Abstract

We present a non-destructive optical technique for rare-earth-doped optical fiber preform inspection, which combines luminescence spectroscopy measurements, analyzed through an optical tomography technique, and ray-deflection measurements for calculating the refractive-index profile (RIP) of the sample. We demonstrate the technique on an optical fiber preform sample with a Yb3+-doped aluminosilicate core. The spatial distribution of the photoluminescence signals originating from Yb3+-single ions and from Yb3+-Yb3+ cluster sites were obtained inside the core. By modifying the characterization system, we were able to concurrently evaluate the RIP of the core and, thus, establish with good accuracy the dopant distribution within the core region. This technique will be useful for quality evaluation and optimization of optical fiber preforms.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Nondestructive measurement of an optical fiber refractive-index profile by a transmitted-light differential interference contact microscope

Zhongyao Liu, Xiaoman Dong, Qianghua Chen, Chunyong Yin, Yuxian Xu, and Yingjun Zheng
Appl. Opt. 43(7) 1485-1492 (2004)

Multifocus tomographic algorithm for measuring optically thick specimens

Andrew D. Yablon
Opt. Lett. 38(21) 4393-4396 (2013)

Controlled modification and direct characterization of multimode-fiber refractive-index profiles

Brant C. Gibson, Shane T. Huntington, John D. Love, Tom G. Ryan, Laurence W. Cahill, and Darrell M. Elton
Appl. Opt. 42(4) 627-633 (2003)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0904123 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, Opt. Express 16, 15540 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. D. Yablon and J. Jasapara, Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011V (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Okoshi, M. Nishimura, and M. Kosuge, Electron. Lett. 16, 722 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 16, 219 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. M. Presby and D. Marcuse, Appl. Opt. 18, 671 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Saha, A. Pal, and R. Sen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 58 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. R. Marciante, R. G. Roides, V. V. Shkunov, and D. A. Rockwell, Opt. Lett. 35, 1828 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Yung, Q. Kang, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, B. Inan, M. Kuschnerov, V. Veljanovski, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, Z. Li, P. S. Teh, A. Dhar, J. Sahu, F. Poletti, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 21, 10383 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Hino, T. Aono, M. Nakajima, and S. Yuta, Appl. Opt. 26, 4742 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Uchiyama, M. Nakajima, and S. Yuta, Appl. Opt. 24, 4111 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. D. Yablon, Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141N (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Bracewell, Fourier Analysis and Imaging (Springer, 2003).
  16. S. R. Deans, The Transforms and Applications Handbook, A. D. Poularikas, ed., 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2000).
  17. D. Marcuse, Appl. Opt. 18, 9 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. M. Vest, Appl. Opt. 14, 1601 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Nilsson, R. Paschotta, J. E. Caplen, and D. C. Hanna, Opt. Lett. 22, 1092 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. S. Quimby, T. F. Morse, R. L. Shubochkin, and S. Ramachandran, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 12 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. Q. Kang, E.-L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 20, 20835 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. E. Ip, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1933 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Askarov and J. M. Kahn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1945 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, Opt. Lett. 37, 2382 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Robin, I. Dajani, and B. Pulford, Opt. Lett. 39, 666 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0904123 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Saha, A. Pal, and R. Sen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Robin, I. Dajani, and B. Pulford, Opt. Lett. 39, 666 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Kang, E.-L. Lim, Y. Jung, J. K. Sahu, F. Poletti, C. Baskiotis, S. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 20, 20835 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Ip, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1933 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Askarov and J. M. Kahn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1945 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, Opt. Lett. 37, 2382 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. D. Yablon, Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141N (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. R. Marciante, R. G. Roides, V. V. Shkunov, and D. A. Rockwell, Opt. Lett. 35, 1828 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

R. S. Quimby, T. F. Morse, R. L. Shubochkin, and S. Ramachandran, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 12 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

1980 (2)

T. Okoshi, M. Nishimura, and M. Kosuge, Electron. Lett. 16, 722 (1980).
[Crossref]

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 16, 219 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

1975 (1)

Adams, M. J.

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 16, 219 (1980).
[Crossref]

Alam, S.

Alam, S. U.

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Aono, T.

Askarov, D.

D. Askarov and J. M. Kahn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1945 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baskiotis, C.

Bracewell, R.

R. Bracewell, Fourier Analysis and Imaging (Springer, 2003).

Broeng, J.

Byer, R. L.

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Caplen, J. E.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Codemard, C. A.

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0904123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Corbett, B.

Dajani, I.

Deans, S. R.

S. R. Deans, The Transforms and Applications Handbook, A. D. Poularikas, ed., 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2000).

Dhar, A.

Forrest, S. R.

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

Hansen, K. R.

Hino, M.

Inan, B.

Ip, E.

E. Ip, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1933 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jasapara, J.

