Abstract

The transmission of cubic boron phosphide (c-BP) thin films, prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was evaluated near the phosphorous L2,3 and boron K absorption edge. The c-BP films were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), to study their structural and chemical properties. The TEM analysis reveals that c-BP initially grows in islands. The merging of the P L2,3, P K and B K absorption edges culminates in a sharp absorption feature starting at 130 eV, showing that c-BP can be used in applications that require a relatively transparent material in the energy range just below that absorption feature. Due to experimental constraints the samples were grown at a temperature significantly below the temperature for optimal crystal growth. XANES analysis showed that, as a result of the reduced crystal quality, the intensities of the absorption transitions are reduced compared to those in high quality crystalline reference samples. Optimizing the quality of the BP films will increase the contrast in transmission across the absorption edge.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (5)

B. Padavala, C. D. Frye, X. Wang, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Lu, B. N. Flanders, and J. H. Edgar, “Epitaxy of boron phosphide on aluminum nitride(0001)/sapphire substrate,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 981–987 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Padavala, C. Frye, X. Wang, B. Raghothamachar, and J. Edgar, “CVD growth and properties of boron phosphide on 3C-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 449, 15–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. A. Mukhanov, D. Vrel, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Ultra-fast mechanochemical synthesis of boron phosphides, BP and B12P2,” Dalton Trans. 45, 10122–10126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Woo, K. Lee, and K. Kovnir, “BP: synthesis and properties of boron phosphide,” Mater. Res. Express 3, 074003 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. I. Chkhalo, M. N. Drozdov, E. B. Kluenkov, S. V. Kuzin, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, N. N. Salashchenko, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Thin film multilayer filters for solar EUV telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 55, 4683–4690 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

V. Medvedev, A. Yakshin, R. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 1450–1459 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt and E. M. Gullikson, “Pd/B4C/Y multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet applications near 10 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 54, 5850–5860 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3778–3781 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sugimoto, M. Fujii, and K. Imakita, “Size-controlled growth of cubic boron phosphide nanocrystals,” RSC Adv. 5, 8427–8431 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Padavala, C. Frye, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, N. Khan, and J. Edgar, “Preparation, properties, and characterization of boron phosphide films on 4H- and 6H-silicon carbide,” Solid State Sci. 47, 55–60 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

N. I. Chkhalo and N. N. Salashchenko, “Next generation nanolithography based on Ru/Be and Rh/Sr multilayer optics,” AIP Adv. 3, 082130 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. A. Mukhanov, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of boron phosphide,” J. Superhard Mater. 35, 415–417 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

L. R. de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6–1220 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113533 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. A. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, A. M. Yakunin, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral properties of La/B -based multilayer mirrors near the boron K-absorption edge,” Opt. Express 20, 11778–11786 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Mero, F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, L. Poletto, and K. Varjú, “Compression methods for XUV attosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 19, 23420–23428 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum–molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13, 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Beam separator for high-order harmonic radiation in the 3-10 nm spectral region,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1104–1114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

W.-Y. Ching, S.-D. Mo, and Y. Chen, “Calculation of XANES/ELNES spectra of all edges in Si3N4 and Si2N2O,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 11–15 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Underwood and E. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

B. Stone and D. Hill, “Semiconducting properties of cubic boron phosphide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 282–284 (1960).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum–molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13, 063038 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aznárez, J. A.

L. R. de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6–1220 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113533 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bajoni, D.

L. R. de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6–1220 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113533 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

B. Sae-Lao, S. Bajt, C. Montcalm, and J. F. Seely, “Performance of normal-incidence molybdenum-yttrium multilayer-coated diffraction grating at a wavelength of 9 nm,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2394–2400 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soufli, S. Bajt, and E. M. Gullikson, “Optical constants of beryllium from photoabsorption measurements for x-ray optics applications,” in “EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources,” C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, and S. P. Vernon, eds. (SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng, 1999), pp. 251–258.
[Crossref]

Bellotti, J. A.

