Abstract

Zinc oxide thin films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Hydrogenation of the films was achieved by annealing them at 400 °C under a hydrogen flow rate of 100 sccm. The influence of annealing on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the films were investigated. X-ray diffraction indicated that the films were polycrystalline and that their crystallinity improved upon annealing. Atomic force microscopy revealed the columnar structure of the films and indicated that the surface roughness increased with annealing. The optical constants of the films were derived from spectrophotometric measurements. The optical properties were improved upon annealing, as revealed by the increase of the refractive index, decrease of the extinction coefficient, and the widening of the band gap.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. Singh, S. Chaudhary, and D. K. Pandya, “Hydrogen incorporation induced metal-semiconductor transition in ZnO:H thin films sputtered at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 172106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T. Li, T. S. Herng, H. K. Liang, N. N. Bao, T. P. Chen, J. I. Wong, J. M. Xue, and J. Ding, “Strong green emission in ZnO films after H2 surface treatment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(18), 185102 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. W. Park, K. B. Chung, and J. S. Park, “A role of oxygen vacancy on annealed ZnO film in the hydrogen atmosphere,” Curr. Appl. Phys.12, S164–S167 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, I. A. Bakhtiari, and M. Saleem, “Optical constants of vacuum annealed radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films,” Opt. Commun.285(21-22), 4405–4412 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. H. Kim, S. Z. Karazhanov, and W. M. Kim, ““Influence of hydrogen on electrical and optical properties of ZnO films,” Phys,” Status Solidi B-Basic Solid Sate Phys.248(7), 1702–1707 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. L. Zhu, J. Wang, S. J. Zhu, J. Wu, R. Wu, D. W. Zeng, and C. S. Xie, “Influence of hydrogen introduction on structure and properties of ZnO thin films during sputtering and post-annealing,” Thin Solid Films519(11), 3809–3815 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Tong, Z. Deng, Z. Liu, C. Huang, J. Huang, H. Lan, C. Wang, and Y. Cao, “Effects of post-annealing on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci.257(11), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

T. Tan, Z. Liu, H. Lu, W. Liu, and H. Tian, “Structure and optical properties of HfO2 thin films on silicon after rapid thermal annealing,” Opt. Mater.32(3), 432–435 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. Dong, X. W. Zhang, J. B. You, P. F. Cai, Z. G. Yin, Q. An, X. B. Ma, P. Jin, Z. G. Wang, and P. K. Chu, “Effects of hydrogen plasma treatment on the electrical and optical properties of ZnO films: Identification of hydrogen donors in ZnO,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(6), 1780–1784 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Huang, M. Wang, Z. Deng, Y. Cao, Q. Liu, Z. Huang, Y. Liu, W. Guo, and Q. Huang, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on the structural, optical and electrical properties of indium-doped zinc oxide films,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron.21(11), 1221–1227 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, M. C. Kim, J. Yu, and K. Park, “H2/Ar and vacuum annealing effect of ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering system,” Curr. Appl. Phys.10(3), S495–S498 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. X. Shan, D. X. Zhao, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Structure, luminescence and electrical properties of ZnO thin films annealed in H2 and H2O ambient: A comparative study,” Thin Solid Films518(14), 3923–3928 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

P. F. Cai, J. B. You, X. W. Zhang, J. J. Dong, X. L. Yang, Z. G. Yin, and N. F. Chen, “Enhancement of conductivity and transmittance of ZnO films by post hydrogen plasma treatment,” J. Appl. Phys.105(8), 083713 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. P. Bole and D. S. Patil, “Effect of temperature on the optical constants of zinc oxide films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids70(2), 466–471 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

S. W. Xue, X. T. Zu, W. L. Zhou, H. X. Deng, X. Xiang, L. Zhang, and H. Deng, “Effects of post-thermal annealing on the optical constants of ZnO thin film,” J. Alloy. Comp.448(1-2), 21–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. A. Suvorova, I. O. Usov, L. Stan, R. F. DePaula, A. M. Dattelbaum, Q. X. Jia, and A. A. Suvorova, “Structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films by rf magnetron sputtering with rapid thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141911 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pan, C. Song, X. J. Liu, Y. C. Yang, and F. Zeng, ““Ferromagnetism and possible application in spintronics of transition-metal-doped ZnO films,” Mater. Sci. Eng,” R-Rep.62(1), 1–35 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. K. Shin, Y. Aya, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Application of pulsed laser deposited zinc oxide films to thin film transistor devices,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 3767–3771 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

