Abstract

Multilayer transparent electrodes consisting of a tri-layer structure of Al-doped zinc oxide and silver (AZO/Ag/AZO) prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature were investigated. The AZO working gas pressure during deposition was identified as a crucial parameter to influence both the transmittance and sheet resistance of the transparent electrode. By a reduction of the pressure to an optimal value of 0.15 Pa, highest Figure-of-Merit values reported so far for suchlike prepared AZO/Ag/AZO systems could be achieved. In the course of layer characterization, a clear correlation between the coating microstructure and measured electrical and optical properties could be established. Furthermore, we present a model that describes the transmittance spectra of real-structure AZO/Ag/AZO tri-layer systems in a quantitative manner while explicitly considering the specific optical response of the AZO-silver interfaces. Using a generalized Maxwell-Garnett approach with a Gaussian distribution of the Depolarization factors, the interface roughness was described as an effective interfacial layer leading to an improved agreement between measured and simulated spectra.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escola, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: Large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(20-21), 5751–5759 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Katayama, “TFT-LCD technology,” Thin Solid Films 341(1-2), 140–147 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leo, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3042–3045 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Minami, H. Sato, H. Imanoto, and S. Takata, “Substrate Temperature Dependence of Transparent Conducting Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 3A), L257–L260 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Szczyrbowski, A. Dietrich, and K. Hartig, “Bendable silver-based low emissivity coating on glass,” Sol. Energy Mater. 19(1-2), 43–53 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Dimopoulos, G. Radnoczi, B. Pécz, and H. Brückl, “Characterization of ZnO:Al/Au/ZnO:Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(4), 1470–1474 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “ITO/metal/ITO multilayer structures based on Ag and Cu metal films for high-performance transparent electrodes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(8), 938–941 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Fahland, P. Karlsson, and C. Charton, “Low resistivity transparent electrodes for displays on polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 334–337 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. R. Sahu, S.-Y. Lin, and J.-L. Huang, “Investigation of conductive and transparent Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer coatings by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4728–4732 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. H.-W. Wu, R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, and C.-H. Chu, “Influence of Ag thickness on aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(24), 7147–7152 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. H. Kim, Y.-J. Moon, S.-K. Kim, Y.-Z. Yoo, and T.-Y. Seong, “Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer films with a high figure of merit,” Ceram. Int. 41(10), 14805–14810 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. S. Jung, Y. S. Park, K. H. Kim, and W.-J. Lee, “Properties of AZO/Ag/AZO Multilayer Thin Film Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrate,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 14(1), 9–11 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. Zhou, X. Chen, F. Zhu, X. X. Sun, and Z. Sun, “Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(50), 505103 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. H.-K. Park, J.-W. Kang, S.-I. Na, D.-Y. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1994–2002 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 558, 294–297 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).
  29. A. Bingel, K. Füchsel, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “ZnO:Al films prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 103–111 (2014).
  30. O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/Vis/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 4086–4089 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  32. K. Kato, H. Omoto, and A. Takamatsu, “Optimum structure of metal oxide under-layer used in Ag-based multilayer,” Vacuum 83(3), 606–609 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  33. Powder Diffraction File, ICCD Database, Pattern 36–1451 (ZnO), 04–0783 (Ag), 1997.
  34. E. Z. Luo, S. Heun, M. Kennedy, J. Wollschläger, and M. Henzler, “Surface Roughness and Conductivity of thin Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(7), 4858–4865 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  36. Optical constants from in-house database, in this case essentially a smoothed version of the data from [17].
  37. P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).
  38. O. Stenzel and A. Macleod, “Metal-dielectric composite optical coatings: underlying physics, main models, characterization, design and application aspects,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1(6), 463–481 (2012).
  39. B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, and P. Grosse, “Optical Properties of Thin Films and the Berreman Effect,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 38(4), 263–267 (1985).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. H. Kim, Y.-J. Moon, S.-K. Kim, Y.-Z. Yoo, and T.-Y. Seong, “Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer films with a high figure of merit,” Ceram. Int. 41(10), 14805–14810 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 558, 294–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bingel, K. Füchsel, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “ZnO:Al films prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 103–111 (2014).

