Abstract

Newly developed thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials are attractive for application in efficient displays. Five TADF materials, including PXZ-TRZ and four carbazolyl dicyanobenzene (CDCB) derivatives of 4CzTPN, 4CzTPN – Ph, 2CzPN, and 4CzIPN, were investigated using terahertz spectroscopy in the 0.60 – 1.60 THz range. While PXZ-TRZ was almost transparent, the carbazolyl dicyanobenzene (CDCB) derivatives, especially 4CzIPN, exhibited intrinsic absorption features. Comparing these results with density functional theorem calculations, each absorption feature was clarified to originate from the intramolecular motions of the carbazole units.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Linkage engineering in hosts for dramatic efficiency enhancement of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

Chaochao Fan, Ying Wei, Dongxue Ding, and Hui Xu
Opt. Express 23(10) 12887-12899 (2015)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA

Bernd M. Fischer, Matthias Hoffmann, Hanspeter Helm, Rafal Wilk, Frank Rutz, Thomas Kleine-Ostmann, Martin Koch, and Peter Uhd Jepsen
Opt. Express 13(14) 5205-5215 (2005)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).
  2. J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).
  3. H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).
  4. H. Tanaka, K. Shizu, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) from a phenoxazine-triphenyltriazine (PXZ-TRZ) derivative,” Chem. Commun. 48(93), 11392 (2012).
  5. J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).
  6. Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).
  7. C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001)
  8. C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).
  9. C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).
  10. P. Schouwink, A. Schäfer, C. Seidel, and H. Fuchs, “The influence of molecular aggregation on the device properties of organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 372(1–2), 163–168 (2000).
  11. S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).
  12. G. Zhao, B. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins,” Appl. Phys. 106(10), 1–6 (2009).
  13. T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)
  14. C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).
  15. P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).
  16. M. Leahy-Hoppa, M. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4–6), 227–230 (2007).
  17. Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).
  18. T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119–2121 (2004).
  19. B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature Photonics 517, 517–525 (2007).
  20. H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric oscillator in a ring-cavity configuration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123104 (2009).
  21. K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator with wide tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 195–197 (2002).
  22. J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. 48(4 PART 2), 653–661 (2000).
  23. Y. Ishikawa, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Miura, T. Sawai, and H. Ito, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Imaging of Liver Cancer using Ring Cavity THz- wave Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE, 1236–1237 (2005).
  24. Y. Zhao and D. G. Truhlar, “The M06 suite of density functionals for main group thermochemistry, thermochemical kinetics, noncovalent interactions, excited states, and transition elements: two new functionals and systematic testing of four M06-class functionals and 12 other function,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 120(1–3), 215–241 (2008).
  25. M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

2015 (3)

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

2014 (3)

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

2013 (2)

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

2012 (2)

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).

H. Tanaka, K. Shizu, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) from a phenoxazine-triphenyltriazine (PXZ-TRZ) derivative,” Chem. Commun. 48(93), 11392 (2012).

2011 (1)

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

2009 (2)

G. Zhao, B. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins,” Appl. Phys. 106(10), 1–6 (2009).

H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric oscillator in a ring-cavity configuration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123104 (2009).

2008 (1)

Y. Zhao and D. G. Truhlar, “The M06 suite of density functionals for main group thermochemistry, thermochemical kinetics, noncovalent interactions, excited states, and transition elements: two new functionals and systematic testing of four M06-class functionals and 12 other function,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 120(1–3), 215–241 (2008).

2007 (2)

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature Photonics 517, 517–525 (2007).

M. Leahy-Hoppa, M. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4–6), 227–230 (2007).

2006 (1)

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)

2004 (2)

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119–2121 (2004).

2002 (1)

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator with wide tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 195–197 (2002).

2001 (1)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001)

2000 (2)

P. Schouwink, A. Schäfer, C. Seidel, and H. Fuchs, “The influence of molecular aggregation on the device properties of organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 372(1–2), 163–168 (2000).

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. 48(4 PART 2), 653–661 (2000).

1997 (1)

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).

Abiko, M.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Adachi, C.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

H. Tanaka, K. Shizu, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) from a phenoxazine-triphenyltriazine (PXZ-TRZ) derivative,” Chem. Commun. 48(93), 11392 (2012).

