Abstract

We report the measurement of waveguide-enhanced Raman spectra from trace concentrations of four vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants: dimethyl methylphosphonate, diethyl methylphosphonate, trimethyl phosphate, and triethyl phosphate. The spectra are obtained using highly evanescent nanophotonic silicon nitride waveguides coated with a naturally reversible hyperbranched carbosilane sorbent polymer and exhibit extrapolated one-σ detection limits as low as 5 ppb. We use a finite-element model to explain the polarization and wavelength properties of the differential spectra. In addition, we assign spectral features to both the analyte and the sorbent, and show evidence of changes to both due to hydrogen bonding.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Trace gas Raman spectroscopy using functionalized waveguides

Scott A. Holmstrom, Todd H. Stievater, Dmitry A. Kozak, Marcel W. Pruessner, Nathan Tyndall, William S. Rabinovich, R. Andrew McGill, and Jacob B. Khurgin
Optica 3(8) 891-896 (2016)

Trace gas absorption spectroscopy using functionalized microring resonators

Todd H. Stievater, Marcel W. Pruessner, Doewon Park, William S. Rabinovich, R. Andrew McGill, Dmitry A. Kozak, Robert Furstenberg, Scott A. Holmstrom, and Jacob B. Khurgin
Opt. Lett. 39(4) 969-972 (2014)

Micromechanical photothermal spectroscopy of trace gases using functionalized polymers

T. H. Stievater, N. A. Papanicolaou, R. Bass, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill
Opt. Lett. 37(12) 2328-2330 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Salter, J. Chu, and M. Hippler, Analyst 137, 4669 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Hanf, R. Keiner, D. Yan, J. Popp, and T. Frosch, Anal. Chem. 86, 5278 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 39, 4025 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. C. Wuytens, A. G. Skirtach, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 25, 12926 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Dhakal, P. C. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, K. Jans, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, ACS Photonics 3, 2141 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Zhao, S. Clemmen, A. Raza, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 43, 1403 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Materials 10, 140 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. L. Thomas, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, F. Peyskens, and R. Baets, Optica 5, 328 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. McGill, J. Polym. Sci. A 48, 3000 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201922 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Anutgan, T. A. Anutgan, I. Atilgan, and B. Katircioglu, J. Lumin. 131, 1305 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Galeener and J. M. Mikkelsen, Solid State Commun. 37, 719 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  14. “FT-IR Raman,” 2017, https://www.sigmaaldrich.com .
  15. T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. D. Christesen, Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 318 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Mortimer, Spectrochimica Acta 9, 270 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  18. H. P. DeLong, “The infrared and Raman spectra of isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate (gb),” (1971).
  19. K. Taga, N. Hirabayashi, T. Yoshida, and H. Okabayashi, J. Mol. Struct. 212, 157 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. A. Carter, C. S.-C. Wang, and J. M. Shreeve, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 29, 1479 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 64, 075414 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. H. Abraham, J. Phys. Org. Chem. 6, 660 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (3)

H. Zhao, S. Clemmen, A. Raza, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 43, 1403 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. L. Thomas, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, F. Peyskens, and R. Baets, Optica 5, 328 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Materials 10, 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wuytens, A. G. Skirtach, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 25, 12926 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

A. Dhakal, P. C. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, K. Jans, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, ACS Photonics 3, 2141 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2012 (1)

R. Salter, J. Chu, and M. Hippler, Analyst 137, 4669 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

M. Anutgan, T. A. Anutgan, I. Atilgan, and B. Katircioglu, J. Lumin. 131, 1305 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. McGill, J. Polym. Sci. A 48, 3000 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201922 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 64, 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. H. Abraham, J. Phys. Org. Chem. 6, 660 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

K. Taga, N. Hirabayashi, T. Yoshida, and H. Okabayashi, J. Mol. Struct. 212, 157 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1981 (1)

F. Galeener and J. M. Mikkelsen, Solid State Commun. 37, 719 (1981).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

H. A. Carter, C. S.-C. Wang, and J. M. Shreeve, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 29, 1479 (1973).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

F. Mortimer, Spectrochimica Acta 9, 270 (1957).
[Crossref]

Abraham, M. H.

M. H. Abraham, J. Phys. Org. Chem. 6, 660 (1993).
[Crossref]

Anutgan, M.