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Jung, Y. S. Park, K. H. Kim, and W.-J. Lee, “Properties of AZO/Ag/AZO Multilayer Thin Film Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrate,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 14(1), 9–11 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

L. Zhou, X. Chen, F. Zhu, X. X. Sun, and Z. Sun, “Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(50), 505103 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Stenzel and A. Macleod, “Metal-dielectric composite optical coatings: underlying physics, main models, characterization, design and application aspects,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1(6), 463–481 (2012).

I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Wu, R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, and C.-H. Chu, “Influence of Ag thickness on aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(24), 7147–7152 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leo, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3042–3045 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Dimopoulos, G. Radnoczi, B. Pécz, and H. Brückl, “Characterization of ZnO:Al/Au/ZnO:Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(4), 1470–1474 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

H.-K. Park, J.-W. Kang, S.-I. Na, D.-Y. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1994–2002 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/Vis/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

K. Kato, H. Omoto, and A. Takamatsu, “Optimum structure of metal oxide under-layer used in Ag-based multilayer,” Vacuum 83(3), 606–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “ITO/metal/ITO multilayer structures based on Ag and Cu metal films for high-performance transparent electrodes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(8), 938–941 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. R. Sahu, S.-Y. Lin, and J.-L. Huang, “Investigation of conductive and transparent Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer coatings by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4728–4732 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escola, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: Large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(20-21), 5751–5759 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Fahland, P. Karlsson, and C. Charton, “Low resistivity transparent electrodes for displays on polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 334–337 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Katayama, “TFT-LCD technology,” Thin Solid Films 341(1-2), 140–147 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

E. Z. Luo, S. Heun, M. Kennedy, J. Wollschläger, and M. Henzler, “Surface Roughness and Conductivity of thin Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(7), 4858–4865 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

T. Minami, H. Sato, H. Imanoto, and S. Takata, “Substrate Temperature Dependence of Transparent Conducting Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 3A), L257–L260 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Dietrich, and K. Hartig, “Bendable silver-based low emissivity coating on glass,” Sol. Energy Mater. 19(1-2), 43–53 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, and P. Grosse, “Optical Properties of Thin Films and the Berreman Effect,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 38(4), 263–267 (1985).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 4086–4089 (1976).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Agashe, C.

O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
[Crossref]

Agert, C.

M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 558, 294–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akita, E.

D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Atamny, F.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escola, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: Large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(20-21), 5751–5759 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bender, M.

M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

Berginski, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Betz, U.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escola, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: Large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(20-21), 5751–5759 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bingel, A.

A. Bingel, K. Füchsel, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “ZnO:Al films prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 103–111 (2014).

A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).

Boscarino, S.

I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brückl, H.

T. Dimopoulos, G. Radnoczi, B. Pécz, and H. Brückl, “Characterization of ZnO:Al/Au/ZnO:Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(4), 1470–1474 (2010).
[Crossref]

Charton, C.

M. Fahland, P. Karlsson, and C. Charton, “Low resistivity transparent electrodes for displays on polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 334–337 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

L. Zhou, X. Chen, F. Zhu, X. X. Sun, and Z. Sun, “Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(50), 505103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chu, C.-H.

H.-W. Wu, R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, and C.-H. Chu, “Influence of Ag thickness on aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(24), 7147–7152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crupi, I.

I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Daube, C.

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dewald, W.

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dietrich, A.

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Dietrich, and K. Hartig, “Bendable silver-based low emissivity coating on glass,” Sol. Energy Mater. 19(1-2), 43–53 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dimopoulos, T.

T. Dimopoulos, G. Radnoczi, B. Pécz, and H. Brückl, “Characterization of ZnO:Al/Au/ZnO:Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(4), 1470–1474 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, H.

S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ellmer, K.

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eritt, M.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leo, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3042–3045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Escola, M. F.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escola, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: Large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(20-21), 5751–5759 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fahland, M.

M. Fahland, P. Karlsson, and C. Charton, “Low resistivity transparent electrodes for displays on polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 334–337 (2001).
[Crossref]

Flory, F.

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frankenberger, H.

M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, K.

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/Vis/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Füchsel, K.

A. Bingel, K. Füchsel, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “ZnO:Al films prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 103–111 (2014).

Gäbler, D.

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

Grilli, M. L.

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grosse, P.