Bijkerk, F.

V. Medvedev, A. Yakshin, R. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Phosphorus-based compounds for EUV multilayer optics materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 1450–1459 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3778–3781 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. A. Makhotkin, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, A. M. Yakunin, S. Müllender, and F. Bijkerk, “Spectral properties of La/B -based multilayer mirrors near the boron K-absorption edge,” Opt. Express 20, 11778–11786 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. P. Huber, V. V. Medvedev, E. Gullikson, B. Padavala, J. H. Edgar, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, F. Bijkerk, and D. Prendergast, “Determining crystal phase purity in c-BP through x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Unpublished.

Chen, L.

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

B. Padavala, C. D. Frye, X. Wang, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Lu, B. N. Flanders, and J. H. Edgar, “Epitaxy of boron phosphide on aluminum nitride(0001)/sapphire substrate,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 981–987 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Padavala, C. Frye, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, N. Khan, and J. Edgar, “Preparation, properties, and characterization of boron phosphide films on 4H- and 6H-silicon carbide,” Solid State Sci. 47, 55–60 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

W.-Y. Ching, S.-D. Mo, and Y. Chen, “Calculation of XANES/ELNES spectra of all edges in Si3N4 and Si2N2O,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 11–15 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ching, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Ching, S.-D. Mo, and Y. Chen, “Calculation of XANES/ELNES spectra of all edges in Si3N4 and Si2N2O,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 11–15 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chkhalo, N. I.

Davis, J.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

de Marcos, L. R.

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B. Padavala, C. D. Frye, X. Wang, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Lu, B. N. Flanders, and J. H. Edgar, “Epitaxy of boron phosphide on aluminum nitride(0001)/sapphire substrate,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 981–987 (2016).
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M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527 (2008).
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M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum–molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13, 063038 (2011).
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E. M. Gullikson, S. Mrowka, and B. B. Kaufmann, “Recent developments in EUV reflectometry at the advanced light source,” in “Emerging Lithographic Technologies V,”, vol. 4343E. A. Dobisz, ed. (SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng, 2001), vol. 4343, pp. 363–373.
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M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527 (2008).
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Louis, E.

Lu, P.

B. Padavala, C. D. Frye, X. Wang, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Lu, B. N. Flanders, and J. H. Edgar, “Epitaxy of boron phosphide on aluminum nitride(0001)/sapphire substrate,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 981–987 (2016).
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L. R. de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6–1220 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113533 (2012).
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Medvedev, V. V.

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Méndez, J. A.

L. R. de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6–1220 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113533 (2012).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Nannarone, S.

L. R. de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6–1220 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113533 (2012).
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B. Padavala, C. Frye, X. Wang, B. Raghothamachar, and J. Edgar, “CVD growth and properties of boron phosphide on 3C-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 449, 15–21 (2016).
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B. Padavala, C. D. Frye, X. Wang, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Lu, B. N. Flanders, and J. H. Edgar, “Epitaxy of boron phosphide on aluminum nitride(0001)/sapphire substrate,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 981–987 (2016).
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L. R. de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6–1220 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113533 (2012).
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M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527 (2008).
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Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Prendergast, D.

S. P. Huber, V. V. Medvedev, E. Gullikson, B. Padavala, J. H. Edgar, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, F. Bijkerk, and D. Prendergast, “Determining crystal phase purity in c-BP through x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Unpublished.

Raghothamachar, B.

B. Padavala, C. D. Frye, X. Wang, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Lu, B. N. Flanders, and J. H. Edgar, “Epitaxy of boron phosphide on aluminum nitride(0001)/sapphire substrate,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 981–987 (2016).
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B. Padavala, C. Frye, X. Wang, B. Raghothamachar, and J. Edgar, “CVD growth and properties of boron phosphide on 3C-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 449, 15–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Padavala, C. Frye, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, N. Khan, and J. Edgar, “Preparation, properties, and characterization of boron phosphide films on 4H- and 6H-silicon carbide,” Solid State Sci. 47, 55–60 (2015).
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Sae-Lao, B.

