Abstract

Color tunable light source has great potential for display, lighting, bio-imaging, and so on. Current broadband light sources including halogen lamp, super continuum laser, inorganic and organic light emission diode have been widely used for these purposes. However, each of them has their own limitations in beam divergence, cost and device size. In this work, we demonstrate a spatially variant light source with tunable color emission property by using two cascaded organic thin films, which emit blue and green light respectively under optical pumping. By spatially selecting the overlapping of the directional amplified spontaneous emission from the cascaded films, we show that the color of light emission can be continuously tuned from blue, white to green. The method we propose here also indicates a potential way to design stripe light source for high resolution bio-imaging.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(4–5), 424–430 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, “Random lasing from dye-gold nanoparticles in polymer films: Enhanced gain at the surface-plasmon-resonance wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191116 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. K. Yap, R. Xia, M. Campoy-Quiles, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Simultaneous optimization of charge-carrier mobility and optical gain in semiconducting polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 376–380 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).
  15. G. Heliotis, D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 415–417 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Xia, G. Heliotis, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene based polymer gain media for solid state laser emission across the full visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3599–3601 (2003).
  17. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. 59(8), 5284–5287 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).
  19. G. X. Li, S. M. Chen, W. H. Wong, E. Y. B. Pun, and K. W. Cheah, “Highly flexible near-infrared metamaterials,” Opt. Express 20(1), 397–402 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).

2008 (1)

B. K. Yap, R. Xia, M. Campoy-Quiles, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Simultaneous optimization of charge-carrier mobility and optical gain in semiconducting polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 376–380 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, “Random lasing from dye-gold nanoparticles in polymer films: Enhanced gain at the surface-plasmon-resonance wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191116 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene based polymer gain media for solid state laser emission across the full visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3599–3601 (2003).

2002 (1)

G. Heliotis, D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 415–417 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. 59(8), 5284–5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(4–5), 424–430 (1996).
[Crossref]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).

Andersson, M. R.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[Crossref]

Andrew, P.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arakcheeva, E. M.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ariu, M.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. 59(8), 5284–5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. C.

G. Heliotis, D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 415–417 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

B. K. Yap, R. Xia, M. Campoy-Quiles, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Simultaneous optimization of charge-carrier mobility and optical gain in semiconducting polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 376–380 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene based polymer gain media for solid state laser emission across the full visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3599–3601 (2003).

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Brédas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Campoy-Quiles, M.

B. K. Yap, R. Xia, M. Campoy-Quiles, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Simultaneous optimization of charge-carrier mobility and optical gain in semiconducting polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 376–380 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheah, K. W.

Chen, S. M.

Davidov, D.

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, “Random lasing from dye-gold nanoparticles in polymer films: Enhanced gain at the surface-plasmon-resonance wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Denton, G. J.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[Crossref]

Diaz-Garcia, M. A.

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(4–5), 424–430 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dos Santos, D. A.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Etchegoin, P.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. 59(8), 5284–5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Goushi, K.

Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).

Guild, J.

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
[Crossref]

Gurevich, S. A.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Heeger, A. J.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(4–5), 424–430 (1996).
[Crossref]

Heliotis, G.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene based polymer gain media for solid state laser emission across the full visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3599–3601 (2003).

G. Heliotis, D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 415–417 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hide, F.

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(4–5), 424–430 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, Y.

Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).

Kehagias, N.

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kehoe, T.

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, G. X.

Lögdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lovera, P.

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Maksimov, M. V.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[Crossref]

Namdas, E. B.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).

Nesterov, S. I.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pei, Q.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pintani, M.

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

Polson, R. C.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popov, O.

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, “Random lasing from dye-gold nanoparticles in polymer films: Enhanced gain at the surface-plasmon-resonance wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y. B.

Reboud, V.

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Redmond, G.

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Romero-Vivas, J.

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D. W.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Heliotis, D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 415–417 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sasabe, H.

Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).

Schwartz, B.

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(4–5), 424–430 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, B. J.

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[Crossref]

Seekamp, J.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Smith, T.

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
[Crossref]

Sotomayor Torres, C. M.

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stavrinou, P. N.

B. K. Yap, R. Xia, M. Campoy-Quiles, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Simultaneous optimization of charge-carrier mobility and optical gain in semiconducting polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 376–380 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tanklevskaya, E. M.

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, G. A.

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Heliotis, D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 415–417 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vardeny, Z. V.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. 59(8), 5284–5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wong, W. H.

Xia, R.

B. K. Yap, R. Xia, M. Campoy-Quiles, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Simultaneous optimization of charge-carrier mobility and optical gain in semiconducting polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 376–380 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene based polymer gain media for solid state laser emission across the full visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3599–3601 (2003).

Yamamoto, H.

Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).

Yap, B. K.