B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, and P. Grosse, “Optical Properties of Thin Films and the Berreman Effect,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 38(4), 263–267 (1985).
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Guillén, C.

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “ITO/metal/ITO multilayer structures based on Ag and Cu metal films for high-performance transparent electrodes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(8), 938–941 (2008).
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Gurram, S. K.

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
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G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 4086–4089 (1976).
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S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harbecke, B.

B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, and P. Grosse, “Optical Properties of Thin Films and the Berreman Effect,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 38(4), 263–267 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hartig, K.

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Dietrich, and K. Hartig, “Bendable silver-based low emissivity coating on glass,” Sol. Energy Mater. 19(1-2), 43–53 (1989).
[Crossref]

Heinz, B.

B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, and P. Grosse, “Optical Properties of Thin Films and the Berreman Effect,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 38(4), 263–267 (1985).
[Crossref]

Henzler, M.

E. Z. Luo, S. Heun, M. Kennedy, J. Wollschläger, and M. Henzler, “Surface Roughness and Conductivity of thin Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(7), 4858–4865 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrero, J.

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “ITO/metal/ITO multilayer structures based on Ag and Cu metal films for high-performance transparent electrodes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(8), 938–941 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heun, S.

E. Z. Luo, S. Heun, M. Kennedy, J. Wollschläger, and M. Henzler, “Surface Roughness and Conductivity of thin Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(7), 4858–4865 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsiung, C.-M.

H.-W. Wu, R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, and C.-H. Chu, “Influence of Ag thickness on aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(24), 7147–7152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.-L.

D. R. Sahu, S.-Y. Lin, and J.-L. Huang, “Investigation of conductive and transparent Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer coatings by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4728–4732 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hüpkes, J.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
[Crossref]

Imanoto, H.

T. Minami, H. Sato, H. Imanoto, and S. Takata, “Substrate Temperature Dependence of Transparent Conducting Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 3A), L257–L260 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.

S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jobst, P. J.

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y. S.

Y. S. Jung, Y. S. Park, K. H. Kim, and W.-J. Lee, “Properties of AZO/Ag/AZO Multilayer Thin Film Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrate,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 14(1), 9–11 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, N.

A. Bingel, K. Füchsel, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “ZnO:Al films prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 103–111 (2014).

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/Vis/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).

Kang, J.-W.

H.-K. Park, J.-W. Kang, S.-I. Na, D.-Y. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1994–2002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, P.

M. Fahland, P. Karlsson, and C. Charton, “Low resistivity transparent electrodes for displays on polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 334–337 (2001).
[Crossref]

Katayama, M.

M. Katayama, “TFT-LCD technology,” Thin Solid Films 341(1-2), 140–147 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, H. Omoto, and A. Takamatsu, “Optimum structure of metal oxide under-layer used in Ag-based multilayer,” Vacuum 83(3), 606–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, M.

E. Z. Luo, S. Heun, M. Kennedy, J. Wollschläger, and M. Henzler, “Surface Roughness and Conductivity of thin Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(7), 4858–4865 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kharrazi Olsson, M.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escola, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: Large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(20-21), 5751–5759 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-Y.

H.-K. Park, J.-W. Kang, S.-I. Na, D.-Y. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1994–2002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-K.

H.-K. Park, J.-W. Kang, S.-I. Na, D.-Y. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1994–2002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim, Y.-J. Moon, S.-K. Kim, Y.-Z. Yoo, and T.-Y. Seong, “Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer films with a high figure of merit,” Ceram. Int. 41(10), 14805–14810 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

Y. S. Jung, Y. S. Park, K. H. Kim, and W.-J. Lee, “Properties of AZO/Ag/AZO Multilayer Thin Film Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrate,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 14(1), 9–11 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-K.

J. H. Kim, Y.-J. Moon, S.-K. Kim, Y.-Z. Yoo, and T.-Y. Seong, “Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer films with a high figure of merit,” Ceram. Int. 41(10), 14805–14810 (2015).
[Crossref]

Klöppel, A.

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kluth, O.

O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kriefseis, W.

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-J.

Y. S. Jung, Y. S. Park, K. H. Kim, and W.-J. Lee, “Properties of AZO/Ag/AZO Multilayer Thin Film Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrate,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 14(1), 9–11 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leo, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3042–3045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-Y.

