Abstract

The effect of iodine (I2) on the photoluminescence properties of Tm3+ ions in the As2S3 matrix was investigated. Results showed three strong emission bands at 1.22 µm (3H53H6), 1.46 µm (3H43F4) and 1.82 µm (3F43H6) under the excitation wavelength of 800 nm, indicating that I2 enables the solubility of Tm3+ ions in As2S3 glasses. The concentration ratio of I2 and Tm3+ were optimized and it revealed that the increasing of the concentration of I2 of 4 times in the glass increases the solubility of Tm ions three times. The effects of the I2 on the fundamental glass properties, including optical, thermal and structural characteristics, were explored as well.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

E. R. Shaaban, Y. A. M. Ismail, and H. S. Hassan, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of amorphous Se80−xTe20Bix thin films using transmittance and reflectance measurements,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 376, 61–67 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B 81(10), 104204 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

E. Bychkov, M. Miloshova, D. L. Price, C. J. Benmore, and A. Lorriaux, “Short, intermediate and mesoscopic range order in sulfur-rich binary glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(1), 63–70 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, L. Luo, and W. Chen, “The 1.23 and 1.47μm emissions from Tm3+ in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 076107 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. G. Truong, A. M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, B. S. Ham, A. Q. Le Quang, J. Leperson, V. Nazabal, and J. L. Adam, “Optical properties of thulium-doped chalcogenide glasses and the uncertainty of the calculated radiative lifetimes using the Judd-Ofelt approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2588–2596 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

Y. S. Han, J. Heo, and Y. B. Shin, “Cross relaxation mechanism among Tm3+ ions in Ge30Ga2As6S62 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2–3), 302–308 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, A. M. Andriesh, E. I. Kamitsos, C. P. E. Varsamis, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and M. Popescu, “Spectroscopic study of As2S3 glasses doped with Dy, Sm and Mn,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 306–310 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Schweizer, D. J. Brady, Y. D. West, T. Schweizer, and D. J. Bra, “Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 229–250 (2000).

1999 (2)

B. Frumarová, P. Němec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlček, “Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge–Sb–S:PrCl3 glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 266–270 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, J. R. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Infrared emission and ion–ion interactions in thulium- and terbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 308–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Wagner, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenár, and A. Stronski, “Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy studies of AsxS100−x glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(23), 5581–5588 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

D. Machewirth, K. Wei, V. Krasteva, R. Datta, E. Snitzer, and G. Sigel., “Optical characterization of Pr3+ and Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 295–303 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Krasteva, D. Machewirth, and G. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge–S–I glasses as candidate materials for 1.3μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 304–310 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, W. Y. Cho, and W. J. Chung, “Sensitizing effect of Tm3+ on 2.9 μm emission from Dy3+-doped Ge25Ga5S70 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 151–156 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, “Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 143–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

J. Heo and Y. B. Shin, “Absorption and mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-As(or Ga)-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 162–167 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1–2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (4)

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 182(3), 257–261 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, “Optical characteristics of rare-earth-doped sulphide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(14), 1014–1016 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. R. Simons, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, “GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(3), 283–288 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Kadono, H. Higuchi, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, and H. Tanaka, “Upconversion luminescence of Ga2S3-based sulfide glasses containing Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 309–313 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulfide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3-um fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(1), 13–15 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. N. Payne, J. A. Medeiros Neto, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, and B. N. Samson, “Emission at 1.3µm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-microm fiber-optical amplifier applications,” Opt. Lett. 19(12), 904–906 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Heo, “Chalcohalide glasses for infrared fiber optics,” Opt. Eng. 30(4), 470–479 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

L. Koudelka and M. Pisárčik, “Raman spectra and structure of As-S-I system glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 64(1–2), 87–94 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27(1), 29–37 (1978).
[Crossref]

O. V. Khiminets, P. P. Puga, V. V. Khiminets, I. I. Rosola, and G. D. Puga, “Raman spectra of the As-S-I system of glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 28(4), 477–479 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

R. Reisfeld and A. Bornstein, “Absorption and emission spectra in chalcogenide glass of the composition 0.7Ga2S3·0.27La2S3·0.03Nd2S3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47(1), 194–196 (1977).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

