Abstract

Stretchable sensors with multiple sensory functions are in high demand for healthcare monitoring and artificial intelligence. Despite recent advances in wearable electronic sensors, it remains a significant challenge to achieve simultaneous sensing of both thermal and mechanical stimuli with a single sensor while integrating high stretchability. Herein, a stretchable and multifunctional optical sensor (SMOS) with simultaneous readout of temperature and strain is developed for wearable physiological monitoring of the human body. The SMOS primarily consists of a stretchable optical sensing fiber made from polymer nanocomposites containing lanthanide-based upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). Temperature measurements are achieved by ratiometric intensity measurements of the dual-emission UCNPs upon near-infrared excitation. By virtue of the ratiometric detection, the temperature readout of the SMOS is independent of strain deformations, enabling stable and continuous measurements of skin temperature during body motions. Furthermore, deformation of the SMOS by stretching leads to detectable and reversible changes in its light transmission, allowing tensile strains to be simultaneously measured. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the capabilities of the SMOS in real time and simultaneous detection of both skin temperature and motion activities of the human body.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Highly flexible and stretchable optical strain sensing for human motion detection

Jingjing Guo, Mengxuan Niu, and Changxi Yang
Optica 4(10) 1285-1288 (2017)

Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating

Hongqiang Li, Haijing Yang, Enbang Li, Zhihui Liu, and Kejia Wei
Opt. Express 20(11) 11740-11752 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Lu and D. H. Kim, Soft Rob. 1, 53 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Q. Trung and N. E. Lee, Adv. Mater. 28, 4338 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, B. Ünal, A. Khademhosseini, and H. Butt, Adv. Mater. 30, 1706910 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. C. Yeo and C. T. Lim, Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16043 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Yao and Y. Zhu, Nanoscale 6, 2345 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. Zhang, Y. Zang, D. Huang, C. A. Di, and D. Zhu, Nat. Commun. 6, 8356 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Guo, M. Niu, and C. Yang, Optica 4, 1285 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Missinne, S. Kalathimekkad, B. Van Hoe, E. Bosman, J. Vanfleteren, and G. Van Steenberge, Opt. Express 22, 4168 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Leber, B. Cholst, J. Sandt, N. Vogel, and M. Kolle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1802629 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Guo, B. Zhou, C. Yang, Q. Dai, and L. Kong, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1902898 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  18. N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Chen, Y. Ma, and M. Li, Mater. Lett. 114, 80 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

J. Guo, B. Zhou, C. Yang, Q. Dai, and L. Kong, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1902898 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, B. Ünal, A. Khademhosseini, and H. Butt, Adv. Mater. 30, 1706910 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Leber, B. Cholst, J. Sandt, N. Vogel, and M. Kolle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1802629 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, M. Niu, and C. Yang, Optica 4, 1285 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. C. Yeo and C. T. Lim, Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16043 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Q. Trung and N. E. Lee, Adv. Mater. 28, 4338 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

F. Zhang, Y. Zang, D. Huang, C. A. Di, and D. Zhu, Nat. Commun. 6, 8356 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

S. Yao and Y. Zhu, Nanoscale 6, 2345 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Lu and D. H. Kim, Soft Rob. 1, 53 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Y. Ma, and M. Li, Mater. Lett. 114, 80 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Missinne, S. Kalathimekkad, B. Van Hoe, E. Bosman, J. Vanfleteren, and G. Van Steenberge, Opt. Express 22, 4168 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, R.

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Backes, C.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bao, R.

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Barwich, S.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boland, C. S.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bosman, E.

Butt, H.

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, B. Ünal, A. Khademhosseini, and H. Butt, Adv. Mater. 30, 1706910 (2018).
[Crossref]

Capobianco, J. A.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

Charifou, R.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. R.

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Y. Ma, and M. Li, Mater. Lett. 114, 80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cholst, B.

A. Leber, B. Cholst, J. Sandt, N. Vogel, and M. Kolle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1802629 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cianchetti, M.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Correll, N.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

J. Guo, B. Zhou, C. Yang, Q. Dai, and L. Kong, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1902898 (2019).
[Crossref]

de la Fuente, A. J.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Di, C. A.

F. Zhang, Y. Zang, D. Huang, C. A. Di, and D. Zhu, Nat. Commun. 6, 8356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Feng, W.

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, M. S.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Futaba, D. N.

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, E.

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ge, J.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goldfield, E. C.

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

J. Guo, B. Zhou, C. Yang, Q. Dai, and L. Kong, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1902898 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, M. Niu, and C. Yang, Optica 4, 1285 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harvey, A.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hata, K.

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hayamizu, Y.

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hua, Q.

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

F. Zhang, Y. Zang, D. Huang, C. A. Di, and D. Zhu, Nat. Commun. 6, 8356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Izadi-Najafabadi, A.