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001)

Baldo, M. A.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001)

Balu, R.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)

Bawolek, E. J.

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

Beard, M. C.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)

Brener, I.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).

Brien, B. O.

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).

Campbell, M. B.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)

Chen, D.

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

Chen, W.

S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).

Chepelin, O.

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

Cho, S. I.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Christen, J. B.

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

Cunningham, P. D.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Federici, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).

Fitch, M.

M. Leahy-Hoppa, M. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4–6), 227–230 (2007).

Forrest, S. R.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001)

Fuchs, H.

P. Schouwink, A. Schäfer, C. Seidel, and H. Fuchs, “The influence of molecular aggregation on the device properties of organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 372(1–2), 163–168 (2000).

Gather, M. C.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).

Gordon, K. C.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).

Goushi, K.

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).

Gregurick, S. K.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)

Hanabe, M.

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119–2121 (2004).

Hayden, L.

M. Leahy-Hoppa, M. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4–6), 227–230 (2007).

Hayden, L. M.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Heiweil, E. J.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)

Huang, S.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).

Ikari, T.

H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric oscillator in a ring-cavity configuration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123104 (2009).

Y. Ishikawa, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Miura, T. Sawai, and H. Ito, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Imaging of Liver Cancer using Ring Cavity THz- wave Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE, 1236–1237 (2005).

Imai, K.

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator with wide tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 195–197 (2002).

Inomata, S.

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Ishikawa, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Miura, T. Sawai, and H. Ito, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Imaging of Liver Cancer using Ring Cavity THz- wave Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE, 1236–1237 (2005).

Ito, H.

H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric oscillator in a ring-cavity configuration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123104 (2009).

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator with wide tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 195–197 (2002).

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. 48(4 PART 2), 653–661 (2000).

Y. Ishikawa, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Miura, T. Sawai, and H. Ito, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Imaging of Liver Cancer using Ring Cavity THz- wave Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE, 1236–1237 (2005).

Jen, A. K. Y.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Karino, K.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. 48(4 PART 2), 653–661 (2000).

Kawase, K.

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator with wide tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 195–197 (2002).

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. 48(4 PART 2), 653–661 (2000).

Kido, J.

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Korter, T. M.

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)

Leahy-Hoppa, M.

M. Leahy-Hoppa, M. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4–6), 227–230 (2007).

Lee, Y. K.

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

Leitl, M. J.

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

Leo, K.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).

Li, B.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).

Li, J.

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

Linfoot, C. L.

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

Liu, M.

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

Liu, Y.

S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).

Lopata, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).

Luo, J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

MacDonald, J.

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

Mamada, M.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Member, S.

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

Minamide, H.

H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric oscillator in a ring-cavity configuration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123104 (2009).

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator with wide tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 195–197 (2002).

Y. Ishikawa, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Miura, T. Sawai, and H. Ito, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Imaging of Liver Cancer using Ring Cavity THz- wave Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE, 1236–1237 (2005).

Miura, Y.

Y. Ishikawa, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Miura, T. Sawai, and H. Ito, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Imaging of Liver Cancer using Ring Cavity THz- wave Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE, 1236–1237 (2005).

Miyazaki, H.

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

H. Tanaka, K. Shizu, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) from a phenoxazine-triphenyltriazine (PXZ-TRZ) derivative,” Chem. Commun. 48(93), 11392 (2012).

Mizukami, M.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Murawski, C.

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).

Nakagawa, T.

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

Newnham, D. A.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).

Nomura, H.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).

Ogawara, O.

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119–2121 (2004).

Oku, S.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Osiander, R.

M. Leahy-Hoppa, M. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4–6), 227–230 (2007).

Otsuji, T.

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119–2121 (2004).

Pepper, M.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).

Pfeiffer, L.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).

Polishak, B.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Rades, T.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).

Rausch, A. F.

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

Richardson, P.

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

Robertson, N.

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

Sakanoue, T.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Sasabe, H.

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

Sawai, T.

Y. Ishikawa, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Miura, T. Sawai, and H. Ito, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Imaging of Liver Cancer using Ring Cavity THz- wave Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE, 1236–1237 (2005).

Schäfer, A.