S. Suzuki, Y. Kamiya, Y. Suzuki, and T. Kobayashi, “Viscosity of Glass in the Transition Region in the Systems As-S, As-S-I and As-S-Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Japan 21(221), 143–147 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

S. Tsuchihashi and Y. Kawamoto, “Properties and structure of glasses in the system As-S,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5(4), 286–305 (1971).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

T. E. Hopkins, R. A. Pasternak, E. S. Gould, and J. R. Herndon, “X-ray diffraction study of arsenic trisulfide-iodine glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. 66(4), 733–736 (1962).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

S. S. Flaschen, A. D. Pearson, and W. R. Northover, “Low Melting Sulfide-Halogen Inorganic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(1), 219–220 (1960).
[Crossref]

Abe, K.

K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, “Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 143–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. G. Truong, A. M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, B. S. Ham, A. Q. Le Quang, J. Leperson, V. Nazabal, and J. L. Adam, “Optical properties of thulium-doped chalcogenide glasses and the uncertainty of the calculated radiative lifetimes using the Judd-Ofelt approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2588–2596 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.-L.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Allegretti, L.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Andriesh, A. M.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, A. M. Andriesh, E. I. Kamitsos, C. P. E. Varsamis, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and M. Popescu, “Spectroscopic study of As2S3 glasses doped with Dy, Sm and Mn,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 306–310 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barney, E.

Benmore, C. J.

E. Bychkov, M. Miloshova, D. L. Price, C. J. Benmore, and A. Lorriaux, “Short, intermediate and mesoscopic range order in sulfur-rich binary glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(1), 63–70 (2006).
[Crossref]

Benson, T. M.

Bo, P.

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bornstein, A.

R. Reisfeld and A. Bornstein, “Absorption and emission spectra in chalcogenide glass of the composition 0.7Ga2S3·0.27La2S3·0.03Nd2S3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47(1), 194–196 (1977).
[Crossref]

Boulard, B.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bra, D. J.

T. Schweizer, D. J. Brady, Y. D. West, T. Schweizer, and D. J. Bra, “Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 229–250 (2000).

Brady, D. J.

T. Schweizer, D. J. Brady, Y. D. West, T. Schweizer, and D. J. Bra, “Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 229–250 (2000).

Brocklesby, W. S.

Bychkov, E.

E. Bychkov, M. Miloshova, D. L. Price, C. J. Benmore, and A. Lorriaux, “Short, intermediate and mesoscopic range order in sulfur-rich binary glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(1), 63–70 (2006).
[Crossref]

Canat, G.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Z. Yang, L. Luo, and W. Chen, “The 1.23 and 1.47μm emissions from Tm3+ in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 076107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cho, W. Y.

J. Heo, W. Y. Cho, and W. J. Chung, “Sensitizing effect of Tm3+ on 2.9 μm emission from Dy3+-doped Ge25Ga5S70 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 151–156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chrissanthopoulos, A.

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chung, W. J.

J. Heo, W. Y. Cho, and W. J. Chung, “Sensitizing effect of Tm3+ on 2.9 μm emission from Dy3+-doped Ge25Ga5S70 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 151–156 (1997).
[Crossref]

Churbanov, M. F.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Datta, R.

D. Machewirth, K. Wei, V. Krasteva, R. Datta, E. Snitzer, and G. Sigel., “Optical characterization of Pr3+ and Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 295–303 (1997).
[Crossref]

De Sario, M.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

de Waal, H.

D. R. Simons, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, “GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(3), 283–288 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

Doualan, J. L.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Doualan, J.-L.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dracopoulos, V.

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Elliott, S. R.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B 81(10), 104204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faber, A. J.

D. R. Simons, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, “GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(3), 283–288 (1995).
[Crossref]

Flaschen, S. S.

S. S. Flaschen, A. D. Pearson, and W. R. Northover, “Low Melting Sulfide-Halogen Inorganic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(1), 219–220 (1960).
[Crossref]

Fortin, V.

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Frumar, M.

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Frumarová, P. Němec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlček, “Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge–Sb–S:PrCl3 glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 266–270 (1999).
[Crossref]

Frumarová, B.

