Abstract

The structural and mechanical characteristics of ultrafast lasers inscribed Er2O3-doped GeGaS chalcogenide glass waveguides have been investigated with the aid of micro-Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The mechanical property data indicates two distinct regions within the waveguides, with the top of the waveguide having considerably lower elastic modulus and hardness. Raman spectroscopy also confirms the existence of such distinct regions. These results are interpreted in terms of structural modifications made by the laser inscriptions to the glassy network.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Frantz, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Waveguide amplifiers in sputtered films of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1797–1803 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15776–15781 (2007).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  14. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Saliminia, T. V. Galstian, and A. Villeneuve, “Optical field-induced mass transport in As2S3 chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(19), 4112–4115 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Optical microfabrication of chalcogenide glasses,” Science 270(5238), 974–975 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. S. R. N. Kiran, S. Varughese, U. Ramamurty, and G. R. Desiraju, “Effect of dehydration on the mechanical properties of sodium saccharin dihydrate probed with nanoindentation,” CrystEngComm 14(7), 2489–2493 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Sabapathy, M. S. R. N. Kiran, A. Ayiriveetil, A. K. Kar, U. Ramamurty, and S. Asokan, “Nanoindentation studies on waveguides inscribed in chalcogenide glasses using ultrafast laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(6), 684–690 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23–24), 1097–1101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga–Ge–S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Heo, J. Min, and S. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2–Ga2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1–2), 115–123 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  24. N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 833–837 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

T. Sabapathy, G. Sivakumar, A. Ayiriveetil, A. K. Kar, and S. Asokan, “Controlling the cross-section of waveguides inscribed on bulk chalcogenide glasses using fast laser,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 8(11), 1001–1004 (2014).

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

T. Sabapathy, A. Ayiriveetil, A. K. Kar, S. Asokan, and S. J. Beecher, “Direct ultrafast laser written C-band waveguide amplifier in Er-doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1556–1561 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. S. R. N. Kiran, S. Varughese, U. Ramamurty, and G. R. Desiraju, “Effect of dehydration on the mechanical properties of sodium saccharin dihydrate probed with nanoindentation,” CrystEngComm 14(7), 2489–2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23–24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga–Ge–S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped chalcogenide glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 833–837 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Saliminia, T. V. Galstian, and A. Villeneuve, “Optical field-induced mass transport in As2S3 chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(19), 4112–4115 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. Heo, J. Min, and S. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2–Ga2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1–2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Optical microfabrication of chalcogenide glasses,” Science 270(5238), 974–975 (1995).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

J. A. Savage and S. Nielsen, “Chalcogenide glasses transmitting in the infrared between 1 and 20 μ - a state of the art review,” Infrared Phys. 5(4), 195–204 (1965).
[Crossref]

Aga, R.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23–24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Arai, A.

Asokan, S.

Ayiriveetil, A.

Badikov, V.

Beecher, S. J.

Benson, T. M.

Bookey, H. T.

Borrelli, N. F.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bovatsek, J.

Brik, M. G.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped chalcogenide glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burger, A.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23–24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carrig, T. J.

T. J. Carrig, “Transition-metal-doped chalcogenide lasers,” J. Electron. Mater. 31(7), 759–769 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

Champagnon, B.

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 833–837 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. L.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga–Ge–S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chiodo, N.

De Silvestri, S.

Desiraju, G. R.

M. S. R. N. Kiran, S. Varughese, U. Ramamurty, and G. R. Desiraju, “Effect of dehydration on the mechanical properties of sodium saccharin dihydrate probed with nanoindentation,” CrystEngComm 14(7), 2489–2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dumbaugh, W. H.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[Crossref]

Duval, E.

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 833–837 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S.

Fedorov, V.

Frantz, J. A.

Fuflyigin, V. N.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[Crossref]

Furniss, D.

Galstian, T. V.

A. Saliminia, T. V. Galstian, and A. Villeneuve, “Optical field-induced mass transport in As2S3 chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(19), 4112–4115 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García, J. F.

Gopinath, J. T.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

J. Heo, J. Min, and S. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2–Ga2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1–2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Herman, P.

Hisakuni, H.

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Optical microfabrication of chalcogenide glasses,” Science 270(5238), 974–975 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ivanova, T.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga–Ge–S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jaba, N.

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 833–837 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jha, A.

Kar, A. K.

Kasap, S.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped chalcogenide glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

King, W. A.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kiran, M. S. R. N.

T. Sabapathy, M. S. R. N. Kiran, A. Ayiriveetil, A. K. Kar, U. Ramamurty, and S. Asokan, “Nanoindentation studies on waveguides inscribed in chalcogenide glasses using ultrafast laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(6), 684–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. R. N. Kiran, S. Varughese, U. Ramamurty, and G. R. Desiraju, “Effect of dehydration on the mechanical properties of sodium saccharin dihydrate probed with nanoindentation,” CrystEngComm 14(7), 2489–2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koughia, K.

