Abstract

In this Letter, we propose spatially incoherent multiwavelength three-dimensional (3D) microscopy that exploits holographic multiplexing and is based on computational coherent superposition (CCS). The proposed microscopy generates spatially incoherent wavelength-multiplexed self-interference holograms with a multiband-pass filter and spatially and temporally incoherent light diffracted from specimens. Selective extractions of 3D spatial information at multiple wavelengths from the holograms are realized using the CCS scheme. We constructed fully mechanical-motion-free holographic multiwavelength 3D microscopy systems and conducted experiments to demonstrate the microscopy.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Multidimensional image sensing has provided useful information in both science and industry to observe realistic scenes of remote locations; structures with invisible fields of view, such as microscopic and nanoscopic regions; and invisible distributions such as x-ray and sonic, ultrasonic, infrared, and other electro-magnetic waves. Three-dimensional (3D) image information is important, especially in the case where computers in robots and automobiles perceive 3D distances to other objects, and the case where a person sees and understands 3D structures of materials and samples. Microscopy and nanoscopy have enabled visualizing of fine structures and regions invisible to human eyes and have acquired multiple physical information based on the combination of physical theory and signal processing. Computational microscopy has demonstrated multidimensional image sensing in the microscopic region by employing mathematical concepts, and 3D microscopy without mechanical scanning has been realized by utilizing both physics and computational optics. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) [15] is becoming a promising technique as a computational 3D microscopy based on the combination of holography and signal processing. Quantitative 3D image information is recorded as a digital hologram and reconstructed with a computer using the calculations based on wave optics. Until now, computational 3D imaging based on digital holography (DH) [68] has led to 3D motion-picture microscopy [9,10], quantitative phase microscopy for transparent specimens [1113], and 3D motion-picture sensing of flows and multiple objects such as particles [14]. As a technique, the DHM has contributed so far to observing 3D scenes, 3D dynamics, and quantitative 3D structures of specimens, but it usually requires a coherent light source to record an interference fringe image.

Incoherent DH [1,2,1519] has led to obtaining a digital hologram with a spatially incoherent light and observing the 3D distribution of multiple spatially incoherent light sources based on holography. This technique has been applied to fluorescence 3D microscopy [2,20], imaging-lensless single-shot 3D imagery with a light-emitting diode [19,21], development of a holographic camera with white light and day light [17], and 3D image measurement of thermal radiation [22]. The DHM with spatially incoherent light has also been applied to multiwavelength 3D image sensing by utilizing multiple wavelength filters [23] or the principle of the Fourier spectroscopy [24]. Multiple wavelengths information in incoherent DHM has the ability to clarify 3D distributions of multiple varieties of compositions separately. Multicolor 3D imaging of stained cells is useful for analyzing both the structures and composition distributions simultaneously. Furthermore, holographic recording of spatially incoherent light has the potential for 3D sensing of self-luminous light, such as fluorescence light and spontaneous Raman scattering light. Therefore, it is important to record both the 3D spatial and wavelength information in incoherent DHM. Conventional multiwavelength incoherent DHM systems require sequential changes of illumination light wavelengths and wavelength filters [23] or a large number of hologram recordings [24]. In the former, spatially incoherent color self-interference holograms are recorded by changing the wavelengths of excitation light sequentially. Sensing with a high stability can be achieved using the single-path self-interference interferometer without mechanical scan, but it is difficult to record a multicolor image simultaneously because wavelength information is temporally divided. When white-light illumination is introduced, a multicolor image cannot be obtained without mechanical movements to change the wavelength filters. In the latter, a Michelson interferometer is set, and a series of wavelength-multiplexed images with a carrier wave are recorded with moving optical elements set in an arm of the interferometer. From a series of the recorded wavelength-multiplexed images, the wavelength information on each pixel of the monochrome image sensor is separated by using the Fourier spectroscopy, and also called superheterodyne [25] and Doppler phase shifting [26] in holography. This technique is effective in conducting hyperspectral imaging. However, more than 500 holograms were recorded even when three-wavelength imaging was conducted [27,28]. Michelson and Mach–Zehnder interferometers with mechanical scanning are adopted to use the Fourier spectroscopy [2428]. The stability of the system against external noise sources such as vibration is a problem. If a single-arm, common-path interferometer is constructed a highly stable holographic microscope can be implemented, as the stability was demonstrated in [29].

