Abstract

The feature that devices based on blue phase liquid crystals (BPLCs) is free of alignment layers. However, the alignment layers could affect the morphologies of BPLC-devices as well as the electro-optical properties. In this paper, we investigate the influence of alignment layers to crystal growth of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals (PS-BPLCs). Without alignment layer, PS-BPLCs experiences both homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation, and the morphology appears in random crystal orientations. On the contrary, when the surfaces coated with alignment layers, a heterogeneous nucleation dominates during the crystal growth process. We further proposed a possible mechanism for crystal growth under different surface condition. This study provides an alternative method to control crystal growth of PS-BPLCs, which is for facilitating many PS-BPLCs based photonic devices.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (3)

M. D. A. Rahman, S. M. Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yuan, Y. Li, C. P. Chen, S. Liu, N. Rong, W. Li, X. Li, P. Zhou, J. Lu, R. Liu, and Y. Su, “Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal grating cured with interfered visible light,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20007–20013 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

M. Chen, Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and H. Y. Chen, “Electrically assisting crystal growth of blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 953–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Recent Advances on Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Materials and Devices,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(15), 40556 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

G. Zhu, B. Y. Wei, L. Y. Shi, X. W. Lin, W. Hu, Z. D. Huang, and Y. Q. Lu, “A fast response variable optical attenuator based on blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5332–5337 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kimura, N. Nagumo, T. N. Oo, N. Endo, H. Kikuchi, and T. Akahane, “Single-substrate polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2086–2095 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Jin, C. Yuan, W. Shin-Tson, and S. Xiaolong, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y. H. Lin, T. Y. Chu, Y. S. Tsou, K. H. Chang, and Y. P. Chiu, “An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Lu and L. C. Chien, “Electrically switched color with polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 562–564 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2002 (2)

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A 46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 751–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Akahane, T.

Balamurugan, S.

M. D. A. Rahman, S. M. Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, K. H.

Y. H. Lin, T. Y. Chu, Y. S. Tsou, K. H. Chang, and Y. P. Chiu, “An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

Chen, H. S.

M. Chen, Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and H. Y. Chen, “Electrically assisting crystal growth of blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 953–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

Chen, M.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Recent Advances on Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Materials and Devices,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(15), 40556 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

Cheng, H. C.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K. L.

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S. Z. D.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiang, T. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chien, L. C.

Chiu, Y. P.

Y. H. Lin, T. Y. Chu, Y. S. Tsou, K. H. Chang, and Y. P. Chiu, “An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chu, T. Y.

Y. H. Lin, T. Y. Chu, Y. S. Tsou, K. H. Chang, and Y. P. Chiu, “An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crooker, P. P.

P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 751–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Demikhov, E.

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A 46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, N.

Gauza, S.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ha, K. S.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hauser, A.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[Crossref]

Heppke, G.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hisakado, Y.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoischen, A.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C. H.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hsu, H. K.

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

Huang, Z. D.

Ishinabe, T.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K. U.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

Y. Jin, C. Yuan, W. Shin-Tson, and S. Xiaolong, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jo, M. H.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kajiyama, T.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S. W.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, H.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kimura, N. Nagumo, T. N. Oo, N. Endo, H. Kikuchi, and T. Akahane, “Single-substrate polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2086–2095 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kimura, M.

Kitzerow, H. S.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Konkanok, A.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kruerke, D.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. J.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Y. Yuan, Y. Li, C. P. Chen, S. Liu, N. Rong, W. Li, X. Li, P. Zhou, J. Lu, R. Liu, and Y. Su, “Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal grating cured with interfered visible light,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20007–20013 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. H.

Lin, X. W.

Lin, Y. H.

M. Chen, Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and H. Y. Chen, “Electrically assisting crystal growth of blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 953–959 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wu, M. Chen, and H. K. Hsu, “Hysteresis-free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals using thermal recycles,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(8), 1149–1155 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, T. Y. Chu, Y. S. Tsou, K. H. Chang, and Y. P. Chiu, “An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, “Pinning effect on the phase separation dynamics of thin polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(2), 468–474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

Liu, S.

Lu, J.

Lu, S. Y.

Lu, Y. Q.

Mermin, N. D.

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, A.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagumo, N.

Nayek, P.

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nordendorf, G.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oo, T. N.

Ozaki, M.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. R.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, H. S.

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pivnenko, M. N.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rahman, M. D. A.

M. D. A. Rahman, S. M. Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rao, L.

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ren, H.

Rong, N.

Said, S. M.

M. D. A. Rahman, S. M. Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saupe, A.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schmidtke, J.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, L. Y.

Shin-Tson, W.

Y. Jin, C. Yuan, W. Shin-Tson, and S. Xiaolong, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shiu, J. W.

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stegemeyer, H.