P. Schouwink, A. Schäfer, C. Seidel, and H. Fuchs, “The influence of molecular aggregation on the device properties of organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 372(1–2), 163–168 (2000).

Schouwink, P.

P. Schouwink, A. Schäfer, C. Seidel, and H. Fuchs, “The influence of molecular aggregation on the device properties of organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 372(1–2), 163–168 (2000).

Seidel, C.

P. Schouwink, A. Schäfer, C. Seidel, and H. Fuchs, “The influence of molecular aggregation on the device properties of organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 372(1–2), 163–168 (2000).

Seino, Y.

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

Shikata, J.

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator with wide tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 195–197 (2002).

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. 48(4 PART 2), 653–661 (2000).

Shizu, K.

H. Tanaka, K. Shizu, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) from a phenoxazine-triphenyltriazine (PXZ-TRZ) derivative,” Chem. Commun. 48(93), 11392 (2012).

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).

Smith, J. T.

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

Strachan, C. J.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).

Su, S. j.

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

Suzuri, Y.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Taday, P. F.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).

Tanaka, H.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).

H. Tanaka, K. Shizu, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) from a phenoxazine-triphenyltriazine (PXZ-TRZ) derivative,” Chem. Commun. 48(93), 11392 (2012).

Taniuchi, T.

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. 48(4 PART 2), 653–661 (2000).

Tatetsu, M.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001)

Tokito, S.

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

Truhlar, D. G.

Y. Zhao and D. G. Truhlar, “The M06 suite of density functionals for main group thermochemistry, thermochemical kinetics, noncovalent interactions, excited states, and transition elements: two new functionals and systematic testing of four M06-class functionals and 12 other function,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 120(1–3), 215–241 (2008).

Twieg, R. J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Uoyama, H.

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).

Valdes, N. N.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Vallejo, F. A.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Wang, S.

S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).

Wang, Y.

S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).

Wei, J.

S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).

White, F. J.

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

Williams, B. S.

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature Photonics 517, 517–525 (2007).

Williams, J. C.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Wynn, J.

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).

Yersin, H.

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

Yu, B.

G. Zhao, B. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins,” Appl. Phys. 106(10), 1–6 (2009).

Zhang, C.

G. Zhao, B. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins,” Appl. Phys. 106(10), 1–6 (2009).

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

Zhang, Y.

S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, B. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins,” Appl. Phys. 106(10), 1–6 (2009).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and D. G. Truhlar, “The M06 suite of density functionals for main group thermochemistry, thermochemical kinetics, noncovalent interactions, excited states, and transition elements: two new functionals and systematic testing of four M06-class functionals and 12 other function,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 120(1–3), 215–241 (2008).

Zheng, X.

M. Leahy-Hoppa, M. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4–6), 227–230 (2007).

Zhou, X. H.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. Murawski, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Efficiency roll-off in organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 25(47), 6801–6827 (2013).

Adv. Matter. (1)

J. Li, T. Nakagawa, J. MacDonald, Q. Zhang, H. Nomura, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Diode Based on a Hidden Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Channel in a Heptazine Derivative,” Adv. Matter. 25, 3319–3323 (2013).

Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Zhao, B. Yu, and C. Zhang, “Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins,” Appl. Phys. 106(10), 1–6 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Cai, I. Brener, J. Lopata, J. Wynn, L. Pfeiffer, and J. Federici, “Design and performance of singular electric field terahertz photoconducting antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2076–2078 (1997).

T. Otsuji, M. Hanabe, and O. Ogawara, “Terahertz plasma wave resonance of two-dimensional electrons in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2119–2121 (2004).

K. Kawase, H. Minamide, K. Imai, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Injection-seeded terahertz-wave parametric generator with wide tunability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 195–197 (2002).

Chem. Commun. (3)

S. Wang, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, J. Wei, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants,” Chem. Commun. 51, 11972–11975 (2015).

M. Liu, Y. Seino, D. Chen, S. Inomata, S. j. Su, H. Sasabe, and J. Kido, “Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials based on bis(phenylsulfonyl)benzene derivatives,” Chem. Commun. 51(91), 16353–16356 (2015).