In this Letter, we propose fully mechanical-motion-free multiwavelength 3D microscopy with spatially incoherent light, based on the computational coherent superposition (CCS) scheme [3033]. As improvements from [3033], the proposed microscopy is composed of a single-path self-interference DHM system, and spatially incoherent wavelength-multiplexed self-interference holograms are generated with a multiband-pass filter and spatially and temporally incoherent light diffracted from specimens. The CCS allows the monochrome image sensor to record wavelength-multiplexed holograms and the signal processing to selectively extract object waves at multiple wavelengths from the recorded holograms. Differences between the self-reference hyperspectral holographic microscopy [34,35] and proposed microscopy are as follows. The technique in [34,35] is based on self-reference DH and has the ability to obtain hyperspectral intensity and quantitative phase images with a Michelson interferometer. Our aim is to conduct multiwavelength 3D image sensing of spatially and temporally incoherent light diffracted from specimens with a small number of recordings and no mechanical motion. It is realized with single-path self-interference DHM, a multiband-pass filter, and the CCS, at the cost of continuous spectral information. The proposed microscopy is experimentally demonstrated using two microscopy systems.

Figure 1 shows the schematic of the proposed microscopy. The proposed microscopy consists of the following components: a single-path self-interference optical system, a magnification system, spatially and temporally incoherent light source(s), an electrically driven phase modulator, a monochrome image sensor to record wavelength-multiplexed images, and a computer to selectively extract object waves at multiple wavelengths from the images recorded by CCS. Spatially and temporally incoherent light diffracted from specimens passes through the magnification system. A multiband-pass filter is set to increase the coherence length and generate multiple wavelength bands. It is noted that spatially and temporally incoherent light is changed into spatially incoherent and multiple narrow-band light by adopting the multiband-pass filter. The control of temporal coherency using the filter makes it easy to extract multiwavelength object waves selectively and to remove the undesired wavelength components by simply applying the CCS. A polarizer changes the light wave from random polarization to a linear one. A polarization-sensitive dual-focus lens, such as a birefringent lens, generates two object waves whose curvature radii are different from each other [23]. A polarization-sensitive and electrically driven phase modulator shifts the phase of one of the two light waves. A polarizer that is set after the phase modulator aligns the polarization directions and generates self-interference of the two light waves. Then, a monochrome image sensor records a spatially incoherent wavelength-multiplexed self-interference hologram. Multiple phase-shifted holograms are sequentially recorded by changing the amount of phase shifts with the modulator. Signal processing based on the CCS of wavelengths [3033] separates the light wave diffracted from specimens per wavelength. The CCS is a scheme used to separate the wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed images by adding phase-shift patterns to the multiplexed respective wavelengths. The CCS is one of the phase-encoding techniques, and it has the ability to extract object waves at multiple wavelengths from ${2}N+{1}$ wavelength-multiplexed phase-shifted holograms, where $N$ is the number of center wavelengths extracted [30]. In CCS, wavelength-dependent phase shifts are regarded as the code to remove not only the zeroth-order and the conjugate images, but also undesired wavelength components from the recorded holograms [33]. In the case where the multiband pass filter generates RGB-wavelength bands, which means $N={3}$, three-wavelength 3D image sensing of the diffracted light is conducted from seven holograms, after calculating diffraction integrals to the retrieved multiwavelength object waves. In comparison to experimental results of wavelength-multiplexed DH with an algorithm of the Fourier spectroscopy [27,28], the required number of recordings is less than 1/70, and the speeding up of the measurement is expected. It is noted that DH with Fourier spectroscopy [2428,34,35] has also potential to reduce the number of recordings for wide spectral intervals.

 

Fig. 1. Schematic of the proposed microscopy.