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A 46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thieme, M.

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, T. Y. Chu, Y. S. Tsou, K. H. Chang, and Y. P. Chiu, “An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsukruk, V.

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A 46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. T.

Wei, B. Y.

Wilkes, D.

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wright, D. C.

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. H.

Wu, S. T.

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Recent Advances on Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Materials and Devices,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(15), 40556 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, X. Liang, and S. T. Wu, “Pinning effect on the phase separation dynamics of thin polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(2), 468–474 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. H.

Xiaolong, S.

Y. Jin, C. Yuan, W. Shin-Tson, and S. Xiaolong, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C. P.

Yuan, C.

Y. Jin, C. Yuan, W. Shin-Tson, and S. Xiaolong, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Zhou, P.

Zhu, G.

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

P. Nayek, H. Jeong, H. R. Park, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, H. S. Park, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Kim, “Tailoring Monograin in Blue Phase Liquid Crystal by Surface Pinning Effect,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 051701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Yan, S. T. Wu, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A full-color reflective display using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(8), 081102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lin, T. Y. Chu, Y. S. Tsou, K. H. Chang, and Y. P. Chiu, “An electrically switchable surface free energy on a liquid crystal and polymer composite film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 233502 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

D. Y. Kim, P. Nayek, S. Kim, K. S. Ha, M. H. Jo, C. H. Hsu, Y. Cao, S. Z. D. Cheng, S. H. Lee, and K. U. Jeong, “Suppressed Crystallization of Rod-Disc Molecule by Surface Anchoring Confinement,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(3), 1309–1315 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

Y. Chen and S. T. Wu, “Recent Advances on Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Materials and Devices,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(15), 40556 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y. Jin, C. Yuan, W. Shin-Tson, and S. Xiaolong, “Figure of Merit of Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(1), 24–29 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

A. Hauser, M. Thieme, A. Saupe, G. Heppke, and D. Kruerke, “Surface-imaging of frozen blue phases in a discotic liquid crystal with atomic force microscopy,” J. Mater. Chem. 7(11), 2223–2229 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, and T. H. Chiang, “A reflective polarizer-free electro-optical display using dye-doped polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 20(6), 333–336 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

P. P. Crooker, “The blue phases. A review of experiments,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 751–775 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Demikhov, H. Stegemeyer, and V. Tsukruk, “Pretransitional phenomena and pinning in liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. A 46(8), 4879–4887 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

Y. Kawata, H. Yoshida, S. Tanaka, A. Konkanok, M. Ozaki, and H. Kikuchi, “Anisotropy of the electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer-stabilized blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 91(2), 022503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polym. Adv. Technol. (1)

G. Nordendorf, A. Hoischen, J. Schmidtke, D. Wilkes, and H. S. Kitzerow, “Polymer-stabilized blue phases: promising mesophases for a new generation of liquid crystal displays,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 25(11), 1195–1207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. C. Wright and N. D. Mermin, “Crystalline liquids: the blue phases,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61(2), 385–432 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

M. D. A. Rahman, S. M. Said, and S. Balamurugan, “Blue phase liquid crystal: strategies for phase stabilization and device development,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 033501 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor & Francis, New York, 2005).

D. Myers, Surfaces, interfaces, and colloids: principles and applications (Wiley-VCH, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Measured surface free energy of different substrates. (b) Contact angles of BPLC droplet on different substrates. The red dashed line in (a) indicates the surface free energy of BPLCs in air (30.4x10−3J/m2)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Morphologies of BPLC mixtures at different temperature under a reflective polarized optical microscope. (a), (b), (c), and (d) are morphologies in the ITO cell. (e), (f), (g), and (h) are morphologies in the PA cell. (i), (j), (k), (l) are morphologies in the VA cell. The cooling rate was 0.5 °C/min.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The observation of PS-BPLCs cell under POM after photo-polymerization (a) ITO cell, (b) PA cell, and (c) VA cell. Kossel diagrams of the PS-BPLCs samples after photo-polymerization at (d) ITO cell, (e) PA cell, and (f) VA cell. λ = 510nm in (d), (e), and (f).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Possible mechanisms of crystal growth of BPLCs with different surface treatment. (a) ITO cell, (b) PA cell, and (c) VA cell. The orange line represents ITO electrode. The light green line represents the parallel alignment layer (PAL). The pink line represents the vertical alignment layer (VAL). T1, T2, and T3 represent different temperature and T1 >T2 > T3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmittance as s function of applied electric field as voltage was ramped up and down. Black line stands, red dotted line, and gray line stand for PS-BPLCs in PA cell, VA cell and ITO cell, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A summary of measured surface free energy, contact angle and calculated the adhesion energy for different cells.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ sv = γ sl + γ lv ×cosθ
γ sl = γ sv + γ lv γ adhesion

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