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jian, M.

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. L.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, N.

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kalathimekkad, S.

Khademhosseini, A.

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, B. Ünal, A. Khademhosseini, and H. Butt, Adv. Mater. 30, 1706910 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Khan, U.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

N. Lu and D. H. Kim, Soft Rob. 1, 53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kolle, M.

A. Leber, B. Cholst, J. Sandt, N. Vogel, and M. Kolle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1802629 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kong, L.

J. Guo, B. Zhou, C. Yang, Q. Dai, and L. Kong, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1902898 (2019).
[Crossref]

Leber, A.

A. Leber, B. Cholst, J. Sandt, N. Vogel, and M. Kolle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1802629 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lee, N. E.

T. Q. Trung and N. E. Lee, Adv. Mater. 28, 4338 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Chen, Y. Ma, and M. Li, Mater. Lett. 114, 80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, Q.

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, Q.

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, X.

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lim, C. T.

J. C. Yeo and C. T. Lim, Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16043 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, N.

N. Lu and D. H. Kim, Soft Rob. 1, 53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

M. Chen, Y. Ma, and M. Li, Mater. Lett. 114, 80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maestro, L. M.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martinez-Hurtado, J. L.

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, B. Ünal, A. Khademhosseini, and H. Butt, Adv. Mater. 30, 1706910 (2018).
[Crossref]

Missinne, J.

Möbius, M. E.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Montelongo, Y.

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Morin, S. A.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mosadegh, B.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Naccache, R.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nagpal, R.

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Niu, M.

Onal, C. D.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. L.

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Arancibia, N. O.

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Petersen, K.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Polygerinos, P.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ren, T.

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rifat, A. A.

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, E. M.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ryan, G.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sandt, J.

A. Leber, B. Cholst, J. Sandt, N. Vogel, and M. Kolle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1802629 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sanz-Rodríguez, F.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, R. F.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, L. A.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Solé, J. G.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stirling, L.

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tan, Y. W.

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tolley, M. T.

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Trung, T. Q.

T. Q. Trung and N. E. Lee, Adv. Mater. 28, 4338 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ünal, B.

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, B. Ünal, A. Khademhosseini, and H. Butt, Adv. Mater. 30, 1706910 (2018).
[Crossref]

Van Hoe, B.

Van Steenberge, G.

Vanfleteren, J.

Vetrone, F.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vogel, N.

A. Leber, B. Cholst, J. Sandt, N. Vogel, and M. Kolle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1802629 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. L.

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wood, R. J.

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, K.

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

J. Guo, B. Zhou, C. Yang, Q. Dai, and L. Kong, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1902898 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, M. Niu, and C. Yang, Optica 4, 1285 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yao, S.

S. Yao and Y. Zhu, Nanoscale 6, 2345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeo, J. C.

J. C. Yeo and C. T. Lim, Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16043 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yetisen, A. K.

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, B. Ünal, A. Khademhosseini, and H. Butt, Adv. Mater. 30, 1706910 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yomogida, Y.

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Young, D.

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Young, R. J.

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, R.

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. H.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yuk, H.

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zamarrón, A.

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zang, Y.

F. Zhang, Y. Zang, D. Huang, C. A. Di, and D. Zhu, Nat. Commun. 6, 8356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhai, J.

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, Y. Zang, D. Huang, C. A. Di, and D. Zhu, Nat. Commun. 6, 8356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F. R.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H. Y.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, B.

J. Guo, B. Zhou, C. Yang, Q. Dai, and L. Kong, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1902898 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

F. Zhang, Y. Zang, D. Huang, C. A. Di, and D. Zhu, Nat. Commun. 6, 8356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H. W.

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

S. Yao and Y. Zhu, Nanoscale 6, 2345 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Vetrone, R. Naccache, A. Zamarrón, A. J. de la Fuente, F. Sanz-Rodríguez, L. M. Maestro, E. M. Rodriguez, D. Jaque, J. G. Solé, and J. A. Capobianco, ACS Nano 4, 3254 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Eng. Mater. (1)

P. Polygerinos, N. Correll, S. A. Morin, B. Mosadegh, C. D. Onal, K. Petersen, M. Cianchetti, M. T. Tolley, and R. F. Shepherd, Adv. Eng. Mater. 19, 1700016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (3)

X. Liao, Q. Liao, Z. Zhang, X. Yan, Q. Liang, Q. Wang, M. Li, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 3074 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Leber, B. Cholst, J. Sandt, N. Vogel, and M. Kolle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1802629 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Guo, B. Zhou, C. Yang, Q. Dai, and L. Kong, Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1902898 (2019).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (5)