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We conducted experiments to demonstrate the proposed microscopy in the case of $N={3}$. Figure 2 illustrates the constructed optical system. White-light illumination, a stage to put specimens, magnification system, and a mirror were composed using a commercially available inverted optical microscope (IX-73, Olympus). White light was irradiated from a halogen lamp. The numerical aperture and magnification of the microscope objective were 0.95 and 40, respectively. A multiband-pass filter whose central wavelengths were 628, 532, and 455 nm and bandwidths were 20 nm, respectively, was set. The two polarizers worked as described in Fig. 1. Lens 1 and 2 composed relay optics, and the magnification ratio was 2. A liquid-crystal on a silicon spatial light modulator (LCoS-SLM) (Santec, SLM-100) was set to generate both the two light waves whose curvature radii were different and regular wavelength-dependent phase shifts. ${f_2}$ in Fig. 1 was infinity and phase-shifted, and wavelength-dependent Fresnel-lens patterns whose ${f_1}$ were 2.5, 2.0, and 1.5 m at red, green, and blue wavelengths, respectively, were sequentially displayed. Regular phase shifts at 628, 532, and 455 nm were ${2}\pi /{5}$, $\pi /{2}$, and $2\pi /{3}$, respectively. Seven three-wavelength-multiplexed phase-shifted self-interference holograms were sequentially recorded by a scientific complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) lensless camera (Andor Technology, Zyla 4.2 plus). From the holograms, the object waves at three central wavelengths on the image sensor plane were retrieved using a CCS algorithm [33]. After that, an intensity image focused on an arbitrary depth was reconstructed at each wavelength by calculating diffraction integrals.

 

Fig. 2. Constructed optical system with high magnification. The magnification of the whole system was 80.

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We set a USAF1951 test target to verify the technique and to investigate the resolution of the proposed microscopy. Figure 3 shows the experimental results. For comparison, we took a photograph of the specimen with the same optical system. As shown in Fig. 3(a), structures containing high-spatial-frequency components were degraded owing to the point spread function (PSF) of the optical microscope with incoherent light. Figure 3(c) indicates that it was difficult to obtain a sharp image from a single hologram in Fig. 3(b). Blurring occurs when both wavelength separation and removals of unwanted diffraction waves are not conducted. In contrast, a reconstructed intensity image synthesized from those at three wavelength bands indicated less degradations in the high-spatial-frequency components, as shown in Figs. 3(d) and 3(e). This was because, the microscopy system had the nature of FINCHSCOPE [20,36], and therefore, the system also had the characteristic PSF for super resolution at each wavelength. The color of Fig. 3(d) was obtained by setting a multiband-pass filter at a certain angle against incident light. Thus, we clarified the high-resolution imaging ability of the proposed microscopy.

We conducted experiments to demonstrate its multicolor 3D imaging ability. Figure 4 illustrates the constructed microscope.

 

Fig. 3. Experimental results for a USAF1951 test target. (a) Photograph obtained with an incoherent 2D microscope. (b) One of the recorded holograms. Images reconstructed (c) with a hologram of (b) and (d) using the proposed microscopy. These were obtained by numerical refocusing on 8, ${-}{5}$, and 3 mm depths at red, green, and blue central wavelengths, respectively. (e) represents the plots of (a) and (d). Plotted lines are indicated by green lines of (a) and (d), which corresponds to Group 9, lines 1–3 of the test target.

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Fig. 4. Constructed microscope with birefringent lenses.

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Instead of a wavelength-dependent Fresnel lens, we prepared birefringent lenses whose focal lengths for ordinary and extraordinary rays were 179 and 182 mm. By using these lenses, the light-use efficiency of the LCoS-SLM was improved, and bright holograms were obtained. The magnification of the whole system was set to be down to 13 to collect more light passing through specimens. An LCoS-SLM (Hamamatsu Photonics, X10468-01) was set to generate regular wavelength-dependent phase shifts, and the amount of phase shifts was the same as in the previous experiment. Other components were the same as in Fig. 2. We set initially a preparation of hematoxylin-eosin (HE)-stained mouse kidney cells as a color specimen. Figure 5 shows the experimental results. Figures 5(a)5(f) were obtained from the seven recorded holograms and a CCS algorithm [33]. Using Figs. 5(a)5(f), diffraction integrals at respective wavelengths were calculated for numerical refocusing, and images focused on arbitrary depths were reconstructed. Figures 5(h) and 5(i) are color-synthesized images on the image sensor and refocused planes. Refocusing distances from the image sensor plane to magnified image of specimens, $z$, were 4.5, 10.5, and 11.5 mm at the wavelengths of 628, 532, and 455 nm, respectively. The differences between the refocusing distances at wavelengths were caused by chromatic aberration of the optical system. The result shows that a focused multiwavelength image is reconstructed even when chromatic aberration occurs. Finally, we set a preparation of HE-stained mouse liver cells and tilted the image sensor to the depth direction. Figure 6 shows the experimental results. Just like in the previous experiments, images focused on multiple depths were reconstructed. The difference in z between Figs. 6(b) and 6(c) was 11 mm, which means 65 µm in the object plane. The field of view in Fig. 6 was ${380}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m} \times {337}\;\unicode{x00B5}{\rm m}$ in the object plane. The depth resolution and the sectioning ability of the constructed microscopes were based on the FINCH system [36]. The multicolor 3D imaging and numerical refocusing on different depths for microscopic specimens were experimentally demonstrated with a halogen lamp and the CCS.
 