H. Tanaka, K. Shizu, H. Miyazaki, and C. Adachi, “Efficient green thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) from a phenoxazine-triphenyltriazine (PXZ-TRZ) derivative,” Chem. Commun. 48(93), 11392 (2012).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. M. Korter, R. Balu, M. B. Campbell, M. C. Beard, S. K. Gregurick, and E. J. Heiweil, “Terahertz spectroscopy of solid serine and cysteine,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 418(1–3), 65–70 (2006)

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, D. A. Newnham, K. C. Gordon, M. Pepper, and P. F. Taday, “Using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy to study crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 390(1–3), 20–24 (2004).

M. Leahy-Hoppa, M. Fitch, X. Zheng, L. Hayden, and R. Osiander, “Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 434(4–6), 227–230 (2007).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

M. Mizukami, S. Oku, S. I. Cho, M. Tatetsu, M. Abiko, M. Mamada, T. Sakanoue, Y. Suzuri, J. Kido, and S. Tokito, “A Solution-Processed Organic Thin-Film Transistor Backplane for Flexible Multiphoton Emission Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(8), 1 (2015).

IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, K. Karino, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, “Tunable terahertz-wave parametric oscillators using LiNbO3 and MgO : LiNbO3 crystals,” IEEE Trans. Micrw. Theory Tech. 48(4 PART 2), 653–661 (2000).

Inorg. Chem. (1)

C. L. Linfoot, M. J. Leitl, P. Richardson, A. F. Rausch, O. Chepelin, F. J. White, H. Yersin, and N. Robertson, “Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence (TADF) and Enhancing Photoluminescence Quantum Yields of [CuI(diimine)(diphosphine)]+ Complexes–Photophysical, Structural, and Computational Studies,” Inorg. Chem. 53(20), 10854–10861 (2014).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001)

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 1–5 (2011).

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

J. T. Smith, S. Member, B. O. Brien, Y. K. Lee, E. J. Bawolek, S. Member, and J. B. Christen, “Application of Flexible OLED Display Technology for Electro-Optical Stimulation and / or Silencing of Neural Activity,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(6), 514–520 (2014).

Nature (1)

H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234–238 (2012).

Nature Photonics (2)

Q. Zhang, B. Li, S. Huang, H. Nomura, H. Tanaka, and C. Adachi, “Efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes employing thermally activated delayed fluorescence,” Nature Photonics 8, 326–332 (2014).

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nature Photonics 517, 517–525 (2007).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. Minamide, T. Ikari, and H. Ito, “Frequency-agile terahertz-wave parametric oscillator in a ring-cavity configuration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 123104 (2009).

Theor. Chem. Acc. (1)

Y. Zhao and D. G. Truhlar, “The M06 suite of density functionals for main group thermochemistry, thermochemical kinetics, noncovalent interactions, excited states, and transition elements: two new functionals and systematic testing of four M06-class functionals and 12 other function,” Theor. Chem. Acc. 120(1–3), 215–241 (2008).

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. Schouwink, A. Schäfer, C. Seidel, and H. Fuchs, “The influence of molecular aggregation on the device properties of organic light emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 372(1–2), 163–168 (2000).

Other (1)

Y. Ishikawa, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Miura, T. Sawai, and H. Ito, “Terahertz Spectroscopic Imaging of Liver Cancer using Ring Cavity THz- wave Parametric Oscillator,” IEEE, 1236–1237 (2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Chemical structure of the five important TADF materials.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A schematic diagram of terahertz spectroscopy using the TPO system.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The absorption coefficient of PXZ-TRZ. The experimental results are plotted with blue dots and error bars.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The absorption coefficient of biaxial TADF materials, 4CzTPN and 4CzTPN – Ph. The experimental results are plotted with blue dots and error bars.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The absorption coefficient of uniaxial TADF materials, 2CzPN, and 4CzIPN. The experimental results are plotted with blue dots and error bars
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 DFT calculation results of biaxial and uniaxial molecules : 4CzTPN (red), 4CzTPN (blue), and 2CzPN (gray) calculated on 6-31G(d,p)/M06-2X level in low (left) and high (right) frequency ranges, compared with experimental results (dots and error bars). Absorption in cyclohexane solution (0.03 mM) were shown with blue dashed line
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Intramolecular motion of a single 4CzIPN molecule for each terahertz resonant frequency.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Intensities of resonant motions

Metrics