Abstract

Magnetron sputtering was successfully used to grow single-crystalline Ge1-x-ySixSny ternary alloys on Si (100) substrates. The lattice constants of the alloys were calculated by X-ray diffraction and corrected Vegard’s law, respectively, showing that the corrected Vegard’s law is suitable for the Ge1-x-ySixSny lattice constants. Thermal stability investigations showed that the Ge0.85Si0.051Sn0.099 alloy was stable at 500 °C. The Ge1-x-ySixSny can maintain good crystalline quality under moderate annealing temperature, with no indication of phase segregation or Sn precipitation. Optical absorption measurements were carried out at room temperature to determine the band gap energies of the Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys. These results suggest that magnetron sputtering is an effective alternative method to grow Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys for fabrication of novel devices.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1-x-ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure midinfrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033107 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251105 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. T. Beeler, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “GeSiSn Photodiodes With 1eV Optical Gaps Grown on Si(100) and Ge(100) Platforms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(4), 434–440 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Li, J. Brouillet, A. Salas, X. Wang, and J. Liu, “Low temperature growth of high crystallinity GeSn on amorphous layers for advanced optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1385–1396 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  16. A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable Optical Gap at a Fixed Lattice Constant in Group-IV Semiconductor Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Tauc, Optical Properties of Solids (North Holland, 1969).

2014 (3)

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

H. Li, J. Brouillet, A. Salas, X. Wang, and J. Liu, “Low temperature growth of high crystallinity GeSn on amorphous layers for advanced optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1385–1396 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. T. Beeler, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “GeSiSn Photodiodes With 1eV Optical Gaps Grown on Si(100) and Ge(100) Platforms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(4), 434–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1-x-ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141908 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure midinfrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable Optical Gap at a Fixed Lattice Constant in Group-IV Semiconductor Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1-x-ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Aella, C. Cook, J. Tolle, S. Zollner, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Optical and structural properties of SixSnyGe1-x-y alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 888–890 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. V. G. Chizmeshya, M. R. Bauer, and J. Kouvetakis, “Experimental and Theoretical Study of Deviations from Vegard's Law in the SnxGe1-x System,” Chem. Mater. 15(13), 2511–2519 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and Electrical Properties of Heavily Doped Ge-Si Alloys up to 1300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
[Crossref]

Aella, P.

P. Aella, C. Cook, J. Tolle, S. Zollner, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Optical and structural properties of SixSnyGe1-x-y alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 888–890 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aoki, T.

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bauer, M.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bauer, M. R.

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. V. G. Chizmeshya, M. R. Bauer, and J. Kouvetakis, “Experimental and Theoretical Study of Deviations from Vegard's Law in the SnxGe1-x System,” Chem. Mater. 15(13), 2511–2519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Beeler, R. T.

R. T. Beeler, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “GeSiSn Photodiodes With 1eV Optical Gaps Grown on Si(100) and Ge(100) Platforms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(4), 434–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beers, D. S.

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and Electrical Properties of Heavily Doped Ge-Si Alloys up to 1300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
[Crossref]

Benamara, M.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brouillet, J.

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1-x-ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141908 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, B.

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. H.

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure midinfrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chizmeshya, A. V. G.

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Aella, C. Cook, J. Tolle, S. Zollner, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Optical and structural properties of SixSnyGe1-x-y alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 888–890 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. V. G. Chizmeshya, M. R. Bauer, and J. Kouvetakis, “Experimental and Theoretical Study of Deviations from Vegard's Law in the SnxGe1-x System,” Chem. Mater. 15(13), 2511–2519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Conley, B. R.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cook, C.

P. Aella, C. Cook, J. Tolle, S. Zollner, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Optical and structural properties of SixSnyGe1-x-y alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 888–890 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cook, C. S.

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Crozier, P. A.

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
[Crossref]

D’Costa, V. R.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable Optical Gap at a Fixed Lattice Constant in Group-IV Semiconductor Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dismukes, J. P.

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and Electrical Properties of Heavily Doped Ge-Si Alloys up to 1300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ekstrom, L.

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and Electrical Properties of Heavily Doped Ge-Si Alloys up to 1300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y. Y.