Fig. 5. Experimental results for HE-stained mouse kidney cells. (a)–(c) Intensity and (d)–(f) phase images on the image sensor plane. (a), (d) Red-; (b), (e) green-; and (c), (f) blue-wavelength bands. Black and white of (d)–(f) mean 0 and ${2}\pi $ [rad]. (g) One of the recorded holograms. Color-synthesized images on (h) the image sensor and (i) numerically focused planes. Bluish-violet circles in (i) indicate refocused stained nuclei; violet and white colors mean cell cytoplasm and white light generated from a halogen lamp.

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Fig. 6. Experimental results for multiple depths imaging. (a) One of the wavelength-multiplexed self-interference holograms. Reconstructed images focused on (b) left and (c) right sides of the field of view. Bluish-violet circles in (b) and (c) indicate refocused stained nuclei; violet and white colors mean cell cytoplasm and white light from a halogen lamp, respectively (Visualization 1).

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In this Letter, we have proposed mechanical-motion-free, spatially incoherent, multiwavelength 3D microscopy, exploiting holographic multiplexing based on the CCS. Scientific CMOS and electron multiplying charge coupled device (EM-CCD) lensless cameras without a color-filter array can be used. Image-quality enhancement in Fig. 3(d) by removing the aberration or artifacts is future work. The proposed microscopy can be applied instead of white light to record other spatially and temporally incoherent light diffracted from specimens: e.g., self-luminous light, sunlight, and thermal radiation.

Funding

Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (JPMJPR16P8); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (18H01456).

Acknowledgment

We thank Prof. Yasuhiro Takaki and Reo Otani for helpful discussions about the experiment and optical systems.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

REFERENCES

1. T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995). [CrossRef]  

2. B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1506 (1997). [CrossRef]  

3. Y. Takaki, H. Kawai, and H. Ohzu, Appl. Opt. 38, 4990 (1999). [CrossRef]  

4. M. K. Kim, ed., Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer, 2011).

5. T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, Microscopy 67, 55 (2018). [CrossRef]  

6. J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77 (1967). [CrossRef]  

7. P. Picart and J.-C. Li, eds., Digital Holography (Wiley, 2013).

8. T.-C. Poon and J.-P. Liu, eds., Introduction to Modern Digital Holography with MATLAB (Cambridge University, 2014).

9. T. Shimobaba, Y. Sato, J. Miura, M. Takenouchi, and T. Ito, Opt. Express 16, 11776 (2008). [CrossRef]  

10. A. Brodoline, N. Rawat, D. Alexandre, N. Cubedo, and M. Grosse, Opt. Lett. 44, 2827 (2019). [CrossRef]  

11. T. Noda, S. Kawata, and S. Minami, Appl. Opt. 31, 670 (1992). [CrossRef]  

12. E. Watanabe, T. Hoshiba, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1319 (2013). [CrossRef]  

13. Y. K. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, Nat. Photonics 12, 578 (2018). [CrossRef]  

14. S. Murata and N. Yasuda, Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 567 (2000). [CrossRef]  

15. T.-C. Poon ed., Optical Scanning Holography with MATLAB (Springer, 2007).

16. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, Opt. Lett. 32, 912 (2007). [CrossRef]  

17. M. K. Kim, Opt. Express 21, 9636 (2013). [CrossRef]  

18. P. W. M. Tsang, J.-P. Liu, and T.-C. Poon, Optica 2, 476 (2015). [CrossRef]  

19. J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, Appl. Sci. 8, 143 (2018). [CrossRef]  

20. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 2, 190 (2008). [CrossRef]  

21. T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, J. Opt. 19, 065705 (2017). [CrossRef]  

22. M. Imbe, Appl. Opt. 58, A82 (2019). [CrossRef]  

23. N. Siegel, V. Lupashin, B. Storrie, and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 10, 802 (2016). [CrossRef]  

24. S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B49 (2017). [CrossRef]  

25. R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, and D. Prongue, Opt. Lett. 13, 339 (1988). [CrossRef]  

26. D. Barada, T. Kiire, J. Sugisaka, S. Kawata, and T. Yatagai, Appl. Opt. 50, H237 (2011). [CrossRef]  

27. T. Kiire, D. Barada, J. Sugisaka, Y. Hayasaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Lett. 37, 3153 (2012). [CrossRef]  

28. D. N. Naik, G. Pedrini, M. Takeda, and W. Osten, Opt. Lett. 39, 1857 (2014). [CrossRef]  

29. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 31, 775 (2006). [CrossRef]  

30. T. Tahara, S. Kikunaga, and Y. Arai, “Digital holography apparatus and digital holography method,” Japan patent JP6308594 (11 April 2018).