B. Frumarová, P. Němec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlček, “Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge–Sb–S:PrCl3 glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 266–270 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fujiura, K.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulfide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3-um fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(1), 13–15 (1994).
[Crossref]

Furniss, D.

Gadret, G.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Galagan, B. I.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Galstian, T.

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Galstyan, A.

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gapontsev, V. P.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[Crossref]

V. P. Gapontsev, Y. E. Sverchkov, A. K. Gromov, A. A. Izyneev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Parameters and mechanism of elementary interaction of the electronic excitation of rare-earth ions with the local impurity oscillations,” 29(4), 210–213 (1979).

Golovchak, R.

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gould, E. S.

T. E. Hopkins, R. A. Pasternak, E. S. Gould, and J. R. Herndon, “X-ray diffraction study of arsenic trisulfide-iodine glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. 66(4), 733–736 (1962).
[Crossref]

Gromov, A. K.

V. P. Gapontsev, Y. E. Sverchkov, A. K. Gromov, A. A. Izyneev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Parameters and mechanism of elementary interaction of the electronic excitation of rare-earth ions with the local impurity oscillations,” 29(4), 210–213 (1979).

Ham, B. S.

Han, Y. S.

Y. S. Han, J. Heo, and Y. B. Shin, “Cross relaxation mechanism among Tm3+ ions in Ge30Ga2As6S62 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2–3), 302–308 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hassan, H. S.

E. R. Shaaban, Y. A. M. Ismail, and H. S. Hassan, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of amorphous Se80−xTe20Bix thin films using transmittance and reflectance measurements,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 376, 61–67 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hector, J. R.

Hegedus, J.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B 81(10), 104204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hempstead, M.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1–2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B 81(10), 104204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Han, J. Heo, and Y. B. Shin, “Cross relaxation mechanism among Tm3+ ions in Ge30Ga2As6S62 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2–3), 302–308 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, W. Y. Cho, and W. J. Chung, “Sensitizing effect of Tm3+ on 2.9 μm emission from Dy3+-doped Ge25Ga5S70 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 151–156 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Heo and Y. B. Shin, “Absorption and mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-As(or Ga)-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 162–167 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, “Optical characteristics of rare-earth-doped sulphide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(14), 1014–1016 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Heo, “Chalcohalide glasses for infrared fiber optics,” Opt. Eng. 30(4), 470–479 (1991).
[Crossref]

Herndon, J. R.

T. E. Hopkins, R. A. Pasternak, E. S. Gould, and J. R. Herndon, “X-ray diffraction study of arsenic trisulfide-iodine glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. 66(4), 733–736 (1962).
[Crossref]

Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, J. R. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Infrared emission and ion–ion interactions in thulium- and terbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 308–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1–2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. N. Payne, J. A. Medeiros Neto, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, and B. N. Samson, “Emission at 1.3µm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
[Crossref]

Higuchi, H.

K. Kadono, H. Higuchi, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, and H. Tanaka, “Upconversion luminescence of Ga2S3-based sulfide glasses containing Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 309–313 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hopkins, T. E.

T. E. Hopkins, R. A. Pasternak, E. S. Gould, and J. R. Herndon, “X-ray diffraction study of arsenic trisulfide-iodine glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. 66(4), 733–736 (1962).
[Crossref]

Houizot, P.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27(1), 29–37 (1978).
[Crossref]

Iovu, M. S.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, A. M. Andriesh, E. I. Kamitsos, C. P. E. Varsamis, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and M. Popescu, “Spectroscopic study of As2S3 glasses doped with Dy, Sm and Mn,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 306–310 (2003).
[Crossref]

Isineev, A. A.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ismail, Y. A. M.

E. R. Shaaban, Y. A. M. Ismail, and H. S. Hassan, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of amorphous Se80−xTe20Bix thin films using transmittance and reflectance measurements,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 376, 61–67 (2013).
[Crossref]

Izyneev, A. A.

V. P. Gapontsev, Y. E. Sverchkov, A. K. Gromov, A. A. Izyneev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Parameters and mechanism of elementary interaction of the electronic excitation of rare-earth ions with the local impurity oscillations,” 29(4), 210–213 (1979).

Jacquier, B.

Jain, H.

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, C.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jurdyc, A. M.

Kadono, K.