M. Anutgan, T. A. Anutgan, I. Atilgan, and B. Katircioglu, J. Lumin. 131, 1305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anutgan, T. A.

M. Anutgan, T. A. Anutgan, I. Atilgan, and B. Katircioglu, J. Lumin. 131, 1305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Atilgan, I.

M. Anutgan, T. A. Anutgan, I. Atilgan, and B. Katircioglu, J. Lumin. 131, 1305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Carter, H. A.

H. A. Carter, C. S.-C. Wang, and J. M. Shreeve, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 29, 1479 (1973).
[Crossref]

Christesen, S. D.

Chu, J.

R. Salter, J. Chu, and M. Hippler, Analyst 137, 4669 (2012).
[Crossref]

Clemmen, S.

Dekkers, H. F. W.

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201922 (2007).
[Crossref]

DeLong, H. P.

H. P. DeLong, “The infrared and Raman spectra of isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate (gb),” (1971).

Dhakal, A.

N. L. Thomas, A. Dhakal, A. Raza, F. Peyskens, and R. Baets, Optica 5, 328 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Materials 10, 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, P. C. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, K. Jans, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, ACS Photonics 3, 2141 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 39, 4025 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 64, 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

Frosch, T.

S. Hanf, R. Keiner, D. Yan, J. Popp, and T. Frosch, Anal. Chem. 86, 5278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Galeener, F.

F. Galeener and J. M. Mikkelsen, Solid State Commun. 37, 719 (1981).
[Crossref]

Goetz, P. G.

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

Hanf, S.

S. Hanf, R. Keiner, D. Yan, J. Popp, and T. Frosch, Anal. Chem. 86, 5278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hao, H. L.

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201922 (2007).
[Crossref]

Higgins, B. A.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. McGill, J. Polym. Sci. A 48, 3000 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hippler, M.

R. Salter, J. Chu, and M. Hippler, Analyst 137, 4669 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hirabayashi, N.

K. Taga, N. Hirabayashi, T. Yoshida, and H. Okabayashi, J. Mol. Struct. 212, 157 (1989).
[Crossref]

Holmstrom, S. A.

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

Houser, E. J.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. McGill, J. Polym. Sci. A 48, 3000 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jans, K.

A. Dhakal, P. C. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, K. Jans, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, ACS Photonics 3, 2141 (2016).
[Crossref]

Katircioglu, B.

M. Anutgan, T. A. Anutgan, I. Atilgan, and B. Katircioglu, J. Lumin. 131, 1305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Keiner, R.

S. Hanf, R. Keiner, D. Yan, J. Popp, and T. Frosch, Anal. Chem. 86, 5278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khurgin, J. B.

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kohl, J. G.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. McGill, J. Polym. Sci. A 48, 3000 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koo, K.

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

Kozak, D. A.

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

Le Thomas, N.

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Materials 10, 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

McGill, R. A.

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. McGill, J. Polym. Sci. A 48, 3000 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mikkelsen, J. M.

F. Galeener and J. M. Mikkelsen, Solid State Commun. 37, 719 (1981).
[Crossref]

Mortimer, F.

F. Mortimer, Spectrochimica Acta 9, 270 (1957).
[Crossref]

Okabayashi, H.

K. Taga, N. Hirabayashi, T. Yoshida, and H. Okabayashi, J. Mol. Struct. 212, 157 (1989).
[Crossref]

Peyskens, F.

Popp, J.

S. Hanf, R. Keiner, D. Yan, J. Popp, and T. Frosch, Anal. Chem. 86, 5278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pruessner, M. W.

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rabinovich, W. S.

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
[Crossref]

Raza, A.

Robertson, J.

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 64, 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

Salter, R.

R. Salter, J. Chu, and M. Hippler, Analyst 137, 4669 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, W. Z.

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201922 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shreeve, J. M.

H. A. Carter, C. S.-C. Wang, and J. M. Shreeve, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 29, 1479 (1973).
[Crossref]

Simonson, D. L.

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. McGill, J. Polym. Sci. A 48, 3000 (2010).
[Crossref]

Skirtach, A. G.

Stievater, T. H.

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

S. A. Holmstrom, T. H. Stievater, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, N. Tyndall, W. S. Rabinovich, R. A. McGill, and J. B. Khurgin, Optica 3, 891 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

Subramanian, A. Z.