D. R. Sahu, S.-Y. Lin, and J.-L. Huang, “Investigation of conductive and transparent Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer coatings by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4728–4732 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, E. Z.

E. Z. Luo, S. Heun, M. Kennedy, J. Wollschläger, and M. Henzler, “Surface Roughness and Conductivity of thin Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(7), 4858–4865 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lv, M.

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Macleod, A.

O. Stenzel and A. Macleod, “Metal-dielectric composite optical coatings: underlying physics, main models, characterization, design and application aspects,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1(6), 463–481 (2012).

Marthy, J.

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escola, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: Large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(20-21), 5751–5759 (2006).
[Crossref]

May, C.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leo, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3042–3045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meyer, B. K.

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

Minami, T.

T. Minami, H. Sato, H. Imanoto, and S. Takata, “Substrate Temperature Dependence of Transparent Conducting Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 3A), L257–L260 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mirabella, S.

I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Modsching, N.

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

Moon, Y.-J.

J. H. Kim, Y.-J. Moon, S.-K. Kim, Y.-Z. Yoo, and T.-Y. Seong, “Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer films with a high figure of merit,” Ceram. Int. 41(10), 14805–14810 (2015).
[Crossref]

Müller, J.

O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
[Crossref]

Müller, R.

A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).

Murakami, R.

D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Na, S.-I.

H.-K. Park, J.-W. Kang, S.-I. Na, D.-Y. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1994–2002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Naujok, P.

A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).

Ocker, B.

M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

Omoto, H.

K. Kato, H. Omoto, and A. Takamatsu, “Optimum structure of metal oxide under-layer used in Ag-based multilayer,” Vacuum 83(3), 606–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pang, Z.

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-K.

H.-K. Park, J.-W. Kang, S.-I. Na, D.-Y. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1994–2002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

Y. S. Jung, Y. S. Park, K. H. Kim, and W.-J. Lee, “Properties of AZO/Ag/AZO Multilayer Thin Film Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrate,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 14(1), 9–11 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pécz, B.

T. Dimopoulos, G. Radnoczi, B. Pécz, and H. Brückl, “Characterization of ZnO:Al/Au/ZnO:Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(4), 1470–1474 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pflug, A.

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piegari, A.

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Radehaus, C.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leo, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3042–3045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Radnoczi, G.

T. Dimopoulos, G. Radnoczi, B. Pécz, and H. Brückl, “Characterization of ZnO:Al/Au/ZnO:Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(4), 1470–1474 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rech, B.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rinaldi, A.

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sahu, D. R.

D. R. Sahu, S.-Y. Lin, and J.-L. Huang, “Investigation of conductive and transparent Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer coatings by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4728–4732 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sato, H.

T. Minami, H. Sato, H. Imanoto, and S. Takata, “Substrate Temperature Dependence of Transparent Conducting Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 3A), L257–L260 (1992).
[Crossref]

Scharmann, A.

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schöpe, G.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schulte, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schulz, C.

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schulz, U.

A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).

Schürmann, M.

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

Seelig, W.

M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

Seong, T.-Y.

J. H. Kim, Y.-J. Moon, S.-K. Kim, Y.-Z. Yoo, and T.-Y. Seong, “Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer films with a high figure of merit,” Ceram. Int. 41(10), 14805–14810 (2015).
[Crossref]

Siemers, M.

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Simone, F.

I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sittinger, V.

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, X.

D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steglich, M.

A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).

Stenzel, O.

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

O. Stenzel and A. Macleod, “Metal-dielectric composite optical coatings: underlying physics, main models, characterization, design and application aspects,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1(6), 463–481 (2012).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/Vis/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stiebig, H.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stollenwerk, J.

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

Strano, V.

I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. X.

L. Zhou, X. Chen, F. Zhu, X. X. Sun, and Z. Sun, “Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(50), 505103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

L. Zhou, X. Chen, F. Zhu, X. X. Sun, and Z. Sun, “Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(50), 505103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sytchkova, A.

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szczyrbowski, J.

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Dietrich, and K. Hartig, “Bendable silver-based low emissivity coating on glass,” Sol. Energy Mater. 19(1-2), 43–53 (1989).
[Crossref]

Szyszka, B.

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takamatsu, A.

K. Kato, H. Omoto, and A. Takamatsu, “Optimum structure of metal oxide under-layer used in Ag-based multilayer,” Vacuum 83(3), 606–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takata, S.