K. Kadono, H. Higuchi, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, and H. Tanaka, “Upconversion luminescence of Ga2S3-based sulfide glasses containing Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 309–313 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kamitsos, E. I.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, A. M. Andriesh, E. I. Kamitsos, C. P. E. Varsamis, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and M. Popescu, “Spectroscopic study of As2S3 glasses doped with Dy, Sm and Mn,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 306–310 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kamiya, Y.

S. Suzuki, Y. Kamiya, Y. Suzuki, and T. Kobayashi, “Viscosity of Glass in the Transition Region in the Systems As-S, As-S-I and As-S-Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Japan 21(221), 143–147 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kanamori, T.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulfide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3-um fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(1), 13–15 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kasap, S. O.

T. Wagner, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenár, and A. Stronski, “Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy studies of AsxS100−x glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(23), 5581–5588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kawamoto, Y.

K. Kadono, H. Higuchi, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, and H. Tanaka, “Upconversion luminescence of Ga2S3-based sulfide glasses containing Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 309–313 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Tsuchihashi and Y. Kawamoto, “Properties and structure of glasses in the system As-S,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5(4), 286–305 (1971).
[Crossref]

Khiminets, O. V.

O. V. Khiminets, P. P. Puga, V. V. Khiminets, I. I. Rosola, and G. D. Puga, “Raman spectra of the As-S-I system of glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 28(4), 477–479 (1978).
[Crossref]

Khiminets, V. V.

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R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
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Krasteva, V.

V. Krasteva, D. Machewirth, and G. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge–S–I glasses as candidate materials for 1.3μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 304–310 (1997).
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D. Machewirth, K. Wei, V. Krasteva, R. Datta, E. Snitzer, and G. Sigel., “Optical characterization of Pr3+ and Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 295–303 (1997).
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Kravchenko, V. B.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
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Krbal, M.

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
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Kryukova, E. B.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
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Kyriazis, F.

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
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Laming, R. I.

D. N. Payne, J. A. Medeiros Neto, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, and B. N. Samson, “Emission at 1.3µm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
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Le Quang, A. Q.

Lee, T. H.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B 81(10), 104204 (2010).
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Leperson, J.

Lin, C.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
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Liu, C.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
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Lorriaux, A.

E. Bychkov, M. Miloshova, D. L. Price, C. J. Benmore, and A. Lorriaux, “Short, intermediate and mesoscopic range order in sulfur-rich binary glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(1), 63–70 (2006).
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Z. Yang, L. Luo, and W. Chen, “The 1.23 and 1.47μm emissions from Tm3+ in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 076107 (2006).
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Machewirth, D.

V. Krasteva, D. Machewirth, and G. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge–S–I glasses as candidate materials for 1.3μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 304–310 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Machewirth, K. Wei, V. Krasteva, R. Datta, E. Snitzer, and G. Sigel., “Optical characterization of Pr3+ and Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 295–303 (1997).
[Crossref]

Machewirth, D. P.

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 182(3), 257–261 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-microm fiber-optical amplifier applications,” Opt. Lett. 19(12), 904–906 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matitsin, S. M.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14(4), 189–196 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mccloy, J. S.

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
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Medeiros Neto, J. A.

D. N. Payne, J. A. Medeiros Neto, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, and B. N. Samson, “Emission at 1.3µm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
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Mescia, L.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
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A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
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Messaddeq, Y.

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
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Miloshova, M.

E. Bychkov, M. Miloshova, D. L. Price, C. J. Benmore, and A. Lorriaux, “Short, intermediate and mesoscopic range order in sulfur-rich binary glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(1), 63–70 (2006).
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Moizan, V.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
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V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
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V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
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Mori, A.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulfide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3-um fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(1), 13–15 (1994).
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F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
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V. G. Truong, A. M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, B. S. Ham, A. Q. Le Quang, J. Leperson, V. Nazabal, and J. L. Adam, “Optical properties of thulium-doped chalcogenide glasses and the uncertainty of the calculated radiative lifetimes using the Judd-Ofelt approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2588–2596 (2006).
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B. Frumarová, P. Němec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlček, “Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge–Sb–S:PrCl3 glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 266–270 (1999).
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Nie, Q.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
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Northover, W. R.