J. Guo, X. Liu, N. Jiang, A. K. Yetisen, H. Yuk, C. Yang, A. Khademhosseini, X. Zhao, and S. H. Yun, Adv. Mater. 28, 10244 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ge, L. Sun, F. R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, L. A. Shi, H. Y. Zhao, H. W. Zhu, H. L. Jiang, and S. H. Yu, Adv. Mater. 28, 722 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Li, E. Gao, M. Jian, K. Xia, Q. Wang, Z. Xu, T. Ren, and Y. Zhang, Adv. Mater. 28, 6640 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Q. Trung and N. E. Lee, Adv. Mater. 28, 4338 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. K. Yetisen, J. L. Martinez-Hurtado, B. Ünal, A. Khademhosseini, and H. Butt, Adv. Mater. 30, 1706910 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

N. Jiang, R. Ahmed, A. A. Rifat, J. Guo, Y. Yin, Y. Montelongo, H. Butt, and A. K. Yetisen, Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bioinspiration Biomimetics (1)

Y. L. Park, B. R. Chen, N. O. Pérez-Arancibia, D. Young, L. Stirling, R. J. Wood, E. C. Goldfield, and R. Nagpal, Bioinspiration Biomimetics 9, 016007 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

M. Chen, Y. Ma, and M. Li, Mater. Lett. 114, 80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Microsyst. Nanoeng. (1)

J. C. Yeo and C. T. Lim, Microsyst. Nanoeng. 2, 16043 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

S. Yao and Y. Zhu, Nanoscale 6, 2345 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (3)

Q. Hua, J. Sun, H. Liu, R. Bao, R. Yu, J. Zhai, C. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, Nat. Commun. 9, 244 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, W. Feng, J. Chang, Y. W. Tan, J. Li, M. Chen, Y. Sun, and F. Li, Nat. Commun. 7, 10437 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Zhang, Y. Zang, D. Huang, C. A. Di, and D. Zhu, Nat. Commun. 6, 8356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

T. Yamada, Y. Hayamizu, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Yomogida, A. Izadi-Najafabadi, D. N. Futaba, and K. Hata, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 296 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Science (1)

C. S. Boland, U. Khan, G. Ryan, S. Barwich, R. Charifou, A. Harvey, C. Backes, Z. Li, M. S. Ferreira, M. E. Möbius, R. J. Young, and J. N. Coleman, Science 354, 1257 (2016).
[Crossref]

Soft Rob. (1)

N. Lu and D. H. Kim, Soft Rob. 1, 53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) TEM image of the ${{\rm NaYF}_4}\!:\!{\rm Yb},{\rm Er}$ at ${{\rm NaYF}_4}$ core-shell UCNPs. (b) EDXA of the synthesized core-shell UCNPs. (c) Incorporation of the core-shell UCNPs in PDMS fiber. The UCNP-loaded region showed visible UCL emissions when the 980 nm laser was launched. Top, laser off; bottom, laser on; (d) Stress–strain curves of the PDMS and UCNP-PDMS fiber, respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Optical setup for multifunctional sensing based on the SMOS. (b) UCL spectra of the SMOS at various temperatures. (c) Dependence of ${\rm ln}({I_{525}}/{I_{545}})$ on the inverse temperature (${1/}T$), measured under various tensile strains up to 80%. (d) A cycling test when the temperature was periodically changed between 30°C and various settings (i.e., 40°C, 60°C, and 80°C).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) IR thermogram of the fingers taken by a calibrated IR camera. (b) Response of the SMOS to repeated touching-removing cycles of a human finger. (c) Zoom-in readout of the SMOS to finger touching. The right axis shows the calibrated inverse value of the absolute temperature (${1/}T$).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Photographs showing ${2\times}$ stretching of a luminescent SMOS. (b) UCL spectra of the SMOS under stretching. Inset shows the temperature readout, ${\rm ln}({I_{525}}/{I_{545}})$, which is strain-independent. (c) Normalized UCL intensities at 525 nm versus tensile strain during both the stretching-relaxing cycle. (d) Normalized UCL intensities at 525 nm as a function of temperature under strains of 0% and 80%, respectively. (e) Long-term stability of the UCL emissions, where the SMOS was kept at a constant temperature of 35°C. (f) 5000 cycles of loading/unloading cycles with a maximum strain of 60%, showing long-term durability.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Integration of the SMOS in an elastic kneepad to monitor knee-related motions. (b) Strain response to knee motions of flexion/extension, marching, jogging, jumping, and squatting-jumping. (c) Photograph of the SMOS attached on the skin of a finger joint for simultaneous detection of skin temperature and finger motion. Inset shows a photograph of finger bending. (d) Simultaneous temperature and strain response of the SMOS during finger wagging.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 525 I 545 exp ( Δ E / k T ) ,

Metrics