B. K. Yap, R. Xia, M. Campoy-Quiles, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Simultaneous optimization of charge-carrier mobility and optical gain in semiconducting polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 376–380 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. 59(8), 5284–5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoshizaki, H.

Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. 59(8), 5284–5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zilbershtein, A.

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, “Random lasing from dye-gold nanoparticles in polymer films: Enhanced gain at the surface-plasmon-resonance wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191116 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Emission characteristics and performance comparison of polyfluorene lasers with one and two dimensional distributed feedback,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(1), 91–97 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Campoy-Quiles, G. Heliotis, R. Xia, M. Ariu, M. Pintani, P. Etchegoin, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Ellipsometric characterization of the optical constants of polyfluorene gain media,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 925–933 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. D. McGehee and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting (conjugated) polymers as materials for solid state lasers,” Adv. Mater. 12(22), 1655–1668 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

V. Reboud, J. Romero-Vivas, P. Lovera, N. Kehagias, T. Kehoe, G. Redmond, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Lasing in nanoimprinted two dimensional photonic crystal band-edge lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 073101 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Popov, A. Zilbershtein, and D. Davidov, “Random lasing from dye-gold nanoparticles in polymer films: Enhanced gain at the surface-plasmon-resonance wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191116 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Heliotis, D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Light amplification and gain in polyfluorene waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 415–417 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Fluorene based polymer gain media for solid state laser emission across the full visible spectrum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3599–3601 (2003).

Y. Kawamura, H. Yamamoto, K. Goushi, H. Sasabe, C. Adachi, and H. Yoshizaki, “Ultraviolet amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of 4,4’-bis(9-carbazolyl)-2,2’-biphenyl and the derivatives,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2724–2726 (2004).

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Operating characteristics of a semiconducting polymer laser pumped by a microchip laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 313–315 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Hide, B. Schwartz, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, and A. J. Heeger, “Laser emission from solutions and films containing semiconducting polymer and titanium dioxide nanocrystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 256(4–5), 424–430 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. K. Yap, R. Xia, M. Campoy-Quiles, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Simultaneous optimization of charge-carrier mobility and optical gain in semiconducting polymer films,” Nat. Mater. 7(5), 376–380 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

I. D. W. Samuel, E. B. Namdas, and G. A. Turnbull, “How to recognize lasing,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 546–549 (2009).

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of π-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, “Lasing from conjugated-polymer microcavities,” Nature 382(6593), 695–697 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. 59(8), 5284–5287 (1999).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

F. Hide, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, B. J. Schwartz, M. R. Andersson, Q. Pei, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting Polymers: A new Class of Solid State Laser Materials,” Science 273(5283), 1833–1836 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tech. Phys. (1)

E. M. Arakcheeva, E. M. Tanklevskaya, S. I. Nesterov, M. V. Maksimov, S. A. Gurevich, J. Seekamp, and C. M. Sotomayor Torres, “Fabrication of semiconductor and polymer-based photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography,” Tech. Phys. 50(8), 1043–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Trans. Opt. Soc. (1)

T. Smith and J. Guild, “The C.I.E. colorimetric standards and their use,” Trans. Opt. Soc. 33(3), 73–134 (1932).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Cross-section of cascaded films with PFO (120 nm), F8BT (250 nm), optically clear adhesive (60 µm), and silica (1 mm); (b) ASE measurement configuration, the cascaded films is pumped with Nd:YAG laser (355 nm, 10 Hz) and the excitation area is 5 mm x 300 µm; and the ASE output is collected from the edge of the sample by the fiber coupled spectrometer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmittance of (i) PFO/silica (120 nm, filled squares), (ii) F8BT/silica (250 nm, filled circles), (iii) Optically Clear Adhesive (60 µm, open squares) and (iv) Cascaded PFO (120 nm)/OCA/F8BT (250 nm) films sandwiched by two silica substrate (open circles).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized ASE spectra in different positions from edge of the sample with same pumping energy density at 247 μJ/cm2; D1 and D2 are defined in Fig. 1, the white light represented the white light ASE with CIE (0.32, 0.35). (b) Energy dependence of PFO (circles) and F8BT (triangles), and symbols represent the peak value of the ASE spectra under various energy density; showing the clear threshold at 174 μJ/cm2 and 203 μJ/cm2 respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The color coordinates (circle symbols) mapping onto the CIE chart; the linear relationship of CIE shift is observed when fiber position is moved to D1 to D2 position.

Equations (1)

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X = 380 n m 780 n m P L ( λ ) x ¯ ( λ ) d λ , C I E x = X X + Y + Z Y = 380 n m 780 n m P L ( λ ) y ¯ ( λ ) d λ , C I E y = Y X + Y + Z Z = 380 n m 780 n m P L ( λ ) z ¯ ( λ ) d λ , C I E z = Z X + Y + Z

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