Abstract

With adaptive optics (AO), optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging systems can resolve individual photoreceptor cells in living eyes, due to enhanced lateral spatial resolution. However, no standard test method exists for experimentally quantifying this parameter in ophthalmic AO imagers. Here, we present three-dimensional (3-D) printed phantoms, which enable the measurement of lateral resolution in an anatomically relevant manner. We used two-photon polymerization to fabricate two phantoms, which mimic the mosaic of cone photoreceptor outer segments at multiple retinal eccentricities. With these phantoms, we demonstrated that the resolution of two multimodal AO systems is similar to theoretical predictions, with some intriguing speckle effects.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, K. A. Sapoznik, R. L. Warner, and T. J. Gast, Prog. Retin. Eye. Res. 68, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Kedia, Z. Liu, R. Sochol, D. X. Hammer, and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 10474, 104740D (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Tam, O. Saeedi, and D. X. Hammer, Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 4246 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Meadway and L. C. Sincich, Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 5543 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, Biomed. Opt. Express 8, 2536 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Valente and B. Vohnsen, Opt. Lett. 42, 4623 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, and D. T. Miller, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 3378 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. C. Lee, G. T. Smith, M. Agrawal, T. Leng, and A. K. Ellerbee, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 085004 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Vohnsen, Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 1569 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

T. J. Pfefer and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 8215, 82150D (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2008 (1)

G. Lamouche, C. E. Bisaillon, S. Vergnole, and J. P. Monchalin, Proc. SPIE 6847, 684724 (2008).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J Comp. Neuro. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, Vis. Res. 13, 1115 (1973).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, A.

N. Kedia, Z. Liu, R. Sochol, D. X. Hammer, and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 10474, 104740D (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Pfefer and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 8215, 82150D (2012).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, M.

G. C. Lee, G. T. Smith, M. Agrawal, T. Leng, and A. K. Ellerbee, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 085004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anderson, C.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Anderson, S. J.

Banks, M. S.

Baxi, J.

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bisaillon, C. E.

G. Lamouche, C. E. Bisaillon, S. Vergnole, and J. P. Monchalin, Proc. SPIE 6847, 684724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burns, S. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, K. A. Sapoznik, R. L. Warner, and T. J. Gast, Prog. Retin. Eye. Res. 68, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Calhoun, W.

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. L.

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Horng, Y. Liu, N. Suresh, P. Ghassemi, T. J. Pfefer, and Y. Chen, in Frontiers in Optics (2018), paper JW3A.118.

Coburn, J. C.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J Comp. Neuro. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Derby, J. C.

Dubra, A.

Ellerbee, A. K.

G. C. Lee, G. T. Smith, M. Agrawal, T. Leng, and A. K. Ellerbee, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 085004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Elsner, A. E.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, K. A. Sapoznik, R. L. Warner, and T. J. Gast, Prog. Retin. Eye. Res. 68, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feldman, N.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Fernandez, L.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Fobe, T.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Gao, W.

Gast, T. J.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, K. A. Sapoznik, R. L. Warner, and T. J. Gast, Prog. Retin. Eye. Res. 68, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ghassemi, P.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Horng, Y. Liu, N. Suresh, P. Ghassemi, T. J. Pfefer, and Y. Chen, in Frontiers in Optics (2018), paper JW3A.118.

Gopal, R.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Hammer, D. X.

N. Kedia, Z. Liu, R. Sochol, D. X. Hammer, and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 10474, 104740D (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Tam, O. Saeedi, and D. X. Hammer, Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 4246 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J Comp. Neuro. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Herde, A. E.

Hesley, D.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Horng, H.

H. Horng, Y. Liu, N. Suresh, P. Ghassemi, T. J. Pfefer, and Y. Chen, in Frontiers in Optics (2018), paper JW3A.118.

Ilev, I.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, H.

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jonnal, R. S.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J Comp. Neuro. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kedia, N.

N. Kedia, Z. Liu, R. Sochol, D. X. Hammer, and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 10474, 104740D (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Kocaoglu, O.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Kurokawa, K.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lamouche, G.

G. Lamouche, C. E. Bisaillon, S. Vergnole, and J. P. Monchalin, Proc. SPIE 6847, 684724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. C.

G. C. Lee, G. T. Smith, M. Agrawal, T. Leng, and A. K. Ellerbee, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 085004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. J.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

Leng, T.

G. C. Lee, G. T. Smith, M. Agrawal, T. Leng, and A. K. Ellerbee, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 085004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

H. Horng, Y. Liu, N. Suresh, P. Ghassemi, T. J. Pfefer, and Y. Chen, in Frontiers in Optics (2018), paper JW3A.118.

Liu, Z.