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable Optical Gap at a Fixed Lattice Constant in Group-IV Semiconductor Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Favaro, R.

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gallagher, J. D.

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ghetmiri, S. A.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grützmacher, D.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1-x-ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141908 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrison, P.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hawkridge, M.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Holländer, B.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huo, Y.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1-x-ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141908 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikonic, Z.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1-x-ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141908 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kouvetakis, J.

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. T. Beeler, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “GeSiSn Photodiodes With 1eV Optical Gaps Grown on Si(100) and Ge(100) Platforms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(4), 434–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable Optical Gap at a Fixed Lattice Constant in Group-IV Semiconductor Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1-x-ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Aella, C. Cook, J. Tolle, S. Zollner, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Optical and structural properties of SixSnyGe1-x-y alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 888–890 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. V. G. Chizmeshya, M. R. Bauer, and J. Kouvetakis, “Experimental and Theoretical Study of Deviations from Vegard's Law in the SnxGe1-x System,” Chem. Mater. 15(13), 2511–2519 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kudman, I.

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and Electrical Properties of Heavily Doped Ge-Si Alloys up to 1300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, L.

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1-x-ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141908 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Lu, W.

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1-x-ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141908 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mantl, S.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Menéndez, J.

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. T. Beeler, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “GeSiSn Photodiodes With 1eV Optical Gaps Grown on Si(100) and Ge(100) Platforms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(4), 434–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable Optical Gap at a Fixed Lattice Constant in Group-IV Semiconductor Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1-x-ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mosleh, A.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Myronov, M.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naseem, H. A.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nazzal, A.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ritter, C.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
[Crossref]

Roucka, R.

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salas, A.

Smith, D. J.

R. T. Beeler, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “GeSiSn Photodiodes With 1eV Optical Gaps Grown on Si(100) and Ge(100) Platforms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(4), 434–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure midinfrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Steigmeier, E. F.

J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and Electrical Properties of Heavily Doped Ge-Si Alloys up to 1300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
[Crossref]

Stoica, T.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Su, S.

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure midinfrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033107 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tiedemann, A. T.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tolle, J.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable Optical Gap at a Fixed Lattice Constant in Group-IV Semiconductor Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Aella, C. Cook, J. Tolle, S. Zollner, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Optical and structural properties of SixSnyGe1-x-y alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 888–890 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wirths, S.

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wolf, G.

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xie, J. Q.

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xue, C.

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T.

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zollner, S.

P. Aella, C. Cook, J. Tolle, S. Zollner, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Optical and structural properties of SixSnyGe1-x-y alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 888–890 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zuo, Y.

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J. Menéndez and J. Kouvetakis, “Type-I Ge/Ge1-x-ySixSny strained-layer heterostructures with a direct Ge bandgap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1175–1177 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, H. H. Cheng, J. Menéndez, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Strain-free Ge/GeSiSn quantum cascade lasers based on L-valley intersubband transitions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 251105 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, A. T. Tiedemann, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, B. Holländer, T. Stoica, G. Mussler, M. Myronov, J. M. Hartmann, D. Grützmacher, D. Buca, and S. Mantl, “Band engineering and growth of tensile strained Ge/(Si)GeSn heterostructures for tunnel field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(19), 192103 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bauer, C. S. Cook, P. Aella, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, P. A. Crozier, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, D. J. Smith, and S. Zollner, “SnGe superstructure materials for Si-based infrared optoelectronics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(17), 3489–3491 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Aella, C. Cook, J. Tolle, S. Zollner, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, and J. Kouvetakis, “Optical and structural properties of SixSnyGe1-x-y alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 888–890 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Bauer, C. Ritter, P. A. Crozier, J. Ren, J. Menéndez, G. Wolf, and J. Kouvetakis, “Synthesis of ternary SiGeSn semiconductors on Si (100) via SnxGe1-x buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2163–2165 (2003).
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H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Structural and optical characterization of SixGe1-x-ySny alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(14), 141908 (2012).
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H. Lin, R. Chen, W. Lu, Y. Huo, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Investigation of the direct band gaps in Ge1−xSnx alloys with strain control by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(10), 102109 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (2)