T. Minami, H. Sato, H. Imanoto, and S. Takata, “Substrate Temperature Dependence of Transparent Conducting Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 3A), L257–L260 (1992).
[Crossref]

Terrasi, A.

I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thang, W.

S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
[Crossref]

Theuring, M.

M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 558, 294–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

Toerker, M.

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leo, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3042–3045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Torchio, P.

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trube, J.

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

A. Bingel, K. Füchsel, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “ZnO:Al films prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 103–111 (2014).

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).

Ulrich, S.

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vedraine, S.

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vehse, M.

M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 558, 294–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

von Maydell, K.

M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 558, 294–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilbrandt, S.

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/Vis/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wollschläger, J.

E. Z. Luo, S. Heun, M. Kennedy, J. Wollschläger, and M. Henzler, “Surface Roughness and Conductivity of thin Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(7), 4858–4865 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-W.

H.-W. Wu, R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, and C.-H. Chu, “Influence of Ag thickness on aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(24), 7147–7152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wuttig, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xin, Y.

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yabe, H.

D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, R.-Y.

H.-W. Wu, R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, and C.-H. Chu, “Influence of Ag thickness on aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(24), 7147–7152 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoo, Y.-Z.

J. H. Kim, Y.-J. Moon, S.-K. Kim, Y.-Z. Yoo, and T.-Y. Seong, “Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer films with a high figure of merit,” Ceram. Int. 41(10), 14805–14810 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, D.

S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yulin, S.

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, X. Chen, F. Zhu, X. X. Sun, and Z. Sun, “Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(50), 505103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, F.

L. Zhou, X. Chen, F. Zhu, X. X. Sun, and Z. Sun, “Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(50), 505103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (3)

A. Bingel, K. Füchsel, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “ZnO:Al films prepared by inline DC magnetron sputtering,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 103–111 (2014).

P. J. Jobst, O. Stenzel, M. Schürmann, N. Modsching, S. Yulin, S. Wilbrandt, D. Gäbler, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of unprotected and protected sputtered silver films: Surface morphology vs. UV/Vis reflectance,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3(1), 91–102 (2014).

O. Stenzel and A. Macleod, “Metal-dielectric composite optical coatings: underlying physics, main models, characterization, design and application aspects,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1(6), 463–481 (2012).

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

B. Harbecke, B. Heinz, and P. Grosse, “Optical Properties of Thin Films and the Berreman Effect,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 38(4), 263–267 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Int. (1)

J. H. Kim, Y.-J. Moon, S.-K. Kim, Y.-Z. Yoo, and T.-Y. Seong, “Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer films with a high figure of merit,” Ceram. Int. 41(10), 14805–14810 (2015).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Szyszka, W. Dewald, S. K. Gurram, A. Pflug, C. Schulz, M. Siemers, V. Sittinger, and S. Ulrich, “Recent developments in the field of transparent conductive oxide films for spectral selective coatings, electronics and photovoltaics,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 12, S2–S11 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Song, T. Yang, Y. Xin, L. Jiang, Y. Li, Z. Pang, M. Lv, and S. Han, “Effect of GZO thickness and annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties of GZO/Ag/GZO sandwich films,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(2), 452–456 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

M. Berginski, J. Hüpkes, M. Schulte, G. Schöpe, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, and M. Wuttig, “The effect of front ZnO:Al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(7), 074903 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Zhang, H. Yabe, E. Akita, P. Wang, R. Murakami, and X. Song, “Effect of silver evolution on conductivity and transmittance of ZnO/Ag thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 104318 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Sytchkova, M. L. Grilli, A. Rinaldi, S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, A. Piegari, and F. Flory, “Radio frequency sputtered Al:ZnO-Ag transparent conductor: A plasmonic nanostructure with enhanced optical and electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(9), 094509 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Haacke, “New figure of merit for transparent conductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 47(9), 4086–4089 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Zhou, X. Chen, F. Zhu, X. X. Sun, and Z. Sun, “Improving temperature-stable AZO-Ag-AZO multilayer transparent electrodes using thin Al layer modification,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(50), 505103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Minami, H. Sato, H. Imanoto, and S. Takata, “Substrate Temperature Dependence of Transparent Conducting Al-Doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 3A), L257–L260 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

