Abstract

In this work, a series of chalcogenide glass ceramics were prepared by thermal treating a precursor glass in molar composition of Ge20Sn5Se75 with different duration. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements showed the precipitation of nano-crystals belonging to GeSe2 and SnSe2 phases in the heat-treated glasses, which was confirmed by Raman spectra as well. The crystallization in glass matrix caused the variation of optical properties (i.e. Optical band gap, Urbach energy) due to localized field effect of the nano-crystals, while the infrared transmittance was kept unchanged. Third-order optical nonlinear properties of the precursor glass and glass ceramic samples were investigated by femtosecond Z-scan technique at telecom wavelength of 1550 nm. The maximum nonlinear refraction (γ) of the Ge-Sn-Se glass ceramics reached 5.319 × 10−16 m2/W, which is almost one order higher than that of the precursor glass, demonstrating the significant influence of nano-crystals on optical nonlinear property of the chalcogenide glasses.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (5)

J. Ren, B. Li, T. Wagner, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of silver doped and/or silver-halide modified Ge–Ga–S glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 911–915 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Olivier, J. C. Tchahame, P. Němec, M. Chauvet, V. Besse, C. Cassagne, G. Boudebs, G. Renversez, R. Boidin, E. Baudet, and V. Nazabal, “Structure, nonlinear properties, and photosensitivity of (GeSe2)100-x(Sb2Se3)x glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(3), 525–540 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, X. Gai, W. Wei, R. Wang, Z. Yang, X. Shen, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Systematic z-scan measurements of the third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1011–1022 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

R. Holomb, V. Mitsa, E. Akalin, S. Akyuz, and M. Sichka, “Ab initio and Raman study of medium range ordering in GeSe2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 373-374, 51–56 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Chen, S. Dai, C. Lin, Q. Yu, and Q. Zhang, “Performance improvement of transparent germanium-gallium-sulfur glass ceramic by gold doping for third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24847–24855 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

G. Lin, H. Pan, F. Luo, Q. Chen, D. Chen, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhao, “Glass-ceramics with embedded gallium/aluminum nanoalloys formed by heat treatment and femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(2), 776–781 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1−xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. a. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, ““External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 104, 615–620 (2011).

2010 (1)

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

L. Petit, N. Carlie, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, H. Jain, A. C. Miller, and K. Richardson, “Correlation between the nonlinear refractive index and structure of germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 42(12), 2107–2116 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (3)

X. Zhang, M. A. Hongli, and J. Lucas, “A new class of infrared transmitting glass-ceramics based on controlled nucleation and growth of alkali halide in a sulphide based glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 337(2), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, “Two-photon optical absorption in amorphous materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338–340, 534–538 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1993 (1)

J. Yumoto, S. G. Lee, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Enhancement of optical nonlinearity of heavy-metal oxide glasses by replacing lead and bismuth with thallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(19), 2630–2632 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

S. K. J. Al-Ani, C. A. Hogarth, and R. A. El-Malawany, “A study of optical absorption in tellurite and tungsten-tellurite glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 20(2), 661–667 (1985).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

J. Tauc and A. Menth, “States in the gap,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8(10), 569–585 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abdel-Moneim, N.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25(4), 254–256 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aitken, B. G.

J. Yumoto, S. G. Lee, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Enhancement of optical nonlinearity of heavy-metal oxide glasses by replacing lead and bismuth with thallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(19), 2630–2632 (1993).
[Crossref]

Akalin, E.

R. Holomb, V. Mitsa, E. Akalin, S. Akyuz, and M. Sichka, “Ab initio and Raman study of medium range ordering in GeSe2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 373-374, 51–56 (2013).
[Crossref]

Akyuz, S.

R. Holomb, V. Mitsa, E. Akalin, S. Akyuz, and M. Sichka, “Ab initio and Raman study of medium range ordering in GeSe2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 373-374, 51–56 (2013).
[Crossref]

Al-Ani, S. K. J.

S. K. J. Al-Ani, C. A. Hogarth, and R. A. El-Malawany, “A study of optical absorption in tellurite and tungsten-tellurite glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 20(2), 661–667 (1985).
[Crossref]

Bang, O.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baudet, E.

Bayya, S. S.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benson, T.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benson, T. M.