31. T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, J. Opt. 17, 125707 (2015). [CrossRef]  

32. T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, Opt. Lett. 40, 2810 (2015). [CrossRef]  

33. T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, Opt. Express 25, 11157 (2017). [CrossRef]  

34. S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, in Light-Energy and the Environment, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTu2E.7.

35. S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 36, A34 (2019). [CrossRef]  

36. J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, Adv. Opt. Photon. 11, 1 (2019). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. W. Schilling, T.-C. Poon, G. Indebetouw, B. Storrie, K. Shinoda, Y. Suzuki, and M. H. Wu, Opt. Lett. 22, 1506 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Takaki, H. Kawai, and H. Ohzu, Appl. Opt. 38, 4990 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. K. Kim, ed., Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer, 2011).
  5. T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, Microscopy 67, 55 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Picart and J.-C. Li, eds., Digital Holography (Wiley, 2013).
  8. T.-C. Poon and J.-P. Liu, eds., Introduction to Modern Digital Holography with MATLAB (Cambridge University, 2014).
  9. T. Shimobaba, Y. Sato, J. Miura, M. Takenouchi, and T. Ito, Opt. Express 16, 11776 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Brodoline, N. Rawat, D. Alexandre, N. Cubedo, and M. Grosse, Opt. Lett. 44, 2827 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Noda, S. Kawata, and S. Minami, Appl. Opt. 31, 670 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. E. Watanabe, T. Hoshiba, and B. Javidi, Opt. Lett. 38, 1319 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. K. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, Nat. Photonics 12, 578 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Murata and N. Yasuda, Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 567 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. T.-C. Poon ed., Optical Scanning Holography with MATLAB (Springer, 2007).
  16. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, Opt. Lett. 32, 912 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. K. Kim, Opt. Express 21, 9636 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. W. M. Tsang, J.-P. Liu, and T.-C. Poon, Optica 2, 476 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, Appl. Sci. 8, 143 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 2, 190 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, J. Opt. 19, 065705 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Imbe, Appl. Opt. 58, A82 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  23. N. Siegel, V. Lupashin, B. Storrie, and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 10, 802 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B49 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, and D. Prongue, Opt. Lett. 13, 339 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. Barada, T. Kiire, J. Sugisaka, S. Kawata, and T. Yatagai, Appl. Opt. 50, H237 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Kiire, D. Barada, J. Sugisaka, Y. Hayasaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Lett. 37, 3153 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. N. Naik, G. Pedrini, M. Takeda, and W. Osten, Opt. Lett. 39, 1857 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Opt. Lett. 31, 775 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. Tahara, S. Kikunaga, and Y. Arai, “Digital holography apparatus and digital holography method,” Japan patentJP6308594 (11 April2018).
  31. T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, J. Opt. 17, 125707 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, Opt. Lett. 40, 2810 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, Opt. Express 25, 11157 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, in Light-Energy and the Environment, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTu2E.7.
  35. S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 36, A34 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. Rosen, A. Vijayakumar, M. Kumar, M. R. Rai, R. Kelner, Y. Kashter, A. Bulbul, and S. Mukherjee, Adv. Opt. Photon. 11, 1 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (4)

2018 (3)

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, Microscopy 67, 55 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, Nat. Photonics 12, 578 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, Appl. Sci. 8, 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

2016 (1)

N. Siegel, V. Lupashin, B. Storrie, and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 10, 802 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Murata and N. Yasuda, Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 567 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

1967 (1)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77 (1967).
[Crossref]

Alexandre, D.

Arai, Y.

T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, J. Opt. 19, 065705 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Otani, K. Omae, T. Gotohda, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, Opt. Express 25, 11157 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, S. Kikunaga, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, Opt. Lett. 40, 2810 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, J. Opt. 17, 125707 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Tahara, S. Kikunaga, and Y. Arai, “Digital holography apparatus and digital holography method,” Japan patentJP6308594 (11 April2018).