E. Z. Luo, S. Heun, M. Kennedy, J. Wollschläger, and M. Henzler, “Surface Roughness and Conductivity of thin Ag films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 49(7), 4858–4865 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. (1)

J. Szczyrbowski, A. Dietrich, and K. Hartig, “Bendable silver-based low emissivity coating on glass,” Sol. Energy Mater. 19(1-2), 43–53 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “ITO/metal/ITO multilayer structures based on Ag and Cu metal films for high-performance transparent electrodes,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(8), 938–941 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Park, J.-W. Kang, S.-I. Na, D.-Y. Kim, and H.-K. Kim, “Characteristics of indium-free GZO/Ag/GZO and AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer electrode grown by dual target DC sputtering at room temperature for low-cost organic photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1994–2002 (2009).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

U. Betz, M. Kharrazi Olsson, J. Marthy, M. F. Escola, and F. Atamny, “Thin films engineering of indium tin oxide: Large area flat panel displays application,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(20-21), 5751–5759 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (12)

M. Katayama, “TFT-LCD technology,” Thin Solid Films 341(1-2), 140–147 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Eritt, C. May, K. Leo, M. Toerker, and C. Radehaus, “OLED manufacturing for large area lighting applications,” Thin Solid Films 518(11), 3042–3045 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bender, W. Seelig, C. Daube, H. Frankenberger, B. Ocker, and J. Stollenwerk, “Dependence of film composition and thickness on optical and electrical properties of ITO-metal-ITO multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 326(1-2), 67–71 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Dimopoulos, G. Radnoczi, B. Pécz, and H. Brückl, “Characterization of ZnO:Al/Au/ZnO:Al trilayers for high performance transparent conducting electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 519(4), 1470–1474 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Klöppel, W. Kriefseis, B. K. Meyer, A. Scharmann, C. Daube, J. Stollenwerk, and J. Trube, “Dependence of the electrical and optical behavior of ITO-silver-ITO multilayers on the silver properties,” Thin Solid Films 365(1), 139–146 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Fahland, P. Karlsson, and C. Charton, “Low resistivity transparent electrodes for displays on polymer substrates,” Thin Solid Films 392(2), 334–337 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, W. Thang, L. Li, D. Yu, H. Dong, and Y. Jin, “Optimization of SnO2/Ag/SnO2 tri-layer films as transparent composite electrode with high figure of merit,” Thin Solid Films 552, 150–154 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. R. Sahu, S.-Y. Lin, and J.-L. Huang, “Investigation of conductive and transparent Al-doped ZnO/Ag/Al-doped ZnO multilayer coatings by electron beam evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 516(15), 4728–4732 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Crupi, S. Boscarino, V. Strano, S. Mirabella, F. Simone, and A. Terrasi, “Optimization of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al structures for ultra-thin high performance transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 520(13), 4432–4435 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Wu, R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, and C.-H. Chu, “Influence of Ag thickness on aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films 520(24), 7147–7152 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Theuring, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 558, 294–297 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Kluth, G. Schöpe, J. Hüpkes, C. Agashe, J. Müller, and B. Rech, “Modified Thornton model for magnetron sputtered zinc oxide: film structure and etching behavior,” Thin Solid Films 442(1-2), 80–85 (2003).
[Crossref]

Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. (1)

Y. S. Jung, Y. S. Park, K. H. Kim, and W.-J. Lee, “Properties of AZO/Ag/AZO Multilayer Thin Film Deposited on Polyethersulfone Substrate,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 14(1), 9–11 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vacuum (1)

K. Kato, H. Omoto, and A. Takamatsu, “Optimum structure of metal oxide under-layer used in Ag-based multilayer,” Vacuum 83(3), 606–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vak. Forsch. Prax. (1)

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, K. Friedrich, and N. Kaiser, “Realistische Modellierung der NIR/Vis/UV-optischen Konstanten dünner optischer Schichten im Rahmen des Oszillatormodells,” Vak. Forsch. Prax. 21(5), 15–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

A. Bingel, M. Steglich, P. Naujok, R. Müller, U. Schulz, N. Kaiser, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the ZnO:Al dispersion on the performance of ZnO:Al/Ag/ZnO:Al transparent electrodes,” Thin Solid Films (submitted to).

