature phase transformation in Ti-diffused waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1352–1354 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

N. A. Sanford, “Introduction to the feature issue on recent in lithium niobate optical technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1626 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, and N. Mario, “Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, “Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 403–409 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, and S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electrooptical effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(16), 992–994 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, C. D. Brandle, and D. M. Smyth, “Evaluation of crystals of LiNbO3 doped with MgO or TiO2 for electrooptic devices,” Ferroelectrics 51(1), 41–45 (1983).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(8), 458–500 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abarkan, M.

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, N. Kokanyan, C. Teyssandier, and E. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of zirconium-doped congruent lithium–niobate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 179–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Abdi, F.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

Aillerie, M.

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, N. Kokanyan, C. Teyssandier, and E. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of zirconium-doped congruent lithium–niobate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 179–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystals function of composition,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 261–265 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. D. Fontana, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in undoped and Cr-doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 67(1), 65–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Alonzo, M.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Argiolas, N.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Avrahami, Y.

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “High-temperature phase transformation in Ti-diffused waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1352–1354 (1998).
[Crossref]

Balsamo, S.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bazzan, M.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Becker, Ch.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Betzler, K.

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bosso, S.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bourson, P.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. D. Fontana, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in undoped and Cr-doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 67(1), 65–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brandle, C. D.

R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, C. D. Brandle, and D. M. Smyth, “Evaluation of crystals of LiNbO3 doped with MgO or TiO2 for electrooptic devices,” Ferroelectrics 51(1), 41–45 (1983).
[Crossref]

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cabrera, J. M.

A. Méndez, G. De La Paliza, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient r33 in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 73(5-6), 485–488 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Méndez, A. García Cabañes, E. Diéguez, and J. M. Cabrera, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic coefficients in congruent and quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 498–499 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. García Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chah, K.

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystals function of composition,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 261–265 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. D. Fontana, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in undoped and Cr-doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 67(1), 65–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

D. L. Zhang, G. L. Ding, Y. M. Cui, and C. H. Chen, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Progress in Physics 21(1), 45–65 (2001).

Corsini, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. M.

D. L. Zhang, G. L. Ding, Y. M. Cui, and C. H. Chen, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Progress in Physics 21(1), 45–65 (2001).

De La Paliza, G.

A. Méndez, G. De La Paliza, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient r33 in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 73(5-6), 485–488 (2001).
[Crossref]

de Toro, J. A.

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. García Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Diéguez, E.

A. Méndez, A. García Cabañes, E. Diéguez, and J. M. Cabrera, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic coefficients in congruent and quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 498–499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ding, G. L.

D. L. Zhang, G. L. Ding, Y. M. Cui, and C. H. Chen, “Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguide,” Progress in Physics 21(1), 45–65 (2001).

Fazio, E.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fontana, M. D.

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystals function of composition,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 261–265 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. D. Fontana, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in undoped and Cr-doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 67(1), 65–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 499–501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Furukawa, Y.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 499–501 (1999).
[Crossref]

García Cabañes, A.

A. Méndez, A. García Cabañes, E. Diéguez, and J. M. Cabrera, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic coefficients in congruent and quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 498–499 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. García Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

García-Cabañes, A.

A. Méndez, G. De La Paliza, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient r33 in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 73(5-6), 485–488 (2001).
[Crossref]

Greiner, A.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Heidari Bateni, S.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holmes, R. J.

R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, C. D. Brandle, and D. M. Smyth, “Evaluation of crystals of LiNbO3 doped with MgO or TiO2 for electrooptic devices,” Ferroelectrics 51(1), 41–45 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ikushima, A. J.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 499–501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Joo, G. T.

B. H. Kang, B. K. Rhee, and G. T. Joo, “Variation of electro-optic coefficients in MgO-doped LiNbO3 single crystals,” Mater. Lett. 60(17-18), 2306–2308 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaminow, I. P.

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(8), 458–500 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kang, B. H.

B. H. Kang, B. K. Rhee, and G. T. Joo, “Variation of electro-optic coefficients in MgO-doped LiNbO3 single crystals,” Mater. Lett. 60(17-18), 2306–2308 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

Kawakami, S.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, and S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electrooptical effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(16), 992–994 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, C. D. Brandle, and D. M. Smyth, “Evaluation of crystals of LiNbO3 doped with MgO or TiO2 for electrooptic devices,” Ferroelectrics 51(1), 41–45 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kitamura, K.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 499–501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kokanyan, E.

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, N. Kokanyan, C. Teyssandier, and E. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of zirconium-doped congruent lithium–niobate crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 179–189 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kokanyan, E. P.

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kokanyan, N.

Kumagai, K.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, and S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electrooptical effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(16), 992–994 (1986).
[Crossref]

Malovichko, G.

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystals function of composition,” Opt. Commun. 176(1-3), 261–265 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Chah, M. D. Fontana, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in undoped and Cr-doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 67(1), 65–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

Malovichko, G. I.

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mario, N.

I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, and N. Mario, “Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, “Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 403–409 (1996).
[Crossref]

Maximov, B.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

Méndez, A.

A. Méndez, G. De La Paliza, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient r33 in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 73(5-6), 485–488 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Méndez, A. García Cabañes, E. Diéguez, and J. M. Cabrera, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic coefficients in congruent and quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 498–499 (1999).
[Crossref]

Metzger, T. H.

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “High-temperature phase transformation in Ti-diffused waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1352–1354 (1998).
[Crossref]

Minakata, M.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, and S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electrooptical effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(16), 992–994 (1986).
[Crossref]

Montrosset, I.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Oesselke, T.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ohama, M.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 499–501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pandavenes, J.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Peisl, J.