A. V. G. Chizmeshya, M. R. Bauer, and J. Kouvetakis, “Experimental and Theoretical Study of Deviations from Vegard's Law in the SnxGe1-x System,” Chem. Mater. 15(13), 2511–2519 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Jiang, C. Xu, J. D. Gallagher, R. Favaro, T. Aoki, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Development of Light Emitting Group IV Ternary Alloys on Si Platforms for Long Wavelength Optoelectronic Applications,” Chem. Mater. 26(8), 2522–2531 (2014).
[Crossref]

ECS Solid. State. Lett. (1)

J. Zheng, L. Li, T. Zhou, Y. Zuo, C. Li, B. Cheng, and Q. Wang, “Growth of Crystalline Ge1-xSnx Films on Si (100) by Magnetron Sputtering,” ECS Solid. State. Lett. 3(9), 111–113 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovolt. (1)

R. T. Beeler, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “GeSiSn Photodiodes With 1eV Optical Gaps Grown on Si(100) and Ge(100) Platforms,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 2(4), 434–440 (2012).
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J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Y. Y. Fang, J. Q. Xie, J. Tolle, R. Roucka, V. R. D’Costa, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Menéndez, and J. Kouvetakis, “Molecular-Based Synthetic Approach to New Group IV Materials for High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solar Cells and Si-Based Optoelectronics,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(47), 16095–16102 (2008).
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G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of an electrically pumped SiGeSn/GeSn/SiGeSn double heterostructure midinfrared laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033107 (2010).
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J. P. Dismukes, L. Ekstrom, E. F. Steigmeier, I. Kudman, and D. S. Beers, “Thermal and Electrical Properties of Heavily Doped Ge-Si Alloys up to 1300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(10), 2899–2907 (1964).
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J. Cryst. Growth (2)

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Cheng, W. Hu, G. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Su, W. Wang, B. Chen, G. Zhang, W. Hu, C. Xue, Y. Zuo, and Q. Wang, “Epitaxial growth and thermal stability of Ge1-xSnx alloys on Ge-buffered Si(0 01)substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 317(1), 43–46 (2011).
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A. Mosleh, S. A. Ghetmiri, B. R. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S. Yu, and H. A. Naseem, “Material Characterization of Ge1-xSnx Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications,” J. Electron. Mater. 43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. R. D’Costa, Y. Y. Fang, J. Tolle, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Tunable Optical Gap at a Fixed Lattice Constant in Group-IV Semiconductor Alloys,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 107403 (2009).
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Other (1)

J. Tauc, Optical Properties of Solids (North Holland, 1969).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 5 × 5 μm2 AFM images of the surface of the Si0.051Ge0.85Sn0.099 samples. (a) As-grown (RMS = 1.06 nm); (b) annealed at 500 °C (RMS = 1.02 nm); (c) annealed at 600 °C (RMS = 1.99 nm). Red circles indicate Sn precipitation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The XRD (004) 2θ-ω scans of Ge0.85Si0.051Sn0.099 samples annealed at different temperatures.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 XTEM images of Ge0.85Si0.051Sn0.099 film after 30 s RTA treatment at 400 °C. (a) full view of the film. The Ge0.85Si0.051Sn0.099/Ge interface is indicated by the white line. (b) high resolution TEM image of the Ge0.85Si0.051Sn0.099 layer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 EDS profiles of Si, Ge, and Sn elements across the substrate/buffer layer/epilayer of the Ge0.85Si0.051Sn0.099 sample after annealing at 400 °C. The inset shows the enlarged view of elements change at the Ge/ Ge0.85Si0.051Sn0.099 interface.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The Room-temperature absorption coefficient of the samples as function of incident photon energy. Inset: Tauc plot for the determination of direct band gap. The dashed lines show fits using the Tauc equation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The compositions and lattice parameters of the Ge1-x-ySixSny samples

Equations (2)

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a SiGeSn = a Ge + Δ SiGe x + θ SiGe x ( 1 x ) + Δ SnGe y + θ SnGe y ( 1 y )
α h ν = A ( h ν Eg ) 1 / 2

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