Abstract

Nonlinear optics (NLO) has attracted much attention for its immense potential in applications. However, it typically requires very high light intensities. Recently, we reported that polymer stabilization efficiently enhances the self-focusing effect for dye-doped liquid crystals (LCs). Here we studied the effect of polymer concentration on self-focusing in the dye-doped polymer-stabilized LC (PSLC). Oligothiophene (TR5)-doped PSLCs with different polymer concentrations were prepared, and self-diffraction ring measurement was performed. As polymer concentration increased, the threshold light intensity for self-focusing effect first decreased then slightly increased. The lowest threshold light intensity of 3.4 W/cm2 was obtained at 10 mol%. Polymer stabilization of the LCs decreased the threshold intensity by a factor of 7. We also discussed the possible mechanism for the polymer concentration dependence of NLO response in the TR5-doped PSLC.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. D. Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nanosecond switching of photo-responsive liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3532–3535 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Priimagi, C. J. Barrett, and A. Shishido, “Recent twists in photoactuation and photoalignment control,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(35), 7155–7162 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, and A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(11), 787–791 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, “Surface gliding of the easy axis of a polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal and its dependence on the constituent monomers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(5), 051701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101(12), 1544–1552 (2011).

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Kim and J. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep. 471(5–6), 221–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

A. S. Matharu, S. Jeeva, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 1868–1880 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Wagner and P. Stephan, “Frequency response of a surface thermometer based on unencapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 31(7), 687–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yaegashi, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of ester moieties in dye structures on photoinduced reorientation of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 17(17), 4304–4309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic keer effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

2004 (2)

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Kosa, P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. Zhang, and T. Ikeda, “Large optical torque enhancement by oligothiophene dye in a nematic liquid crystal host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 107–115 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. Marrucci, “Mechanisms of giant optical nonlinearity in light-absorbing liquid crystals: a brief primer,” Liq. Cryst. Today 11(3), 1–28 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

I. Dierking, “Polymer network-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

L. Marrucci, D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, E. Massera, E. Prudnikova, and E. Santamato, “Role od guest-host intermolecular force in photoinduced reorientation of dyed liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(23), 9783–9793 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal display,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

I. Jánossy, “Molecular interpretation of the absorption-induced optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(4), 2957–2963 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

I. Jánossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

1986 (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “The orientation optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 136(1), 1–139 (1986).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

V. P. Shibaev, S. G. Kostromin, and N. A. Plate, “Thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers-VI* Comb-like liquid-crystalline polymers of the sematic and nematic types with cyanobiphenyl groups in the side-chains,” Eur. Polym. J. 18(8), 651–659 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Ahmad, F.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101(12), 1544–1552 (2011).

Aihara, Y.

Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, and A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(11), 787–791 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arakelian, S. M.

Barrett, C. J.

A. Priimagi, C. J. Barrett, and A. Shishido, “Recent twists in photoactuation and photoalignment control,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(35), 7155–7162 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bricker, R. L.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T.

L. D. Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nanosecond switching of photo-responsive liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3532–3535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crawford, G. P.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Sa Peixoto, P.

Deniset-Besseau, A.

Dierking, I.

I. Dierking, “Polymer network-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
[Crossref]

Durbin, S. D.

Fabrizio, M. D.

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Francescangeli, O.

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Simoni, L. Lucchetti, D. E. Lucchetta, and O. Francescangeli, “On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 9(2), 85–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guenther, B. D.

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic keer effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Yaegashi, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of ester moieties in dye structures on photoinduced reorientation of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 17(17), 4304–4309 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Kosa, P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. Zhang, and T. Ikeda, “Large optical torque enhancement by oligothiophene dye in a nematic liquid crystal host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 107–115 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jamil, M.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101(12), 1544–1552 (2011).

Jánossy, I.

I. Jánossy, “Molecular interpretation of the absorption-induced optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(4), 2957–2963 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Jánossy and T. Kósa, “Influence of anthraquinone dyes on optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 17(17), 1183–1185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Jánossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

Jay, G. D.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeeva, S.

A. S. Matharu, S. Jeeva, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 1868–1880 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, Y. J.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101(12), 1544–1552 (2011).

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic keer effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanazawa, A.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

Kikuchi, H.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic keer effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

K. Kim and J. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, M.

Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, and A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(11), 787–791 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kondo, M.

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kosa, T.

T. Kosa, P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. Zhang, and T. Ikeda, “Large optical torque enhancement by oligothiophene dye in a nematic liquid crystal host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 107–115 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kósa, T.

Kostromin, S. G.

V. P. Shibaev, S. G. Kostromin, and N. A. Plate, “Thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers-VI* Comb-like liquid-crystalline polymers of the sematic and nematic types with cyanobiphenyl groups in the side-chains,” Eur. Polym. J. 18(8), 651–659 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, “Surface gliding of the easy axis of a polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal and its dependence on the constituent monomers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(5), 051701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lloyd, A. D.

I. Jánossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

Lucchetta, D. E.

Lucchetti, L.

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Simoni, L. Lucchetti, D. E. Lucchetta, and O. Francescangeli, “On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 9(2), 85–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maddalena, P.

