## Abstract

In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) can offer information-theoretic secure communication based on the laws of quantum mechanics. However, the vast majority of practical QKD implementations assume the perfect state preparation to ensure security, which is a demanding requirement with current technology. Here, by incorporating the mismatched-basis data, we report an experimental decoy-state QKD demonstration with uncharacterized encoding sources, which only requires that the encoding states are two-dimensional. Furthermore, the measurement operation of the receiver is loosened to be projective measurements. With a rigorous statistical fluctuation analysis, we can distribute secret keys when the transmission distances of the standard fiber link are 101 and 202 km. Our experimental demonstration represents a significant step toward realizing long-distance quantum communication, even with uncharacterized sources and projective measurements.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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