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Besse, V.

Boidin, R.

Borrelli, N. F.

J. Yumoto, S. G. Lee, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Enhancement of optical nonlinearity of heavy-metal oxide glasses by replacing lead and bismuth with thallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(19), 2630–2632 (1993).
[Crossref]

Boudebs, G.

Busse, L. E.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Calvez, L.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. a. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, ““External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 104, 615–620 (2011).

Carlie, N.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, H. Jain, A. C. Miller, and K. Richardson, “Correlation between the nonlinear refractive index and structure of germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 42(12), 2107–2116 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassagne, C.

Chauvet, M.

Chen, D.

G. Lin, H. Pan, F. Luo, Q. Chen, D. Chen, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhao, “Glass-ceramics with embedded gallium/aluminum nanoalloys formed by heat treatment and femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(2), 776–781 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, B. Qiao, Y. Huang, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and T. Xu, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at communication wavelength and spectral characteristics of Ge-Se based chalcogenide glasses,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 154216 (2015).

S. Dai, F. Chen, Y. Xu, Z. Xu, X. Shen, T. Xu, R. Wang, and W. Ji, “Mid-infrared optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses in Ge-Sb-Se ternary system,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1300–1307 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, S. Dai, C. Lin, Q. Yu, and Q. Zhang, “Performance improvement of transparent germanium-gallium-sulfur glass ceramic by gold doping for third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24847–24855 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. a. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, ““External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 104, 615–620 (2011).

Chen, G.

J. Ren, B. Li, T. Wagner, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of silver doped and/or silver-halide modified Ge–Ga–S glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 911–915 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

G. Lin, H. Pan, F. Luo, Q. Chen, D. Chen, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhao, “Glass-ceramics with embedded gallium/aluminum nanoalloys formed by heat treatment and femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(2), 776–781 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheong, S. W.

Cherukulappurath, S.

Chin, G. D.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, D. Y.

Dai, S.

S. Dai, F. Chen, Y. Xu, Z. Xu, X. Shen, T. Xu, R. Wang, and W. Ji, “Mid-infrared optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses in Ge-Sb-Se ternary system,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1300–1307 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, B. Qiao, Y. Huang, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and T. Xu, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at communication wavelength and spectral characteristics of Ge-Se based chalcogenide glasses,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 154216 (2015).

F. Chen, S. Dai, C. Lin, Q. Yu, and Q. Zhang, “Performance improvement of transparent germanium-gallium-sulfur glass ceramic by gold doping for third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24847–24855 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. a. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, ““External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 104, 615–620 (2011).

Dupont, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

El-Malawany, R. A.

S. K. J. Al-Ani, C. A. Hogarth, and R. A. El-Malawany, “A study of optical absorption in tellurite and tungsten-tellurite glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 20(2), 661–667 (1985).
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Florea, C.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Furniss, D.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gai, X.

Gattass, R. R.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gibson, D. J.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gopal, E. S. R.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guizard, S.

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, W.

Heo, J.

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hogarth, C. A.

S. K. J. Al-Ani, C. A. Hogarth, and R. A. El-Malawany, “A study of optical absorption in tellurite and tungsten-tellurite glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 20(2), 661–667 (1985).
[Crossref]

Holomb, R.

R. Holomb, V. Mitsa, E. Akalin, S. Akyuz, and M. Sichka, “Ab initio and Raman study of medium range ordering in GeSe2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 373-374, 51–56 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1−xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hongli, M. A.

X. Zhang, M. A. Hongli, and J. Lucas, “A new class of infrared transmitting glass-ceramics based on controlled nucleation and growth of alkali halide in a sulphide based glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 337(2), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

F. Chen, B. Qiao, Y. Huang, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and T. Xu, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at communication wavelength and spectral characteristics of Ge-Se based chalcogenide glasses,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 154216 (2015).

Humeau, A.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, H. Jain, A. C. Miller, and K. Richardson, “Correlation between the nonlinear refractive index and structure of germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 42(12), 2107–2116 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

Jain, H.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, H. Jain, A. C. Miller, and K. Richardson, “Correlation between the nonlinear refractive index and structure of germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 42(12), 2107–2116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1−xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

Katsufuji, T.