Taga, K.

K. Taga, N. Hirabayashi, T. Yoshida, and H. Okabayashi, J. Mol. Struct. 212, 157 (1989).
[Crossref]

Thomas, N. L.

Tyndall, N.

Tyndall, N. F.

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. S.-C.

H. A. Carter, C. S.-C. Wang, and J. M. Shreeve, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 29, 1479 (1973).
[Crossref]

Wu, L. K.

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201922 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wuytens, P.

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Materials 10, 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, A. Z. Subramanian, P. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 39, 4025 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wuytens, P. C.

P. C. Wuytens, A. G. Skirtach, and R. Baets, Opt. Express 25, 12926 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dhakal, P. C. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, K. Jans, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, ACS Photonics 3, 2141 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, D.

S. Hanf, R. Keiner, D. Yan, J. Popp, and T. Frosch, Anal. Chem. 86, 5278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, T.

K. Taga, N. Hirabayashi, T. Yoshida, and H. Okabayashi, J. Mol. Struct. 212, 157 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

ACS Photonics (1)

A. Dhakal, P. C. Wuytens, F. Peyskens, K. Jans, N. L. Thomas, and R. Baets, ACS Photonics 3, 2141 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Hanf, R. Keiner, D. Yan, J. Popp, and T. Frosch, Anal. Chem. 86, 5278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Analyst (1)

R. Salter, J. Chu, and M. Hippler, Analyst 137, 4669 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. L. Hao, L. K. Wu, W. Z. Shen, and H. F. W. Dekkers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201922 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

M. Anutgan, T. A. Anutgan, I. Atilgan, and B. Katircioglu, J. Lumin. 131, 1305 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

K. Taga, N. Hirabayashi, T. Yoshida, and H. Okabayashi, J. Mol. Struct. 212, 157 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Org. Chem. (1)

M. H. Abraham, J. Phys. Org. Chem. 6, 660 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. A (1)

B. A. Higgins, D. L. Simonson, E. J. Houser, J. G. Kohl, and R. A. McGill, J. Polym. Sci. A 48, 3000 (2010).
[Crossref]

Materials (1)

A. Dhakal, P. Wuytens, A. Raza, N. Le Thomas, and R. Baets, Materials 10, 140 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, Phys. Rev. B 64, 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. H. Stievater, J. B. Khurgin, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, M. W. Pruessner, W. S. Rabinovich, and R. A. McGill, Proc. SPIE 9824, 982404 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Stievater, K. Koo, N. F. Tyndall, S. A. Holmstrom, D. A. Kozak, P. G. Goetz, R. A. McGill, and M. W. Pruessner, Proc. SPIE 10510, 105100I (2018).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

F. Galeener and J. M. Mikkelsen, Solid State Commun. 37, 719 (1981).
[Crossref]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part A (1)

H. A. Carter, C. S.-C. Wang, and J. M. Shreeve, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A 29, 1479 (1973).
[Crossref]

Spectrochimica Acta (1)

F. Mortimer, Spectrochimica Acta 9, 270 (1957).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

H. P. DeLong, “The infrared and Raman spectra of isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate (gb),” (1971).

“FT-IR Raman,” 2017, https://www.sigmaaldrich.com .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Top, an SEM image of a waveguide facet, shown after etching and metalization (to enhance image contrast); bottom, the waveguide sample in the measurement setup. BPF, bandpass filter; LPF, long-pass filter; LP, Linear polarizer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Measured background spectra for the three different pumping conditions. The arrows show the primary Raman lines from the sorbent. Finite-element surface plots of the longitudinal component of the Poynting vector for the TE 00 mode pumped at 785 nm (b), the TM 00 mode pumped at 785 nm (c), and the TE 00 mode pumped at 1064 nm (d).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured differential Raman spectra of (a) DMMP, (b) TMP, (c) DEMP, and (d) TEP compared to reference liquid-phase Raman spectra [14].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured differential peak signal strength, along with a linear fit, and one- σ spectral noise versus analyte concentration for each analyte.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Hydrogen bonding between the sorbent (HCSFA2) and analyte (TEP) molecules.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = P s / P p = ν s σ N L β ν p ,

Metrics