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “High-temperature phase transformation in Ti-diffused waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1352–1354 (1998).
[Crossref]

Petris, A.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pettazzi, F.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y. B.

Rhee, B. K.

B. H. Kang, B. K. Rhee, and G. T. Joo, “Variation of electro-optic coefficients in MgO-doped LiNbO3 single crystals,” Mater. Lett. 60(17-18), 2306–2308 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ricken, R.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rochhausen, K.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rubinina, N.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sada, C.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salvestrini, J. P.

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford, “Introduction to the feature issue on recent in lithium niobate optical technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1626 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sauer, W.

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “High-temperature phase transformation in Ti-diffused waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1352–1354 (1998).
[Crossref]

Savatinova, I.

I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, and N. Mario, “Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, “Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 403–409 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, K.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, R. V.

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(8), 458–500 (1974).
[Crossref]

Schreiberg, G.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sciancalepore, D.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

Serrano, M. D.

J. A. de Toro, M. D. Serrano, A. García Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Accurate interferometric measurement of electro-optic coefficients: application to quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Opt. Commun. 154(1-3), 23–27 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smyth, D. M.

R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, C. D. Brandle, and D. M. Smyth, “Evaluation of crystals of LiNbO3 doped with MgO or TiO2 for electrooptic devices,” Ferroelectrics 51(1), 41–45 (1983).
[Crossref]

Söchtig, J.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sohler, W.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Suche, H.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sulyanov, S.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 499–501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Teyssandier, C.

Todorov, R.

I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, and N. Mario, “Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, “Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 403–409 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tonchev, S.

I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, and N. Mario, “Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, “Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 403–409 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vlad, V. I.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Volk, T.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wessel, R.

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wöhlecke, M.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wolfersberger, D.

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wong, W. H.

Yu, D. Y.

Zhang, D. L.

Zolotoyabko, E.

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “High-temperature phase transformation in Ti-diffused waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1352–1354 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Abarkan, M. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. (3)

K. Chah, M. D. Fontana, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, and G. Malovichko, “Electro-optic properties in undoped and Cr-doped LiNbO3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 67(1), 65–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electrooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Méndez, G. De La Paliza, A. García-Cabañes, and J. M. Cabrera, “Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient r33 in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. B Lasers & Opt. 73(5-6), 485–488 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, and S. Kawakami, “Lattice constant changes and electrooptical effects in proton exchanged LiNbO3 optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(16), 992–994 (1986).
[Crossref]

E. Zolotoyabko, Y. Avrahami, W. Sauer, T. H. Metzger, and J. Peisl, “High-temperature phase transformation in Ti-diffused waveguide layers of LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(10), 1352–1354 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(8), 458–500 (1974).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Méndez, A. García Cabañes, E. Diéguez, and J. M. Cabrera, “Wavelength dependence of electro-optic coefficients in congruent and quasi-stoichiometric LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 498–499 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Fujiwara, M. Takahashi, M. Ohama, A. J. Ikushima, Y. Furukawa, and K. Kitamura, “Comparison of electro-optic effect between stoichiometric and congruent LiNbO3,” Electron. Lett. 35(6), 499–501 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ferroelectrics (1)

R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, C. D. Brandle, and D. M. Smyth, “Evaluation of crystals of LiNbO3 doped with MgO or TiO2 for electrooptic devices,” Ferroelectrics 51(1), 41–45 (1983).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. A. Sanford, “Introduction to the feature issue on recent in lithium niobate optical technology,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1626 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(2), 355–366 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ch. Becker, T. Oesselke, J. Pandavenes, R. Ricken, K. Rochhausen, G. Schreiberg, W. Sohler, H. Suche, R. Wessel, S. Balsamo, I. Montrosset, and D. Sciancalepore, “Advanced Ti:Er:LiNbO3 waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 101–113 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

I. Savatinova, S. Tonchev, R. Todorov, and N. Mario, “Armenise, V. M. N. Passaro and C. C. Ziling, “Electro-optic effect in proton exchanged LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 403–409 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

A. Petris, S. Heidari Bateni, V. I. Vlad, M. Alonzo, F. Pettazzi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, C. Sada, D. Wolfersberger, and E. Fazio, “The r33 electro-optic coefficient of Er:LiNbO3,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015205 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

B. H. Kang, B. K. Rhee, and G. T. Joo, “Variation of electro-optic coefficients in MgO-doped LiNbO3 single crystals,” Mater. Lett. 60(17-18), 2306–2308 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

K. Chah, M. Aillerie, M. D. Fontana, G. I. Malovichko, K. Betzler, and E. Kokanyan, “Influence of chromium doping on the electro-optic of lithium niobate properties,” Opt. Commun. 136, 231–234 (1997).
[Crossref]

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Progress in Physics (1)

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Other (4)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of Mach-Zehnder interferometer for measuring the EO coefficients of Ti4+-doped LNs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Clamped EO coefficients γ33 (red balls) and γ13 (green balls) measured as a function of 632.8 nm light intensity in a congruent LN crystal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Clamped (red balls) and unclamped (green balls) EO coefficients (a) γ33 and (b) γ13 measured as a function of Ti4+ doping concentration in LN crystal.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of Ti4+ concentration in growth melt/crystal, interaction length (L) between applied electric field and light wave propagated in crystal, spacing d of electrodes, and the EO coefficients γ33 and γ13 in both cases of clamped and unclamped measurements (data in the parentheses correspond to the clamped case).

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