S. S. Flaschen, A. D. Pearson, and W. R. Northover, “Low Melting Sulfide-Halogen Inorganic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(1), 219–220 (1960).
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Ohishi, Y.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulfide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3-um fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(1), 13–15 (1994).
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B. Frumarová, P. Němec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlček, “Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge–Sb–S:PrCl3 glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 266–270 (1999).
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T. E. Hopkins, R. A. Pasternak, E. S. Gould, and J. R. Herndon, “X-ray diffraction study of arsenic trisulfide-iodine glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. 66(4), 733–736 (1962).
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Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, J. R. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Infrared emission and ion–ion interactions in thulium- and terbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 308–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1–2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. N. Payne, J. A. Medeiros Neto, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, and B. N. Samson, “Emission at 1.3µm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
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Pearson, A. D.

S. S. Flaschen, A. D. Pearson, and W. R. Northover, “Low Melting Sulfide-Halogen Inorganic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 31(1), 219–220 (1960).
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Pengjun, Z.

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
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Pisárcik, M.

L. Koudelka and M. Pisárčik, “Raman spectra and structure of As-S-I system glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 64(1–2), 87–94 (1984).
[Crossref]

Pitois, S.

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
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Popescu, M.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, A. M. Andriesh, E. I. Kamitsos, C. P. E. Varsamis, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and M. Popescu, “Spectroscopic study of As2S3 glasses doped with Dy, Sm and Mn,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 306–310 (2003).
[Crossref]

Price, D. L.

E. Bychkov, M. Miloshova, D. L. Price, C. J. Benmore, and A. Lorriaux, “Short, intermediate and mesoscopic range order in sulfur-rich binary glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(1), 63–70 (2006).
[Crossref]

Prudenzano, F.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Puga, G. D.

O. V. Khiminets, P. P. Puga, V. V. Khiminets, I. I. Rosola, and G. D. Puga, “Raman spectra of the As-S-I system of glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 28(4), 477–479 (1978).
[Crossref]

Puga, P. P.

O. V. Khiminets, P. P. Puga, V. V. Khiminets, I. I. Rosola, and G. D. Puga, “Raman spectra of the As-S-I system of glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 28(4), 477–479 (1978).
[Crossref]

Pyrkov, Y. N.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Qiuhua, N.

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
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Reisfeld, R.

R. Reisfeld and A. Bornstein, “Absorption and emission spectra in chalcogenide glass of the composition 0.7Ga2S3·0.27La2S3·0.03Nd2S3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47(1), 194–196 (1977).
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Riley, B. J.

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rosola, I. I.

O. V. Khiminets, P. P. Puga, V. V. Khiminets, I. I. Rosola, and G. D. Puga, “Raman spectra of the As-S-I system of glasses,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 28(4), 477–479 (1978).
[Crossref]

Sakr, H.

Samson, B. N.

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, J. R. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Infrared emission and ion–ion interactions in thulium- and terbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 308–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1–2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. N. Payne, J. A. Medeiros Neto, D. W. Hewak, R. I. Laming, and B. N. Samson, “Emission at 1.3µm from dysprosium-doped Ga:La:S glass,” Electron. Lett. 30(12), 968–970 (1994).
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Sarkar, A.

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27(1), 29–37 (1978).
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Schultz, P. C.

Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar, and P. C. Schultz, “Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 27(1), 29–37 (1978).
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Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, D. J. Brady, Y. D. West, T. Schweizer, and D. J. Bra, “Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 229–250 (2000).

T. Schweizer, D. J. Brady, Y. D. West, T. Schweizer, and D. J. Bra, “Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 229–250 (2000).

T. Schweizer, B. N. Samson, J. R. Hector, W. S. Brocklesby, D. W. Hewak, and D. N. Payne, “Infrared emission and ion–ion interactions in thulium- and terbium-doped gallium lanthanum sulfide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(2), 308–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scripachev, I. V.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Seddon, A. B.

Shaaban, E. R.

E. R. Shaaban, Y. A. M. Ismail, and H. S. Hassan, “Compositional dependence of the optical properties of amorphous Se80−xTe20Bix thin films using transmittance and reflectance measurements,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 376, 61–67 (2013).
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Shen, X.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
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Shin, Y. B.