L. Marrucci, D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, E. Massera, E. Prudnikova, and E. Santamato, “Role od guest-host intermolecular force in photoinduced reorientation of dyed liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(23), 9783–9793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mamiya, J.

Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, and A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(11), 787–791 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

L. Marrucci, “Mechanisms of giant optical nonlinearity in light-absorbing liquid crystals: a brief primer,” Liq. Cryst. Today 11(3), 1–28 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Marrucci, D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, E. Massera, E. Prudnikova, and E. Santamato, “Role od guest-host intermolecular force in photoinduced reorientation of dyed liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(23), 9783–9793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Massera, E.

L. Marrucci, D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, E. Massera, E. Prudnikova, and E. Santamato, “Role od guest-host intermolecular force in photoinduced reorientation of dyed liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(23), 9783–9793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Matharu, A. S.

A. S. Matharu, S. Jeeva, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 1868–1880 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mosser, G.

Nagamura, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic keer effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

Naka, Y.

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nakano, M.

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natarajan, L. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

T. Kosa, P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. Zhang, and T. Ikeda, “Large optical torque enhancement by oligothiophene dye in a nematic liquid crystal host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 107–115 (2004).
[Crossref]

Paparo, D.

L. Marrucci, D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, E. Massera, E. Prudnikova, and E. Santamato, “Role od guest-host intermolecular force in photoinduced reorientation of dyed liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(23), 9783–9793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pivnenko, M. N.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plate, N. A.

V. P. Shibaev, S. G. Kostromin, and N. A. Plate, “Thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers-VI* Comb-like liquid-crystalline polymers of the sematic and nematic types with cyanobiphenyl groups in the side-chains,” Eur. Polym. J. 18(8), 651–659 (1982).
[Crossref]

Priimagi, A.

A. Priimagi, C. J. Barrett, and A. Shishido, “Recent twists in photoactuation and photoalignment control,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(35), 7155–7162 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, and A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(11), 787–791 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prudnikova, E.

L. Marrucci, D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, E. Massera, E. Prudnikova, and E. Santamato, “Role od guest-host intermolecular force in photoinduced reorientation of dyed liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(23), 9783–9793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ramanujam, P. S.

A. S. Matharu, S. Jeeva, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 1868–1880 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, J. T.

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101(12), 1544–1552 (2011).

Santamato, E.

L. Marrucci, D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, E. Massera, E. Prudnikova, and E. Santamato, “Role od guest-host intermolecular force in photoinduced reorientation of dyed liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(23), 9783–9793 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal display,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

Serak, S.

L. D. Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nanosecond switching of photo-responsive liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3532–3535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Serak, S. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

Shibaev, V. P.

V. P. Shibaev, S. G. Kostromin, and N. A. Plate, “Thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers-VI* Comb-like liquid-crystalline polymers of the sematic and nematic types with cyanobiphenyl groups in the side-chains,” Eur. Polym. J. 18(8), 651–659 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shih, M. Y.

Shiino, S.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shiono, T.

M. Yaegashi, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of ester moieties in dye structures on photoinduced reorientation of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 17(17), 4304–4309 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

Shishido, A.

A. Priimagi, C. J. Barrett, and A. Shishido, “Recent twists in photoactuation and photoalignment control,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(35), 7155–7162 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, and A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(11), 787–791 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Yaegashi, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of ester moieties in dye structures on photoinduced reorientation of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 17(17), 4304–4309 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Simoni, L. Lucchetti, D. E. Lucchetta, and O. Francescangeli, “On the origin of the huge nonlinear response of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 9(2), 85–90 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sio, L. D.

L. D. Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nanosecond switching of photo-responsive liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3532–3535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

Song, J.

K. Kim and J. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stephan, P.

E. Wagner and P. Stephan, “Frequency response of a surface thermometer based on unencapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 31(7), 687–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, M.

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sukhov, A. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “The orientation optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 136(1), 1–139 (1986).
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N.

L. D. Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nanosecond switching of photo-responsive liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3532–3535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N. V.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “The orientation optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 136(1), 1–139 (1986).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, O.

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wagner, E.

E. Wagner and P. Stephan, “Frequency response of a surface thermometer based on unencapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 31(7), 687–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, and A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(11), 787–791 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wherrett, B. S.

I. Jánossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

White, T. J.

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

Woltman, S. J.

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, W. V.

Yaegashi, M.

M. Yaegashi, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of ester moieties in dye structures on photoinduced reorientation of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 17(17), 4304–4309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, “Surface gliding of the easy axis of a polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal and its dependence on the constituent monomers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(5), 051701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “The orientation optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 136(1), 1–139 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

T. Kosa, P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. Zhang, and T. Ikeda, “Large optical torque enhancement by oligothiophene dye in a nematic liquid crystal host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 107–115 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

H. Zhang, S. Shiino, A. Shishido, A. Kanazawa, O. Tsutsumi, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “A thiophene liquid crystal as a novel π-conjugated dye for photo-manipulation of molecular alignment,” Adv. Mater. 12(18), 1336–1339 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic keer effect in polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. 17(1), 96–98 (2005).

