Abstract

Shot-noise-limited Doppler-broadened (Db) noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) has been realized by implementation of balanced detection. A characterization of the system based on Allan–Werle plots of the absorption coefficient, retrieved by fitting a model function to data, shows that the system has a white noise equivalent absorption per unit length per square root of bandwidth of 2.3×1013  cm1Hz1/2, solely 44% above the shot noise limit, and a detection sensitivity of 2.2×1014  cm1 over 200 s, both being unprecedented for Db NICE-OHMS. The white noise response follows the expected inverse square root dependence on power that is representative of a shot-noise-limited response, which confirms that the system is shot-noise-limited.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (2)

2016 (2)

W. G. Ma, I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 168, 217 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Ma, W. Yang, Y. Wang, and Y. Zheng, Opt. Lett. 41, 3331 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (3)

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2797 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 24, 1392 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 15, 10822 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. J. van Leeuwen and A. C. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1713 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. El Hachtouki and J. Vander Auwera, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 355 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. G. Devoe and R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

Axner, O.

G. Zhao, T. Hausmaninger, W. G. Ma, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 25, 29454 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, and O. Axner, Opt. Lett. 42, 3109 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. G. Ma, I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 168, 217 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 2104 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, Opt. Lett. 40, 2004 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Centeno, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, O. Axner, and F. J. M. Harren, Opt. Express 23, 6277 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, W. Ma, F. J. M. Harren, and O. Axner, Opt. Lett. 40, 439 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Ehlers, A. C. Johansson, I. Silander, A. Foltynowicz, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 2938 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 2051 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Ehlers, I. Silander, J. Wang, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 1305 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Silander, P. Ehlers, J. Wang, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 916 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 2797 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, J. Wang, P. Ehlers, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 18, 18580 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 16, 14689 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 15, 10822 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 24, 1392 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Axner, P. Ehlers, A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and J. Wang, in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy and Sensing (Springer, 2014), p. 211.

Bell, C. L.

Benko, C.

Bood, J.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. Devoe and R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[Crossref]

Cannon, B. D.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[Crossref]

Centeno, R.

Chen, T.-L.

Cole, G. D.

Cristescu, S. M.

Devoe, R. G.

R. G. Devoe and R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[Crossref]

Dubé, P.

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dubé, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255 (1999).
[Crossref]

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dubé, and J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectrosc. XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, and A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, 1995), pp. 199–203.

Ehlers, P.

El Hachtouki, R.

R. El Hachtouki and J. Vander Auwera, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 355 (2002).
[Crossref]

Foltynowicz, A.

Fox, R. W.

Gianfrani, L.

Hagemann, C.

Hall, J. L.

Hancock, G.

Harren, F. J. M.

Hausmaninger, T.

Hollberg, L.

Johansson, A. C.

Kreckel, H.

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Legero, T.

Li, Z.

Liu, Y.-W.

Lock, T.

Ma, L. S.

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dubé, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2255 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 6 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dubé, and J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectrosc. XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, and A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, 1995), pp. 199–203.

Ma, W.

Ma, W. G.

G. Zhao, T. Hausmaninger, W. G. Ma, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 25, 29454 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. G. Ma, I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 168, 217 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mandon, J.

Martin, M. J.

McCall, B. J.

M. W. Porambo, B. M. Siller, J. M. Pearson, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Lett. 37, 4422 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[Crossref]

McIlroy, A.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mills, A. A.

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mucke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[Crossref]

Myers, T. L.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[Crossref]

Osborn, D. L.

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pearson, J. M.

Perera, M.

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peverall, R.

Porambo, M. W.

M. W. Porambo, B. M. Siller, J. M. Pearson, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Lett. 37, 4422 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Riehle, F.

Ritchie, G. A. D.

Schmidt, F. M.

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 24, 1392 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, T. Lock, and O. Axner, Opt. Express 15, 10822 (2007).
[Crossref]

Silander, I.

Siller, B. M.

M. W. Porambo, B. M. Siller, J. M. Pearson, and B. J. McCall, Opt. Lett. 37, 4422 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sterr, U.

Taubman, M. S.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Helden, J. H.

van Leeuwen, N. J.

Vander Auwera, J.

R. El Hachtouki and J. Vander Auwera, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 355 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. M.

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wilson, A. C.

Yang, W.

Ye, J.

Zhang, W.

Zhao, G.

Zheng, Y.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Werle, R. Mucke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. Bood, A. McIlroy, and D. L. Osborn, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 084311 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. A. Mills, B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, M. Perera, H. Kreckel, and B. J. McCall, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 224201 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

R. El Hachtouki and J. Vander Auwera, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 216, 355 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

F. M. Schmidt, A. Foltynowicz, W. Ma, and O. Axner, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 24, 1392 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (10)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

W. G. Ma, I. Silander, T. Hausmaninger, and O. Axner, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 168, 217 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. G. Devoe and R. G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2827 (1984).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

M. S. Taubman, T. L. Myers, B. D. Cannon, and R. M. Williams, Spectrochim. Acta Part A 60, 3457 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

“The HITRAN database,” http://www.hitran.com .

L. S. Ma, J. Ye, P. Dubé, and J. L. Hall, in Laser Spectrosc. XII, M. Inguscio, M. Allegrini, and A. Sasso, eds. (World Scientific, 1995), pp. 199–203.

O. Axner, P. Ehlers, A. Foltynowicz, I. Silander, and J. Wang, in Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy and Sensing (Springer, 2014), p. 211.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. EDFL, erbium-doped fiber laser; f -AOM, fiber-coupled acousto-optic modulator; f -POL, fiber-coupled polarizer; f -EOM, fiber-coupled electro-optic modulator; f -C, fiber collimator; ISO, isolator; λ / 2 , half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ / 4 , quarter-wave plate; PD 1 3 , photodiodes; DBM, double-balanced mixer; Sub, subtraction performed in the software.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Red curves: the variation of the NICE-OHMS background signal from an empty cavity by (a) conventional detection (i.e., in transmission) and (b) the balanced detection methodology expressed as the difference between two measurements performed at different time instances, separated by 4 h. Black curves: fits of the Db response.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Two uppermost curves (black and red) display the Allan deviation of the absorption coefficient retrieved by fitting a model function of Db NICE-OHMS to data measured in transmission and by the use of balanced detection, respectively. The corresponding dashed lines show the white noise responses. The solitary dashed line (blue) represents the shot-noise-limited response. The lowermost curve (cyan) shows the detector noise for the balanced mode of detection.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Allan–Werle plots of balanced-detection NICE-OHMS for three powers. (b) Individual markers: the white noise as a function of transmitted power; solid curve, a fit of the expected shot-noise-limited power dependence. The data represent the net Allan deviations when the contribution from electronic noise has been deducted.

Equations (1)

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α SN , bal min = π F L 2 γ J 0 J 1 κ e Δ f η A 1 + ρ ρ 1 P t ,

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