N. Kedia, Z. Liu, R. Sochol, D. X. Hammer, and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 10474, 104740D (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, J. Tam, O. Saeedi, and D. X. Hammer, Biomed. Opt. Express 9, 4246 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, O. P. Kocaoglu, T. L. Turner, and D. T. Miller, Biomed. Opt. Express 6, 3378 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mathews, S. A.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meadway, A.

Melchiorri, A. J.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mengis, A.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Miller, D. T.

Monchalin, J. P.

G. Lamouche, C. E. Bisaillon, S. Vergnole, and J. P. Monchalin, Proc. SPIE 6847, 684724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, Q. D.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pask, C.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, Vis. Res. 13, 1115 (1973).
[Crossref]

Pfefer, T. J.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Pfefer and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 8215, 82150D (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Horng, Y. Liu, N. Suresh, P. Ghassemi, T. J. Pfefer, and Y. Chen, in Frontiers in Optics (2018), paper JW3A.118.

Pircher, M.

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saeedi, O.

Sapoznik, K. A.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, K. A. Sapoznik, R. L. Warner, and T. J. Gast, Prog. Retin. Eye. Res. 68, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schuman, J. S.

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sekuler, A. B.

Sepah, Y. J.

J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, Y. J. Sepah, D. X. Hammer, I. Ilev, T. J. Pfefer, Q. D. Nguyen, and A. Agrawal, J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 021106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sincich, L. C.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J Comp. Neuro. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

Smith, G. T.

G. C. Lee, G. T. Smith, M. Agrawal, T. Leng, and A. K. Ellerbee, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 085004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and C. Pask, Vis. Res. 13, 1115 (1973).
[Crossref]

Sochol, R.

N. Kedia, Z. Liu, R. Sochol, D. X. Hammer, and A. Agrawal, Proc. SPIE 10474, 104740D (2018).
[Crossref]

Sochol, R. D.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Sorg, B. S.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sulai, Y.

Suresh, N.

H. Horng, Y. Liu, N. Suresh, P. Ghassemi, T. J. Pfefer, and Y. Chen, in Frontiers in Optics (2018), paper JW3A.118.

Tam, J.

Turner, T. L.

Valente, D.

Vergnole, S.

G. Lamouche, C. E. Bisaillon, S. Vergnole, and J. P. Monchalin, Proc. SPIE 6847, 684724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vohnsen, B.

Wang, J.

P. Ghassemi, J. Wang, A. J. Melchiorri, J. C. Ramella-Roman, S. A. Mathews, J. C. Coburn, B. S. Sorg, Y. Chen, and T. J. Pfefer, J. Biomed. Opt. 20, 121312 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Warner, R. L.

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, K. A. Sapoznik, R. L. Warner, and T. J. Gast, Prog. Retin. Eye. Res. 68, 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wollstein, G.

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

Young, J.

A. Mengis, R. Gopal, N. Feldman, N. Kedia, D. Hesley, J. Young, T. Fobe, L. Fernandez, C. Anderson, and R. D. Sochol, in 30th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) (2017).

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, F.

Z. Liu, K. Kurokawa, F. Zhang, J. J. Lee, and D. T. Miller, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, 12803 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (7)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

A. Agrawal, J. Baxi, W. Calhoun, C. L. Chen, H. Ishikawa, J. S. Schuman, G. Wollstein, and D. X. Hammer, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57, OCT413 (2016).
[Crossref]

J Comp. Neuro. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J Comp. Neuro. 292, 497 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Illustration of 3-D printing with immersion-mode 2PP DLW. (b) and (c) SEM images of structures before PDMS encapsulation (left) and fluorescence images of final phantoms (right) for (b) 0.6° and (c) 1.5°/3°/5° eccentricities. Some collapsed structures are visible in the 0.6° images. (d) and (e) Comparison of the measurements from phantom and human retina for (d) cone center-to-center spacing and (e) OS diameter.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a)–(d) Phantom fabrication steps: (a) gold-coated structures on silicon substrate, (b) structures encapsulated in PDMS, (c) texture added to the outer surface, (d) encapsulated structures peeled from substrate and additional PDMS film added to the inner surface. (e) Model eye assembly with the inner surface of the phantom adhered to a fused silica wedge.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. AO-SLO and en face AO-OCT images of the (a) 0.6° phantom and (b) 1.5°/3°/5° phantom. In (b), spectrum saturation caused dark circles in the center of some structures in the NEI AO-OCT linear image.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Mean structure sizes from AO images normalized by the theoretical size. The error bars represent one standard deviation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. AO System Parameters and Theoretical PSF Widths for 19 mm Focal Length Model Eye

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