Powder Diffraction File, ICCD Database, Pattern 36–1451 (ZnO), 04–0783 (Ag), 1997.

Optical constants from in-house database, in this case essentially a smoothed version of the data from [17].

W. M. Haynes, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Taylor and Francis, 2012).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Reflectance R and transmittance T spectra (a) as well as optical losses calculated via 100%-R-T (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sheet resistance and transmittance (a) and resulting Figure of Merit Φ (b) of 37 nm/10 nm/37 nm AZO/Ag/AZO films as a function of working pressure pAr during the AZO deposition. The line is only a guide for the eye.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Specific Resistivity of AZO single layers with a thickness of ∼37 nm (a) and optical constants n and k determined from R and T spectra (b) as a function of pAr during the AZO deposition.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 XRD spectra of AZO/Ag/AZO multilayers at various gas pressures in symmetric θ-2θ scan geometry (Bragg-Brentano).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 XRD spectra of AZO/Ag/AZO multilayers at various gas pressures in asymmetric ω-2θ scan geometry (rocking curve) at constant 2θ = 38.1°.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Specific resistivity as a function of the AZO lattice plane distance d(002) and diffraction angle 2θ(002).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Specific resistivity of Ag and transmittance of the AZO/Ag/AZO stack as a function of working pressure and roughness at the first AZO/Ag interface. Lines are only a guide for the eye.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 SEM images of AZO single layers (37 nm) prepared at different working gas pressures pAr.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Cross-sectional TEM image of an AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer prepared at pAr = 1.1 Pa. The high resolution image visualizes the AZO(002) planes oriented parallel to the substrate surface. The roughness at the interface AZO(bottom)/Ag is higher than that of the Ag/AZO(top) interface approving the XRR-results (see Table 2).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 SEM images of 37 nm AZO thin films overcoated with 10 nm Ag.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Comparison between measured optical spectra (AOI = 6°) of AZO/Ag/AZO systems prepared at different working gas pressures and simulation applying a simple tri-layer model with smooth interfaces. For AZO the optical constants shown in Fig. 3(b) are used whereas silver was described by the optical constants given in [17,36].
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Surface geometry model with ideal interfaces (left) vs. real film structure (right).
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Gaussian distribution g(L) assumed for the depolarization factor L. The mean value is chosen to L = 1/3 and the standard deviation is 0.5.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Optical constants neff and keff of the effective interlayer (IL) calculated by the generalized Maxwell-Garnett approach with the g(L)-distribution shown in Fig. 13 and a silver filling factor pAg of 15%.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Comparison between measured and modeled optical spectra (pAr = 1.6 Pa) considering a simple tri-layer model with smooth interfaces as well as an extended model with interlayers describing the surface roughness: sub/AZO/IL/Ag/IL/AZO with the following thicknesses: 34.2 nm/2.5 nm/10.5 nm/1.1 nm/35.0 nm.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Real structure model of an AZO film overcoated with a thin Ag film.
Fig. 17
Fig. 17 Sheet resistance, transmittance, and Figure-of-Merit of AZO/Ag/AZO transparent electrode prepared at pAr = 0.15 Pa as a function of annealing temperature.
Fig. 18
Fig. 18 Investigation of the damp heat stability of AZO/Ag/AZO films prepared at pAr = 0.15 Pa in comparison to an AZO single layer (d = 200 nm).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electro-optical properties of In-free tri-layer transparent electrodes prepared by different deposition techniques: EBE (electron beam evaporation), DC MS: DC magnetron sputtering, RF MS: RF magnetron sputtering, IBS: ion beam sputtering. AZO: Al-doped ZnO, GZO: Ga-doped ZnO. FOM: Figure-of-Merit.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of electrical and structural properties of AZO/Ag/AZO films prepared at different sputter gas pressures pAr.

Equations (1)

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ϵ e f f = ϵ A Z O 0 1 g ( L ) 1 + p A g ( 1 L ) ( ϵ A g ϵ A Z O ) ϵ A Z O + ( ϵ A g ϵ A Z O ) L 1 p A g L ( ϵ A g ϵ A Z O ) ϵ A Z O + ( ϵ A g ϵ A Z O ) L d L .

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