Kim, W. H.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kippelen, B.

J. Yumoto, S. G. Lee, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Enhancement of optical nonlinearity of heavy-metal oxide glasses by replacing lead and bismuth with thallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(19), 2630–2632 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kitao, M.

Konyukhov, A. I.

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kubat, I.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kung, F. H.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuzyutkina, Y. S.

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. G.

J. Yumoto, S. G. Lee, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Enhancement of optical nonlinearity of heavy-metal oxide glasses by replacing lead and bismuth with thallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(19), 2630–2632 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lenz, G.

Li, B.

J. Ren, B. Li, T. Wagner, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of silver doped and/or silver-halide modified Ge–Ga–S glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 911–915 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

F. Chen, S. Dai, C. Lin, Q. Yu, and Q. Zhang, “Performance improvement of transparent germanium-gallium-sulfur glass ceramic by gold doping for third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 21(21), 24847–24855 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. a. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, ““External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 104, 615–620 (2011).

Lin, G.

G. Lin, H. Pan, F. Luo, Q. Chen, D. Chen, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhao, “Glass-ceramics with embedded gallium/aluminum nanoalloys formed by heat treatment and femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(2), 776–781 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lines, M. E.

Liu, C.

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lucas, J.

X. Zhang, M. A. Hongli, and J. Lucas, “A new class of infrared transmitting glass-ceramics based on controlled nucleation and growth of alkali halide in a sulphide based glass matrix,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 337(2), 130–135 (2004).
[Crossref]

Luo, F.

G. Lin, H. Pan, F. Luo, Q. Chen, D. Chen, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhao, “Glass-ceramics with embedded gallium/aluminum nanoalloys formed by heat treatment and femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(2), 776–781 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

Lv, X.

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Madden, S.

Madhusoodanan, K. N.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maeda, S.

Menth, A.

J. Tauc and A. Menth, “States in the gap,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8(10), 569–585 (1972).
[Crossref]

Miklos, R. E.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miller, A. C.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, H. Jain, A. C. Miller, and K. Richardson, “Correlation between the nonlinear refractive index and structure of germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 42(12), 2107–2116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Minakata, M.

Mitsa, V.

R. Holomb, V. Mitsa, E. Akalin, S. Akyuz, and M. Sichka, “Ab initio and Raman study of medium range ordering in GeSe2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 373-374, 51–56 (2013).
[Crossref]

Møller, U.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mouskeftaras, A.

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nazabal, V.

Nemec, P.

Nguyen, V. Q.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nie, Q.

F. Chen, B. Qiao, Y. Huang, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and T. Xu, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at communication wavelength and spectral characteristics of Ge-Se based chalcogenide glasses,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 154216 (2015).

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ogusu, K.

Olivier, M.

Pan, H.

G. Lin, H. Pan, F. Luo, Q. Chen, D. Chen, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhao, “Glass-ceramics with embedded gallium/aluminum nanoalloys formed by heat treatment and femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(2), 776–781 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petersen, C. R.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Petit, L.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, H. Jain, A. C. Miller, and K. Richardson, “Correlation between the nonlinear refractive index and structure of germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 42(12), 2107–2116 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. Yumoto, S. G. Lee, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, B. G. Aitken, and N. F. Borrelli, “Enhancement of optical nonlinearity of heavy-metal oxide glasses by replacing lead and bismuth with thallium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(19), 2630–2632 (1993).
[Crossref]

Philip, J.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, A.

Qi, S.

Qiao, B.

F. Chen, B. Qiao, Y. Huang, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and T. Xu, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at communication wavelength and spectral characteristics of Ge-Se based chalcogenide glasses,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 154216 (2015).

Qiu, J.

G. Lin, H. Pan, F. Luo, Q. Chen, D. Chen, J. Qiu, and Q. Zhao, “Glass-ceramics with embedded gallium/aluminum nanoalloys formed by heat treatment and femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95(2), 776–781 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ramsay, J.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.

J. Ren, B. Li, T. Wagner, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of silver doped and/or silver-halide modified Ge–Ga–S glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 911–915 (2014).
[Crossref]

Renversez, G.