Y. S. Han, J. Heo, and Y. B. Shin, “Cross relaxation mechanism among Tm3+ ions in Ge30Ga2As6S62 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 316(2–3), 302–308 (2003).
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J. Heo and Y. B. Shin, “Absorption and mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-As(or Ga)-S glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 162–167 (1996).
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Shiryaev, V. S.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shixun, D.

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shpotyuk, O.

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shutov, S. D.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, A. M. Andriesh, E. I. Kamitsos, C. P. E. Varsamis, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and M. Popescu, “Spectroscopic study of As2S3 glasses doped with Dy, Sm and Mn,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 306–310 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sigel, G.

V. Krasteva, D. Machewirth, and G. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge–S–I glasses as candidate materials for 1.3μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 304–310 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Machewirth, K. Wei, V. Krasteva, R. Datta, E. Snitzer, and G. Sigel., “Optical characterization of Pr3+ and Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 295–303 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sigel, G. H.

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 182(3), 257–261 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-microm fiber-optical amplifier applications,” Opt. Lett. 19(12), 904–906 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simdyankin, S. I.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B 81(10), 104204 (2010).
[Crossref]

Simons, D. R.

D. R. Simons, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, “GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(3), 283–288 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sklenár, A.

T. Wagner, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenár, and A. Stronski, “Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy studies of AsxS100−x glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(23), 5581–5588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Skripachev, I.

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smektala, F.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smetanin, S. V.

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

Snitzer, E.

D. Machewirth, K. Wei, V. Krasteva, R. Datta, E. Snitzer, and G. Sigel., “Optical characterization of Pr3+ and Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 295–303 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 182(3), 257–261 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-microm fiber-optical amplifier applications,” Opt. Lett. 19(12), 904–906 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snopatin, G. E.

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sojka, L.

Song, B.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stronski, A.

T. Wagner, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenár, and A. Stronski, “Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy studies of AsxS100−x glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(23), 5581–5588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sudo, S.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulfide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3-um fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(1), 13–15 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sujecki, S.

Sundaram, S. K.

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, Y. Kamiya, Y. Suzuki, and T. Kobayashi, “Viscosity of Glass in the Transition Region in the Systems As-S, As-S-I and As-S-Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Japan 21(221), 143–147 (1972).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, Y.

S. Suzuki, Y. Kamiya, Y. Suzuki, and T. Kobayashi, “Viscosity of Glass in the Transition Region in the Systems As-S, As-S-I and As-S-Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Japan 21(221), 143–147 (1972).
[Crossref]

Sverchkov, Y. E.

V. P. Gapontsev, Y. E. Sverchkov, A. K. Gromov, A. A. Izyneev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Parameters and mechanism of elementary interaction of the electronic excitation of rare-earth ions with the local impurity oscillations,” 29(4), 210–213 (1979).

Takahashi, M.

K. Kadono, H. Higuchi, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, and H. Tanaka, “Upconversion luminescence of Ga2S3-based sulfide glasses containing Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 309–313 (1995).
[Crossref]

Takebe, H.

K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, “Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 143–150 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

K. Kadono, H. Higuchi, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, and H. Tanaka, “Upconversion luminescence of Ga2S3-based sulfide glasses containing Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 309–313 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

Tao, G.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tiefeng, X.

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Troles, J.

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

Truong, V. G.

Tsuchihashi, S.

S. Tsuchihashi and Y. Kawamoto, “Properties and structure of glasses in the system As-S,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5(4), 286–305 (1971).
[Crossref]

Vallée, R.

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Varsamis, C. P. E.

M. S. Iovu, S. D. Shutov, A. M. Andriesh, E. I. Kamitsos, C. P. E. Varsamis, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, and M. Popescu, “Spectroscopic study of As2S3 glasses doped with Dy, Sm and Mn,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 306–310 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vlcek, M.

B. Frumarová, P. Němec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlček, “Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge–Sb–S:PrCl3 glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 266–270 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Wagner, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenár, and A. Stronski, “Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy studies of AsxS100−x glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(23), 5581–5588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wagner, T.

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Wagner, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenár, and A. Stronski, “Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy studies of AsxS100−x glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(23), 5581–5588 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, K.