Barada, D.

Brodoline, A.

Brooker, G.

N. Siegel, V. Lupashin, B. Storrie, and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 10, 802 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 2, 190 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, Opt. Lett. 32, 912 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bulbul, A.

Cubedo, N.

Dandliker, R.

Dasari, R. R.

Depeursinge, C.

Y. K. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, Nat. Photonics 12, 578 (2018).
[Crossref]

Doh, K.

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77 (1967).
[Crossref]

Gotohda, T.

Grosse, M.

Hayasaki, Y.

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, Appl. Sci. 8, 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Kiire, D. Barada, J. Sugisaka, Y. Hayasaki, and T. Yatagai, Opt. Lett. 37, 3153 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hoshiba, T.

Ikeda, T.

Imbe, M.

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Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

J.-P. Liu, T. Tahara, Y. Hayasaki, and T.-C. Poon, Appl. Sci. 8, 143 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (2)

T. Tahara, R. Mori, Y. Arai, and Y. Takaki, J. Opt. 17, 125707 (2015).
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T. Tahara, T. Kanno, Y. Arai, and T. Ozawa, J. Opt. 19, 065705 (2017).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microscopy (1)

T. Tahara, X. Quan, R. Otani, Y. Takaki, and O. Matoba, Microscopy 67, 55 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

Y. K. Park, C. Depeursinge, and G. Popescu, Nat. Photonics 12, 578 (2018).
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J. Rosen and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 2, 190 (2008).
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N. Siegel, V. Lupashin, B. Storrie, and G. Brooker, Nat. Photonics 10, 802 (2016).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

T.-C. Poon, K. Doh, B. Schilling, M. Wu, K. Shinoda, and Y. Suzuki, Opt. Eng. 34, 1338 (1995).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

S. Murata and N. Yasuda, Opt. Laser Technol. 32, 567 (2000).
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Opt. Lett. (9)

Optica (1)

Other (6)

T.-C. Poon ed., Optical Scanning Holography with MATLAB (Springer, 2007).

M. K. Kim, ed., Digital Holographic Microscopy: Principles, Techniques, and Applications (Springer, 2011).

P. Picart and J.-C. Li, eds., Digital Holography (Wiley, 2013).

T.-C. Poon and J.-P. Liu, eds., Introduction to Modern Digital Holography with MATLAB (Cambridge University, 2014).

T. Tahara, S. Kikunaga, and Y. Arai, “Digital holography apparatus and digital holography method,” Japan patentJP6308594 (11 April2018).

S. G. Kalenkov, G. S. Kalenkov, and A. E. Shtanko, in Light-Energy and the Environment, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper FTu2E.7.

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Images reconstructed by multiwavelength incoherent digital holography with white light based on computational coherent superposition.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the proposed microscopy.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Constructed optical system with high magnification. The magnification of the whole system was 80.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental results for a USAF1951 test target. (a) Photograph obtained with an incoherent 2D microscope. (b) One of the recorded holograms. Images reconstructed (c) with a hologram of (b) and (d) using the proposed microscopy. These were obtained by numerical refocusing on 8, ${-}{5}$ , and 3 mm depths at red, green, and blue central wavelengths, respectively. (e) represents the plots of (a) and (d). Plotted lines are indicated by green lines of (a) and (d), which corresponds to Group 9, lines 1–3 of the test target.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Constructed microscope with birefringent lenses.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Experimental results for HE-stained mouse kidney cells. (a)–(c) Intensity and (d)–(f) phase images on the image sensor plane. (a), (d) Red-; (b), (e) green-; and (c), (f) blue-wavelength bands. Black and white of (d)–(f) mean 0 and ${2}\pi $ [rad]. (g) One of the recorded holograms. Color-synthesized images on (h) the image sensor and (i) numerically focused planes. Bluish-violet circles in (i) indicate refocused stained nuclei; violet and white colors mean cell cytoplasm and white light generated from a halogen lamp.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Experimental results for multiple depths imaging. (a) One of the wavelength-multiplexed self-interference holograms. Reconstructed images focused on (b) left and (c) right sides of the field of view. Bluish-violet circles in (b) and (c) indicate refocused stained nuclei; violet and white colors mean cell cytoplasm and white light from a halogen lamp, respectively (Visualization 1).

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