S. Kasap, K. Koughia, G. Soundararajan, and M. G. Brik, “Optical and photoluminescence properties of erbium-doped chalcogenide glasses (GeGaS:Er),” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1353–1360 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

Liaw, S. K.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga–Ge–S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manshina, A.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga–Ge–S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).
[Crossref]

Marangoni, M.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mermet, A.

N. Jaba, A. Mermet, E. Duval, and B. Champagnon, “Raman spectroscopy studies of Er3+ doped zinc tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351(10–11), 833–837 (2005).
[Crossref]

Min, J.

J. Heo, J. Min, and S. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2–Ga2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1–2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mirov, S.

Morgan, S. H.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23–24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mu, R.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23–24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Newhouse, M. A.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, S.

J. A. Savage and S. Nielsen, “Chalcogenide glasses transmitting in the infrared between 1 and 20 μ - a state of the art review,” Infrared Phys. 5(4), 195–204 (1965).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23–24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Panyutin, V.

Polli, D.

Povolotskiy, A.

A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga–Ge–S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).
[Crossref]

Psaila, N. D.

Ramamurty, U.

T. Sabapathy, M. S. R. N. Kiran, A. Ayiriveetil, A. K. Kar, U. Ramamurty, and S. Asokan, “Nanoindentation studies on waveguides inscribed in chalcogenide glasses using ultrafast laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(6), 684–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. R. N. Kiran, S. Varughese, U. Ramamurty, and G. R. Desiraju, “Effect of dehydration on the mechanical properties of sodium saccharin dihydrate probed with nanoindentation,” CrystEngComm 14(7), 2489–2493 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

Ryou, S.

J. Heo, J. Min, and S. Ryou, “Raman spectroscopic analysis on the solubility mechanism of La3+ in GeS2–Ga2S3 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 238(1–2), 115–123 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sabapathy, T.

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, T. V. Galstian, and A. Villeneuve, “Optical field-induced mass transport in As2S3 chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(19), 4112–4115 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanghera, J. S.

Savage, J. A.

J. A. Savage and S. Nielsen, “Chalcogenide glasses transmitting in the infrared between 1 and 20 μ - a state of the art review,” Infrared Phys. 5(4), 195–204 (1965).
[Crossref]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy,” Opt. Lett. 26(2), 93–95 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffers, K. I.

Seddon, A. B.

Shah, L.

Shaw, L. B.

Shen, S.

Shurgalin, M.

J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sivakumar, G.

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J. T. Gopinath, M. Soljacic, E. P. Ippen, V. N. Fuflyigin, W. A. King, and M. Shurgalin, “Third order nonlinearities in Ge-As-Se-based glasses for telecommunications applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(11), 6931–6933 (2004).
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K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
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D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, and D. L. Weidman, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of high-index glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(14), 1293–1295 (1989).
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K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser three-dimensional micro- and nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1(4), 041303 (2014).
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A. Povolotskiy, T. Ivanova, A. Manshina, Y. Tver’yanovich, S. K. Liaw, and C. L. Chang, “Er3+ as glass structure modifier of Ga–Ge–S chalcogenide system,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(4), 887–891 (2009).
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Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(23–24), 1097–1101 (2010).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. (1)

T. Sabapathy, G. Sivakumar, A. Ayiriveetil, A. K. Kar, and S. Asokan, “Controlling the cross-section of waveguides inscribed on bulk chalcogenide glasses using fast laser,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. Rapid Commun. 8(11), 1001–1004 (2014).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Saliminia, T. V. Galstian, and A. Villeneuve, “Optical field-induced mass transport in As2S3 chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(19), 4112–4115 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Optical microfabrication of chalcogenide glasses,” Science 270(5238), 974–975 (1995).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) An optical micrograph of the single mode waveguide structure inscribed at 1 µJ and translation speed of 4 mm/s under white light illumination and (b) its near field image at 1550 nm wavelength.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Representative load, P, vs. displacement, h, curves for region A, region O and bulk glass (b) Value of E and H at different points inside the waveguide (region O and region A) chosen randomly.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Micro-Raman spectra taken at region O, region A and bulk glass.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Deconvoluted Raman spectra at the region A of the glass (b) at the region O (c) DSC thermogram of as-quenched Er2O3 doped GeGaS glass and (d) deconvoluted Raman spectra of the bulk glass annealed at 500 °C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Raman spectra of region O for waveguides inscribed with (a) different translational speeds at 0.21 µJ pulse energy. Inset graph shows the change in intensity of 340 cm−1 peak for different translation speeds (b) different pulse energies at 6 mm/s translational speed. Inset graph shows the change in intensity of 340 cm−1 peak for different pulse energies.

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