D. Machewirth, K. Wei, V. Krasteva, R. Datta, E. Snitzer, and G. Sigel., “Optical characterization of Pr3+ and Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 295–303 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 182(3), 257–261 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-microm fiber-optical amplifier applications,” Opt. Lett. 19(12), 904–906 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenzel, J.

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 182(3), 257–261 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Spectroscopy of Dy3+ in Ge-Ga-S glass and its suitability for 1.3-microm fiber-optical amplifier applications,” Opt. Lett. 19(12), 904–906 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, Y. D.

T. Schweizer, D. J. Brady, Y. D. West, T. Schweizer, and D. J. Bra, “Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 229–250 (2000).

Windisch, C. F.

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xianghua, Z.

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, L. Luo, and W. Chen, “The 1.23 and 1.47μm emissions from Tm3+ in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 076107 (2006).
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Yannopoulos, S. N.

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. C.

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1–2), 56–63 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulfide chalcogenide fiber for 1.3-um fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(1), 13–15 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231910 (2012).
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R. Reisfeld and A. Bornstein, “Absorption and emission spectra in chalcogenide glass of the composition 0.7Ga2S3·0.27La2S3·0.03Nd2S3,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47(1), 194–196 (1977).
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T. Schweizer, D. J. Brady, Y. D. West, T. Schweizer, and D. J. Bra, “Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared Transmission,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 229–250 (2000).

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

M. Zhu, X. Wang, C. Jiang, H. Xu, Q. Nie, P. Zhang, S. Dai, X. Shen, T. Xu, G. Tao, and X. Zhang, “Freely adjusted properties in Ge–S based chalcogenide glasses with iodine incorporation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 69, 118–122 (2015).
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Inorg. Mater. (1)

G. E. Snopatin, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, E. M. Dianov, and M. F. Churbanov, “High-purity chalcogenide glasses for fiber optics,” Inorg. Mater. 45(13), 1439–1460 (2009).
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T. Wagner, S. O. Kasap, M. Vlcek, A. Sklenár, and A. Stronski, “Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy studies of AsxS100−x glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(23), 5581–5588 (1998).
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J. Heo, “Optical characteristics of rare-earth-doped sulphide glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 14(14), 1014–1016 (1995).
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K. Kadono, H. Higuchi, M. Takahashi, Y. Kawamoto, and H. Tanaka, “Upconversion luminescence of Ga2S3-based sulfide glasses containing Er3+ ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 309–313 (1995).
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D. R. Simons, A. J. Faber, and H. de Waal, “GeSx glass for Pr3+-doped fiber amplifiers at 1.3 μm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 185(3), 283–288 (1995).
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B. Frumarová, P. Němec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlček, “Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge–Sb–S:PrCl3 glass system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 266–270 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. Krasteva, D. Machewirth, and G. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge–S–I glasses as candidate materials for 1.3μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 304–310 (1997).
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J. Heo, W. Y. Cho, and W. J. Chung, “Sensitizing effect of Tm3+ on 2.9 μm emission from Dy3+-doped Ge25Ga5S70 glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 151–156 (1997).
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K. Abe, H. Takebe, and K. Morinaga, “Preparation and properties of Ge-Ga-S glasses for laser hosts,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212(2–3), 143–150 (1997).
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D. Machewirth, K. Wei, V. Krasteva, R. Datta, E. Snitzer, and G. Sigel., “Optical characterization of Pr3+ and Dy3+ doped chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213–214, 295–303 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. F. Churbanov, I. V. Scripachev, V. S. Shiryaev, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. V. Smetanin, E. B. Kryukova, Y. N. Pyrkov, and B. I. Galagan, “Chalcogenide glasses doped with Tb, Dy and Pr ions,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326–327, 301–305 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Shixun, P. Bo, Z. Pengjun, X. Tiefeng, X. Wang, N. Qiuhua, and Z. Xianghua, “The near- and mid-infrared emission properties of Tm3+-doped GeGaS–CsI chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44–49), 2424–2428 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel., “Pr3+-doped Ge-Ga-S glasses for 1.3 μm optical fiber amplifiers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 182(3), 257–261 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. C. Ye, D. W. Hewak, M. Hempstead, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, “Spectral properties of Er3+-doped gallium lanthanum sulphide glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 208(1–2), 56–63 (1996).
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S. Tsuchihashi and Y. Kawamoto, “Properties and structure of glasses in the system As-S,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5(4), 286–305 (1971).
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[Crossref]