Salashchenko, N. N.

SchaÌLfers, F.

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Schultze, M.

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum–molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13, 063038 (2011).
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Seely, J. F.

Sokolov, P. S.

V. A. Mukhanov, D. Vrel, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Ultra-fast mechanochemical synthesis of boron phosphides, BP and B12P2,” Dalton Trans. 45, 10122–10126 (2016).
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V. A. Mukhanov, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of boron phosphide,” J. Superhard Mater. 35, 415–417 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solozhenko, V. L.

V. A. Mukhanov, D. Vrel, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Ultra-fast mechanochemical synthesis of boron phosphides, BP and B12P2,” Dalton Trans. 45, 10122–10126 (2016).
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V. A. Mukhanov, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of boron phosphide,” J. Superhard Mater. 35, 415–417 (2013).
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Soufli, R.

B. Sae-Lao and R. Soufli, “Measurements of the refractive index of yttrium in the 50–1300-eV energy region,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7309–7316 (2002).
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R. Soufli, S. Bajt, and E. M. Gullikson, “Optical constants of beryllium from photoabsorption measurements for x-ray optics applications,” in “EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources,” C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldonado, H. H. Chen-Mayer, and S. P. Vernon, eds. (SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng, 1999), pp. 251–258.
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B. Stone and D. Hill, “Semiconducting properties of cubic boron phosphide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 282–284 (1960).
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P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
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D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3778–3781 (2015).
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M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, E. M. Gullikson, A. Suda, and K. Midorikawa, “High-transmittance free-standing aluminum extreme ultraviolet filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 122202(2009).
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Sugimoto, H.

H. Sugimoto, M. Fujii, and K. Imakita, “Size-controlled growth of cubic boron phosphide nanocrystals,” RSC Adv. 5, 8427–8431 (2015).
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M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, E. M. Gullikson, A. Suda, and K. Midorikawa, “High-transmittance free-standing aluminum extreme ultraviolet filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 122202(2009).
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Tsarfati, T.

E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 255–294 (2011).
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Tsybin, N. N.

Underwood, J.

J. Underwood and E. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
[Crossref]

van de Kruijs, R.

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

D. S. Kuznetsov, A. E. Yakshin, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “High-reflectance La/B-based multilayer mirror for 6.x nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3778–3781 (2015).
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S. P. Huber, V. V. Medvedev, E. Gullikson, B. Padavala, J. H. Edgar, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, F. Bijkerk, and D. Prendergast, “Determining crystal phase purity in c-BP through x-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Unpublished.

van der Zande, W. J.

P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
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P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
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Vermeulen, H.

P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
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L. R. de Marcos, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Aznárez, M. Vidal-Dasilva, S. García-Cortés, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, F. Frassetto, A. M. Malvezzi, D. Bajoni, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Sr films in the 6–1220 eV spectral range,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 113533 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527 (2008).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

Vles, D. F.

P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Voorthuijzen, W. P.

P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
[Crossref]

Vrel, D.

V. A. Mukhanov, D. Vrel, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Ultra-fast mechanochemical synthesis of boron phosphides, BP and B12P2,” Dalton Trans. 45, 10122–10126 (2016).
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Wang, F.

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Wang, H.

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Wang, X.

B. Padavala, C. Frye, X. Wang, B. Raghothamachar, and J. Edgar, “CVD growth and properties of boron phosphide on 3C-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 449, 15–21 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Padavala, C. D. Frye, X. Wang, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Lu, B. N. Flanders, and J. H. Edgar, “Epitaxy of boron phosphide on aluminum nitride(0001)/sapphire substrate,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 981–987 (2016).
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Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Windt, D. L.

Woo, K.