A. D. Yablon and J. Jasapara, Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011V (2013).
[Crossref]

Jetschke, S.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, Opt. Express 16, 15540 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y.

Kahn, J. M.

D. Askarov and J. M. Kahn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1945 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kang, Q.

Kirchhof, J.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, Opt. Express 16, 15540 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Knappe, B.

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kogelnik, H.

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kokki, T.

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koponen, J.

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kosuge, M.

T. Okoshi, M. Nishimura, and M. Kosuge, Electron. Lett. 16, 722 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kressel, H.

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuschnerov, M.

Lægsgaard, J.

Laurila, M.

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leich, M.

Li, Z.

Lim, E.-L.

Marciante, J. R.

Marcuse, D.

Morse, T. F.

R. S. Quimby, T. F. Morse, R. L. Shubochkin, and S. Ramachandran, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, M.

Nilsson, J.

Nishimura, M.

T. Okoshi, M. Nishimura, and M. Kosuge, Electron. Lett. 16, 722 (1980).
[Crossref]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, M. Nishimura, and M. Kosuge, Electron. Lett. 16, 722 (1980).
[Crossref]

Pal, A.

M. Saha, A. Pal, and R. Sen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

Payne, D. N.

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 16, 219 (1980).
[Crossref]

Poletti, F.

Presby, H. M.

Pulford, B.

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, T. F. Morse, R. L. Shubochkin, and S. Ramachandran, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

R. S. Quimby, T. F. Morse, R. L. Shubochkin, and S. Ramachandran, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Robin, C.

Rockwell, D. A.

Roides, R. G.

Saha, M.

M. Saha, A. Pal, and R. Sen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J.

Sahu, J. K.

Sasaki, I.

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 16, 219 (1980).
[Crossref]

Schwuchow, A.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, Opt. Express 16, 15540 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sen, R.

M. Saha, A. Pal, and R. Sen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shkunov, V. V.

Shubochkin, R. L.

R. S. Quimby, T. F. Morse, R. L. Shubochkin, and S. Ramachandran, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 12 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

Tearney, G. J.

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Teh, P. S.

Townes, C. H.

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uchiyama, H.

Unger, S.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and J. Kirchhof, Opt. Express 16, 15540 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Veljanovski, V.

Vest, C. M.

Willner, A. E.

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winfield, R.

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon and J. Jasapara, Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011V (2013).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yablon, Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141N (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, C.

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yung, Y.

Yuta, S.

Zervas, M. N.

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0904123 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Okoshi, M. Nishimura, and M. Kosuge, Electron. Lett. 16, 722 (1980).
[Crossref]

I. Sasaki, D. N. Payne, and M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 16, 219 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. S. Quimby, T. F. Morse, R. L. Shubochkin, and S. Ramachandran, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 12 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. N. Zervas and C. A. Codemard, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 0904123 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Saha, A. Pal, and R. Sen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 58 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Ip, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1933 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Askarov and J. M. Kahn, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1945 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. E. Willner, R. L. Byer, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, S. R. Forrest, H. Kressel, H. Kogelnik, G. J. Tearney, C. H. Townes, and M. N. Zervas, Proc. IEEE 100, 1604 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

T. Kokki, J. Koponen, M. Laurila, and C. Ye, Proc. SPIE 7580, 758016 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yablon, Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141N (2011).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yablon and J. Jasapara, Proc. SPIE 8601, 86011V (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, and B. Knappe, Proc. SPIE 5350, 222 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. Bracewell, Fourier Analysis and Imaging (Springer, 2003).

S. R. Deans, The Transforms and Applications Handbook, A. D. Poularikas, ed., 2nd ed. (CRC Press, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup for combined measurements of an ADP and RIP (RIP) in optical fiber preforms. (BP, bandpass; WL, white light; L, lens.)
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) CCD image of the displacement highlighted by a knife-edge spatial filter, (b) parameters used for the deflection angle derivation, (c) the deflection angle function, and (d) the derived Δ n core-cladding refractive-index difference.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison between the RIP obtained by our technique and a set of curves derived from measurements on the same preform by a typical industrial refractive-index profiler (PK 2600).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Transversal profile extracted from the PL signal images acquired at 1050 (NIR) and 500 nm (VIS). The associated CCD images are shown as insets.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Power laser excitation dependence of the PL intensity in (a) the NIR and (b) the VIS range.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Radial Yb 3 + -emission profile, calculated by the application of an inverse Abel transform operation, related to the Yb 3 + -ion and Yb 3 + - Yb 3 + cluster PL.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ ( x ) = d ( x ) tan ( α ) L ,
n ( r ) = n 0 [ 1 1 π r a ϕ ˜ ( x ) ( x 2 r 2 ) 1 / 2 d x ] .
ϕ ˜ = sin 1 [ 1 n 0 sin ϕ ]

Metrics