F. Kyriazis, A. Chrissanthopoulos, V. Dracopoulos, M. Krbal, T. Wagner, M. Frumar, and S. N. Yannopoulos, “Effect of silver doping on the structure and phase separation of sulfur-rich As–S glasses: Raman and SEM studies,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(37–42), 2010–2014 (2009).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

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J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Japan (1)

S. Suzuki, Y. Kamiya, Y. Suzuki, and T. Kobayashi, “Viscosity of Glass in the Transition Region in the Systems As-S, As-S-I and As-S-Tl,” J. Soc. Mater. Sci. Japan 21(221), 143–147 (1972).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Heo, “Chalcohalide glasses for infrared fiber optics,” Opt. Eng. 30(4), 470–479 (1991).
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Opt. Mater. (Amst) (3)

V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, P. Houizot, J.-L. Adam, J.-L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, F. Smektala, G. Gadret, S. Pitois, and G. Canat, “Er3+-doped GeGaSbS glasses for mid-IR fibre laser application: Synthesis and rare earth spectroscopy,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(1), 39–46 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Prudenzano, L. Mescia, L. Allegretti, M. De Sario, F. Smektala, V. Moizan, V. Nazabal, J. Troles, J. L. Doualan, G. Canat, J. L. Adam, and B. Boulard, “Simulation of mid-IR amplification in Er3+-doped chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 31(9), 1292–1295 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Galstyan, S. H. Messaddeq, V. Fortin, I. Skripachev, R. Vallée, T. Galstian, and Y. Messaddeq, “Tm3+ doped Ga–As–S chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” Opt. Mater. (Amst) 47, 518–523 (2015).
[Crossref]

Philos. Mag. (1)

R. Golovchak, O. Shpotyuk, J. S. Mccloy, B. J. Riley, C. F. Windisch, S. K. Sundaram, A. Kovalskiy, and H. Jain, “Structural model of homogeneous As–S glasses derived from Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution XPS,” Philos. Mag. 90(34), 4489–4501 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Setup of glass purification.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Emission spectra of Tm3+ doped I-As-S glasses a.) 1%Tm doped I-As-S glasses; b.)Tm3+ energy levels diagram c.) Tm doped I2.5As39S58.5 glasses; d.) Tm doped I10As36S54 glasses (excitation at 800nm).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 IR transmission spectra of Tm doped I-As-S glasses a.) 1%Tm doped I-As-S glasses; b.) Tm doped I10As36S54 glasses (thickness is 2mm).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Refractive index of Tm doped I-As-S glasses a.) 1%Tm doped I-As-S glasses; b.) Tm doped I10As36S54 glasses (error ± 0.003).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Glass transition temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion of Tm doped I-As-S glasses a.) 1%Tm doped I-As-S glasses; b.) Tm doped I10As36S54 glasses (Tg error is ± 2°C, α error is ± 0.005·10−6 1/°C).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Viscosity vs. inverse of absolute temperature for Tm doped I-As-S glasses in the softening range a.) 1%Tm doped I-As-S glasses; b.) Tm doped I10As36S54 glasses
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 X-ray diffraction spectra of Tm doped I-As-S glasses a.)1%Tm doped I-As-S glasses; b.) Tm doped I10As36S54 glasses
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 a.) Raman spectra of 1%Tm3+ doped I-As-S glasses, b.) Raman bands intensities vs concentration of I2.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 a.) Raman spectra of Tm3+ doped I10As36S54 glasses (dash lines represent deconvoluted curves) b.) Raman bands intensities vs concentration of Tm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Infrared transmission spectra of 2%Tm3+doped I10As36S54 glass before and after purification.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Schematic representation of structural units formed in As2S3 glass with incorporation of I2

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Activation energy of Tm doped I-As-S glasses vs content of I2 and Tm3+

Equations (1)

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ΔE=Rd(logη)/d(1/T)

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