K. Woo, K. Lee, and K. Kovnir, “BP: synthesis and properties of boron phosphide,” Mater. Res. Express 3, 074003 (2016).
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Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Xu, Y.

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum–molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13, 063038 (2011).
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Yakshin, A.

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E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yakshin, A. E.

Yakunin, A. M.

Yang, S.

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum–molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13, 063038 (2011).
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S. Yulin, “Multilayer coatings for EUV/soft x-ray mirrors,” in “Optical Interference Coatings,” N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker, eds. (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003).
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Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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Zhu, J.

Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, and J. F. Seely, “Measurement of dysprosium optical constants in the 2-830 eV spectral range using a transmittance method, and compilation of the revised optical constants of lanthanum, terbium, neodymium, and gadolinium,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3084–3093 (2009).
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B. Kjornrattanawanich, D. L. Windt, and J. F. Seely, “Optical constants determination of samarium, holmium, and erbium in the 15-850 eV spectral range using a transmittance method,” Appl. Opt. 49, 6006–6013 (2010).
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B. Sae-Lao and R. Soufli, “Measurements of the refractive index of yttrium in the 50–1300-eV energy region,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7309–7316 (2002).
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J. F. Seely, “Extreme-ultraviolet thin-film interference in an Al-Mg-Al multiple-layer transmission filter,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5979–5983 (2002).
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Z. Wang, H. Wang, J. Zhu, Y. Xu, S. Zhang, C. Li, F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Wu, X. Cheng, L. Chen, A. G. Michette, S. J. Pfauntsch, A. K. Powell, F. SchaÌĹfers, A. Gaupp, and M. MacDonald, “Extreme ultraviolet broadband Mo/Y multilayer analyzers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241120 (2006).
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B. Padavala, C. D. Frye, X. Wang, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, P. Lu, B. N. Flanders, and J. H. Edgar, “Epitaxy of boron phosphide on aluminum nitride(0001)/sapphire substrate,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16, 981–987 (2016).
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Dalton Trans. (1)

V. A. Mukhanov, D. Vrel, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Ultra-fast mechanochemical synthesis of boron phosphides, BP and B12P2,” Dalton Trans. 45, 10122–10126 (2016).
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[Crossref]

P. J. van Zwol, D. F. Vles, W. P. Voorthuijzen, M. Péter, H. Vermeulen, W. J. van der Zande, J. M. Sturm, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, and F. Bijkerk, “Emissivity of freestanding membranes with thin metal coatings,” J. Appl. Phys. 118, 213107 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Fernández-Perea, M. Vidal-Dasilva, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia, and S. Nannarone, “Transmittance and optical constants of Eu films from 8.3 to 1400 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123527 (2008).
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J. Cryst. Growth (1)

B. Padavala, C. Frye, X. Wang, B. Raghothamachar, and J. Edgar, “CVD growth and properties of boron phosphide on 3C-SiC,” J. Cryst. Growth 449, 15–21 (2016).
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J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

J. Underwood and E. Gullikson, “High-resolution, high-flux, user friendly VLS beamline at the ALS for the 50-1300 eV energy region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 92, 265–272 (1998).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Superhard Mater. (1)

V. A. Mukhanov, P. S. Sokolov, Y. L. Godec, and V. L. Solozhenko, “Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of boron phosphide,” J. Superhard Mater. 35, 415–417 (2013).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Hatayama, H. Takenaka, E. M. Gullikson, A. Suda, and K. Midorikawa, “High-transmittance free-standing aluminum extreme ultraviolet filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 122202(2009).
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Mater. Res. Express (1)

K. Woo, K. Lee, and K. Kovnir, “BP: synthesis and properties of boron phosphide,” Mater. Res. Express 3, 074003 (2016).
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New J. Phys. (1)