I. Dierking, “Polymer network-stabilized liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Aihara, M. Kinoshita, J. Wang, J. Mamiya, A. Priimagi, and A. Shishido, “Polymer stabilization enhances the orientational optical nonlinearity of oligothiophene-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(11), 787–791 (2013).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. Schadt, “Liquid crystal materials and liquid crystal display,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27(1), 305–379 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. Yaegashi, A. Shishido, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of ester moieties in dye structures on photoinduced reorientation of dye-doped liquid crystals,” Chem. Mater. 17(17), 4304–4309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

A. S. Matharu, S. Jeeva, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 36(12), 1868–1880 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Sci. (1)

M. Jamil, F. Ahmad, J. T. Rhee, and Y. J. Jeon, “Nanoparticle-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal display,” Curr. Sci. 101(12), 1544–1552 (2011).

Eur. Polym. J. (1)

V. P. Shibaev, S. G. Kostromin, and N. A. Plate, “Thermotropic liquid-crystalline polymers-VI* Comb-like liquid-crystalline polymers of the sematic and nematic types with cyanobiphenyl groups in the side-chains,” Eur. Polym. J. 18(8), 651–659 (1982).
[Crossref]

Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. (1)

E. Wagner and P. Stephan, “Frequency response of a surface thermometer based on unencapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 31(7), 687–699 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Marrucci, D. Paparo, P. Maddalena, E. Massera, E. Prudnikova, and E. Santamato, “Role od guest-host intermolecular force in photoinduced reorientation of dyed liquid crystals,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(23), 9783–9793 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, and T. Ikeda, “Effect of concentration of photoactive chromophores on photomechanical properties of crosslinked azobenzene liquid-crystalline polymers,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(1), 117–122 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C (2)

A. Priimagi, C. J. Barrett, and A. Shishido, “Recent twists in photoactuation and photoalignment control,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(35), 7155–7162 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. D. Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nanosecond switching of photo-responsive liquid crystal diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(18), 3532–3535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. Today (1)

L. Marrucci, “Mechanisms of giant optical nonlinearity in light-absorbing liquid crystals: a brief primer,” Liq. Cryst. Today 11(3), 1–28 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (3)

T. Kosa, P. Palffy-Muhoray, H. Zhang, and T. Ikeda, “Large optical torque enhancement by oligothiophene dye in a nematic liquid crystal host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 421(1), 107–115 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zel’dovich, “The orientation optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 136(1), 1–139 (1986).
[Crossref]

I. Jánossy, A. D. Lloyd, and B. S. Wherrett, “Anomalous optical freedericksz transition in an absorbing liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 179(1), 1–12 (1990).

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. J. Woltman, G. D. Jay, and G. P. Crawford, “Liquid-crystal materials find a new order in biomedical applications,” Nat. Mater. 6(12), 929–938 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, M. Nakano, and T. Ikeda, “Photomechanics: directed bending of a polymer film by light,” Nature 425(6954), 145 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

NPG Asia Mater. (1)

K. Kim and J. Song, “Technical evolution of liquid crystal displays,” NPG Asia Mater. 1(1), 29–36 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Lucchetti, M. D. Fabrizio, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, “Colossal optical nonlinearity in dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 233(4–6), 417–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials,” Phys. Rep. 471(5–6), 221–267 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

J.-H. Lee and T.-H. Yoon, “Surface gliding of the easy axis of a polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystal and its dependence on the constituent monomers,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 84(5), 051701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

I. Jánossy, “Molecular interpretation of the absorption-induced optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 49(4), 2957–2963 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soft Matter (1)

T. J. White, R. L. Bricker, L. V. Natarajan, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Polymer stabilization of phototunable cholesteric liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 5(19), 3623–3628 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetskii, A. V. Sukhov and N. V. Tabiryan, “Giant optical nonlinearity in the mesophase of a nematic liquid crystal (NCL),” 31(5), 263–269 (1980).

Y. R. Shen, The Principle of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley & Sons, 1984).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of homeotropic-aligned dye-doped polymer stabilized LC.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Chemical structures of the compounds used in this study.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Top view of the optical setup for self-diffraction ring measurement. M, mirror; ND, neutral density filter; L1, plane-convex lens; PH, pinhole; GP, Glan-Thompson prism; L2, biconvex lens.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Photograph of P-10. (b) Conoscopic (left) and orthoscopic (right) polarized optical micrographs of P-10. (c) Polarized absorption spectra of P-10. The two spectra of orthogonal polarizations are well overlapped, which indicates that the molecules are homeotropic-aligned in the cell.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 UV-Vis spectra of dye-doped PSLC cells at various polymer concentrations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Polarized optical micrographs of the dye-doped PSLCs at various polymer concentrations.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Order parameter of the dye-doped PSLCs as a function of polymer concentration in the host.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Typical diffraction rings observed in P-0 and P-10 at different light intensities.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Number of diffraction rings as a function of light intensity in P-X with different polymer concentrations in dye-doped PSLCs. (b) Threshold intensity (black) and maximum number of rings (red) as a function of polymer concentration.

Equations (1)

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S = A A A + 2 A

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