Z. Yan, X. Y. Zhou, G. K. H. Pang, T. Zhang, W. L. Liu, J. G. Cheng, Z. T. Song, S. L. Feng, L. H. Lai, J. Z. Chen, and Y. Wang, “ZnO-based films bulk acoustic resonator for high sensitivity biosensor applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(14), 143503 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Klingshirn, ““ZnO: From basics towards applications,” Phys,” Status Solidi B-Basic Solid State Phys.244(9), 3027–3073 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. P. Chou, Q. F. Zhang, G. E. Fryxell, and G. Z. Cao, “Hierarchically structured ZnO film for dye-sensitized solar cells with enhanced energy conversion efficiency,” Adv. Mater.19(18), 2588–2592 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. L. Chen, X. H. Geng, J. M. Xue, and L. N. Li, “Two-step growth of ZnO films with high conductivity and high roughness,” J. Cryst. Growth299(1), 77–81 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. Suchea, S. Christoulakis, K. Moschovis, N. Katsarakis, and G. Kiriakidis, “ZnO transparent thin films for gas sensor applications,” Thin Solid Films515(2), 551–554 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Liu, S. K. Tung, and J. H. Hsieh, “Influence of annealing on optical properties and surface structure of ZnO thin films,” J. Cryst. Growth287(1), 105–111 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, D. S. Kim, W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “Post-annealing of Al-doped ZnO films in hydrogen atmosphere,” J. Cryst. Growth281(2-4), 475–480 (2005).
[Crossref]

U. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. B. Lee, M. H. Lee, C. K. Park, and J. S. Park, “Effects of lattice mismatches in ZnO/substrate structures on the orientations of ZnO films and characteristics of SAW devices,” Thin Solid Films447-448, 296–301 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Y. Chen, W. H. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. C. Hong, and Y. K. Su, “Hydrogen-doped high conductivity ZnO films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(23), 5628–5630 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

J. S. Kang, H. S. Kang, S. S. Pang, E. S. Shim, and S. Y. Lee, “Investigation on the origin of green luminescence from laser-ablated ZnO thin films,” Thin Solid Films443(1-2), 5–8 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, K. H. Ko, and B. O. Park, “Electrical and optical properties of ZnO transparent conducting films by sol-gel method,” J. Cryst. Growth247(1-2), 119–125 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Natsume and H. Sakata, “Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide films post-annealed in H2 after fabrication by sol-gel process,” Mater. Chem. Phys.78(1), 170–176 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

W. S. Shi, O. Agyeman, and C. N. Xu, “Enhancement of the light emissions from zinc oxide films by controlling the post-treatment ambient,” J. Appl. Phys.91(9), 5640–5644 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. Mergel, “Modeling thin TiO2 films of various densities as an effective optical medium,” Thin Solid Films397(1-2), 216–222 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

X. W. Sun and H. S. Kwok, “Optical properties of epitaxially grown zinc oxide films on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.86(1), 408–411 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. M. Bachari, G. Baud, S. Ben Amor, and M. Jacquet, “Structural and optical properties of sputtered ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films348(1-2), 165–172 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

S. J. Baik, J. H. Jang, C. H. Lee, W. Y. Cho, and K. S. Lim, “Highly textured and conductive undoped ZnO film using hydrogen post-treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(26), 3516–3518 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

V. Gupta and A. Mansingh, “Influence of postdeposition annealing on the structural and optical properties of sputtered zinc oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys.80(2), 1063–1073 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, and T. Hirao, “Enhanced conductivity of zinc oxide thin films by ion implantation of hydrogen atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(21), 2876–2878 (1994).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

B. E. Sernelius, K. F. Berggren, Z. C. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, and B. Vidal, “The relationship between optical inhomogeneity and film structure,” Thin Solid Films57(1), 173–178 (1979).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E9(11), 1002–1004 (1976).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

H. Yoshikawa and S. Adachi, “Optical constants of ZnO,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(1), 6237–6243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Agyeman, O.

W. S. Shi, O. Agyeman, and C. N. Xu, “Enhancement of the light emissions from zinc oxide films by controlling the post-treatment ambient,” J. Appl. Phys.91(9), 5640–5644 (2002).
[Crossref]

Alivov, Y. I.

U. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Al-Kuhaili, M. F.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, I. A. Bakhtiari, and M. Saleem, “Optical constants of vacuum annealed radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films,” Opt. Commun.285(21-22), 4405–4412 (2012).
[Crossref]

An, Q.

J. J. Dong, X. W. Zhang, J. B. You, P. F. Cai, Z. G. Yin, Q. An, X. B. Ma, P. Jin, Z. G. Wang, and P. K. Chu, “Effects of hydrogen plasma treatment on the electrical and optical properties of ZnO films: Identification of hydrogen donors in ZnO,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2(6), 1780–1784 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avrutin, V.

U. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aya, Y.

P. K. Shin, Y. Aya, T. Ikegami, and K. Ebihara, “Application of pulsed laser deposited zinc oxide films to thin film transistor devices,” Thin Solid Films516(12), 3767–3771 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bachari, E. M.

E. M. Bachari, G. Baud, S. Ben Amor, and M. Jacquet, “Structural and optical properties of sputtered ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films348(1-2), 165–172 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baik, S. J.

S. J. Baik, J. H. Jang, C. H. Lee, W. Y. Cho, and K. S. Lim, “Highly textured and conductive undoped ZnO film using hydrogen post-treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(26), 3516–3518 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bakhtiari, I. A.

M. F. Al-Kuhaili, S. M. A. Durrani, I. A. Bakhtiari, and M. Saleem, “Optical constants of vacuum annealed radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films,” Opt. Commun.285(21-22), 4405–4412 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, N. N.

T. Li, T. S. Herng, H. K. Liang, N. N. Bao, T. P. Chen, J. I. Wong, J. M. Xue, and J. Ding, “Strong green emission in ZnO films after H2 surface treatment,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(18), 185102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baud, G.

E. M. Bachari, G. Baud, S. Ben Amor, and M. Jacquet, “Structural and optical properties of sputtered ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films348(1-2), 165–172 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ben Amor, S.

E. M. Bachari, G. Baud, S. Ben Amor, and M. Jacquet, “Structural and optical properties of sputtered ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films348(1-2), 165–172 (1999).
[Crossref]

Berggren, K. F.

B. E. Sernelius, K. F. Berggren, Z. C. Jin, I. Hamberg, and C. G. Granqvist, “Band-gap tailoring of ZnO by means of heavy Al doping,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter37(17), 10244–10248 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bole, M. P.

M. P. Bole and D. S. Patil, “Effect of temperature on the optical constants of zinc oxide films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids70(2), 466–471 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cai, P. F.

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S. J. Baik, J. H. Jang, C. H. Lee, W. Y. Cho, and K. S. Lim, “Highly textured and conductive undoped ZnO film using hydrogen post-treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(26), 3516–3518 (1997).
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J. B. Lee, M. H. Lee, C. K. Park, and J. S. Park, “Effects of lattice mismatches in ZnO/substrate structures on the orientations of ZnO films and characteristics of SAW devices,” Thin Solid Films447-448, 296–301 (2004).
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W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, C. X. Shan, D. X. Zhao, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Structure, luminescence and electrical properties of ZnO thin films annealed in H2 and H2O ambient: A comparative study,” Thin Solid Films518(14), 3923–3928 (2010).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of the films.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Three dimensional AFM image of an as-deposited films.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normal-incidence reflectance and transmittance of the films.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dispersion curves of the refractive index (a) and extinction coefficient (b). Literature values are also included in (a) for comparison.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Best-fit parameters for the optical properties of the films

Equations (7)

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T = 16 n s ( n 2 + k 2 ) β A + B β 2 + 2 β [ C cos ( 4 π n d / λ ) + D sin ( 4 π n d / λ ) ]
A = [ ( n + 1 ) 2 + k 2 ] [ ( n + n s ) + k 2 ] B = [ ( n 1 ) 2 + k 2 ] [ ( n n s ) + k 2 ] C = ( n 2 1 + k 2 ) ( n 2 n s 2 + k 2 ) + 4 k 2 n s D = 2 k n s ( n 2 1 + k 2 ) + 2 k ( n 2 n s 2 + k 2 )
n ( λ ) = n o + A 1 λ 2 + A 2 λ 4
k = k o exp [ | E E 1 δ | ]
ρ f ρ b = ( n 2 1 ) ( n b 2 + 2 ) ( n 2 + 2 ) ( n b 2 1 )
α= 1 d ln( ( 1R ) 2 T )
αE= α o ( E E g ) η

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