M. Hofstetter, A. Aquila, M. Schultze, A. Guggenmos, S. Yang, E. Gullikson, M. Huth, B. Nickel, J. Gagnon, V. S. Yakovlev, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Lanthanum–molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV,” New J. Phys. 13, 063038 (2011).
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Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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B. Stone and D. Hill, “Semiconducting properties of cubic boron phosphide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 282–284 (1960).
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E. Louis, A. Yakshin, T. Tsarfati, and F. Bijkerk, “Nanometer interface and materials control for multilayer EUV-optical applications,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86, 255–294 (2011).
[Crossref]

RSC Adv. (1)

H. Sugimoto, M. Fujii, and K. Imakita, “Size-controlled growth of cubic boron phosphide nanocrystals,” RSC Adv. 5, 8427–8431 (2015).
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Solid State Sci. (1)

B. Padavala, C. Frye, Z. Ding, R. Chen, M. Dudley, B. Raghothamachar, N. Khan, and J. Edgar, “Preparation, properties, and characterization of boron phosphide films on 4H- and 6H-silicon carbide,” Solid State Sci. 47, 55–60 (2015).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 In rows, from top to bottom, the measured and analyzed XPS data for samples S1, S2 and S3, respectively. The columns, from left to right, represent the collected signal from excitations of electrons from P2p and B1s/P2s core-levels, respectively. The experimental data is represented by black dots and the dashed colored lines represent the partial contributions to fit the experimental data. The solid gray line, labeled “Envelope”, is the sum of these partial fit contributions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 From left to right, transmission electron microscopy recordings of the cross-section of samples (a) S1, (b) S2 and (c) S3. The images show a layered structure, where the bottom layer corresponds to residue created by the focused ion beam process in creating the cross-section of the sample. The layer directly on top of that is the platinum layer (black) that was deposited on the Si3N4 membrane, which can be seen directly above the Pt layer. On top of the relatively smooth Si3N4 layer, one can see the deposited c-BP layer, which was much rougher compared to the previous layers. The penultimate visible layer is yet another Pt-layer (black) that was deposited prior to the FIB milling process, on top of which another layer, of the residue this process created, can be seen. There are visible differences between the c-BP layer of the three different samples. Where sample S3 has a c-BP layer that fully covers the silicon nitride membrane underneath, the phosphide layer for both S1 and S2 contains holes that expose the underlying nitride, as marked by the red squares.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Crystalline grain in sample S2 of approximately 10 nm by 30 nm. Panel (b) shows a further magnification of the crystalline grain. The dashed white line indicates the interface between the Si3N4 membrane and the grown c-BP film.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Two cross-section transmission electron micrograph recordings of sample S3. The dashed white lines indicate the interfaces between the Pt, Si3N4 and c-BP layers. The dashed red circles approximately highlight the location of the regions in the c-BP layer with an amorphous character. The apparent color difference between (a) and (b) is due to the usage of a relative grayscale and the fact that the Pt layer is only visible in (a).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Normalized transmittance of the three samples with different c-BP film thickness for photon energies from 50 eV to 1250 eV. (b) A close up view of the absorption feature around 106 eV that appears in the transmittance spectrum for samples S1 and S2, that can be attributed to Si2p excitations from the exposed Si3N4 membrane under the discontinous c-BP film. (c) Close up view of the feature due to the P L2,3 and B K absorption edge fine structure.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Transmission spectroscopy data for sample S3 (solid red line) and the simulated transmission for a single layer BP model where the absorption coefficient is approximated from tabulated scatter factors. (b) Close up of the same data shown in (a) near the absorption edges.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized x-ray absorption spectra for the (a) phosphorus L2,3-edge and the (b) boron K-edge for the three c-BP samples on silicon wafer substrates, as obtained in the total electron yield mode. The dashed gray line represents the spectrum for a reference sample that was deposited under similar experimental conditions but at the ideal temperature of 1200 °C.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Experimental conditions during deposition of the three samples studied in this work, with flowrates of precursor gases in cm3/min, total pressure p in torr, temperature T in °C and deposition time t in s.

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Table 2 Elemental abundances for each of the three samples as determined from the experimental XPS analysis.

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