Richardson, K.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, A. Humeau, G. Boudebs, H. Jain, A. C. Miller, and K. Richardson, “Correlation between the nonlinear refractive index and structure of germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Res. Bull. 42(12), 2107–2116 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanova, E. A.

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J. S.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
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G. Lenz, J. Zimmermann, T. Katsufuji, M. E. Lines, H. Y. Hwang, S. Spälter, R. E. Slusher, S. W. Cheong, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Large Kerr effect in bulk Se-based chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 25(4), 254–256 (2000).
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Seddon, A.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seddon, A. B.

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53(7), 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shaw, L. B.

W. H. Kim, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, C. Florea, D. J. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, S. S. Bayya, F. H. Kung, G. D. Chin, R. E. Miklos, I. D. Aggarwal, and J. S. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.

S. Dai, F. Chen, Y. Xu, Z. Xu, X. Shen, T. Xu, R. Wang, and W. Ji, “Mid-infrared optical nonlinearities of chalcogenide glasses in Ge-Sb-Se ternary system,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1300–1307 (2015).
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T. Wang, X. Gai, W. Wei, R. Wang, Z. Yang, X. Shen, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Systematic z-scan measurements of the third order nonlinearity of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1011–1022 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. a. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, ““External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 104, 615–620 (2011).

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sichka, M.

R. Holomb, V. Mitsa, E. Akalin, S. Akyuz, and M. Sichka, “Ab initio and Raman study of medium range ordering in GeSe2 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 373-374, 51–56 (2013).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R. E.

Smith, A.

Song, B.

X. Shen, F. Chen, X. Lv, S. Dai, X. Wang, W. Zhang, B. Song, T. Xu, Q. Nie, C. Liu, K. Xu, and J. Heo, “Preparation and third-order optical nonlinearity of glass ceramics based on GeS2–Ga2S3–CsCl pseudo-ternary system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2316–2319 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, B. a.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. a. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, ““External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys,” Adv. Mater. 104, 615–620 (2011).

Soref, R.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1−xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Spälter, S.

Srinivasan, A.

A. Srinivasan, K. N. Madhusoodanan, E. S. R. Gopal, and J. Philip, “Observation of a threshold behavior in the optical band gap and thermal diffusivity of Ge-Sb-Se glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(14), 8112–8115 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sujecki, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
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K. Tanaka, “Two-photon optical absorption in amorphous materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 338–340, 534–538 (2004).
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Tang, Z.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 μm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tauc, J.

J. Tauc and A. Menth, “States in the gap,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 8(10), 569–585 (1972).
[Crossref]

Tchahame, J. C.

Wagner, T.

J. Ren, B. Li, T. Wagner, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of silver doped and/or silver-halide modified Ge–Ga–S glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 911–915 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

Wang, R.-P.

Wang, T.

Wang, X.

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Opt. Lett. (4)

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J. Ren, B. Li, T. Wagner, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Third-order optical nonlinearities of silver doped and/or silver-halide modified Ge–Ga–S glasses,” Opt. Mater. 36(5), 911–915 (2014).
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Wuli Xuebao (1)

F. Chen, B. Qiao, Y. Huang, S. Dai, Q. Nie, and T. Xu, “Third-order optical nonlinearity at communication wavelength and spectral characteristics of Ge-Se based chalcogenide glasses,” Wuli Xuebao 64, 154216 (2015).

Other (2)

G. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2008).

S. R. Elliott and A. Zakery, Optical Nonlinearities in Chalcogenide Glasses and their Applications (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) XRD patterns of glass samples heat treated for different duration; (b) identification of the crystal phases in the crystallized samples.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Normalized Raman spectra of the glass and glass-ceramics, inset is dependence of the integral area of the main peak from 170 to 210 cm−1 on the treatment duration.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM images of GSS: (a) and (b) precursor glass; (c) and (d) GSS-12; (e) and (f) GSS-30.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Absorption spectra; (b) FTIR spectra of the GSS glass and GC samples.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fitting curves of Urbach energy (Ee) of the GSS glass and GC samples.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Z-scan curves of the GSS glass and GCs: (a) closed aperture Z-scans; (b) open aperture Z-scans.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Physical, optical and TONL parameters of the GSS glass and GC samples

Equations (2)

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D = K λ / ω cos θ
α ( v ) = α 0 exp ( h v / E e )

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