Abstract

We demonstrate a highly sensitive and stable fiber-optic Fabry–Perot cantilever microphone based on fast demodulated white-light interferometry. The cavity length of the low-finesse Fabry–Perot interferometry is absolutely measured by realizing a high-speed demodulation method utilizing a full spectrum, with the advantages of both high resolution and large dynamic range. An acoustic test demonstrates high sensitivities and linear responsivities at frequencies below 2 kHz. The pressure responsivity and the noise-limited minimum detectable acoustic pressure level are measured to be 211.2 nm/Pa and 5  μPa/Hz1/2, respectively, at the frequency of 1 kHz. Comparative experimental results show that the signal-to-noise ratio is over 10 times higher than a reference condenser microphone.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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[Crossref]

F. Xu, J. Shi, K. Gong, H. Li, R. Hui, and B. Yu, Opt. Lett. 39, 2838 (2014).
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N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

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F. Huber, H. P. Lang, N. Backmann, D. Rimoldi, and C. Gerber, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 125 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, W. Jin, Y. Yang, and S. Fan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 932 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

Q. Yu and X. Zhou, Photon. Sens. 1, 72 (2011).
[Crossref]

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H. I. Rasool, P. R. Wilkinson, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023703 (2010).
[Crossref]

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B. D. Adamson, J. E. Sader, and E. J. Bieske, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114510 (2009).
[Crossref]

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V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[Crossref]

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M. Han, Y. Zhang, F. Shen, G. R. Pickrell, and A. Wang, Opt. Lett. 29, 1736 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, Microchem. J. 76, 151 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. S. Lee and R. M. White, J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 230 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adams, J. D.

M. Dukic, J. D. Adams, and G. E. Fantner, Sci. Rep. 5, 16393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adamson, B. D.

B. D. Adamson, J. E. Sader, and E. J. Bieske, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Backmann, N.

F. Huber, H. P. Lang, N. Backmann, D. Rimoldi, and C. Gerber, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bieske, E. J.

B. D. Adamson, J. E. Sader, and E. J. Bieske, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cakmak, O.

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carpentier, S.

M. V. Vitorino, S. Carpentier, L. Costa, and S. R. Mario, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 013106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cattaneo, H.

Chen, C.

Chen, K.

Z. Gong, K. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Zhou, W. Peng, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B 247, 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B.

Costa, L.

M. V. Vitorino, S. Carpentier, L. Costa, and S. R. Mario, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 013106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dukic, M.

M. Dukic, J. D. Adams, and G. E. Fantner, Sci. Rep. 5, 16393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ermek, E.

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

J. Ma, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, W. Jin, Y. Yang, and S. Fan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 932 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fantner, G. E.

M. Dukic, J. D. Adams, and G. E. Fantner, Sci. Rep. 5, 16393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fink, T.

Fonsen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gerber, C.

F. Huber, H. P. Lang, N. Backmann, D. Rimoldi, and C. Gerber, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gimzewski, J. K.

H. I. Rasool, P. R. Wilkinson, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gong, K.

Gong, Z.

Z. Gong, K. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Zhou, W. Peng, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B 247, 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, F.

Han, M.

Hernberg, R.

Hieta, T.

Ho, H. L.

J. Ma, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, W. Jin, Y. Yang, and S. Fan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 932 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Huber, F.

F. Huber, H. P. Lang, N. Backmann, D. Rimoldi, and C. Gerber, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hui, R.

Jin, W.

J. Ma, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, W. Jin, Y. Yang, and S. Fan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 932 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kauppinen, I.

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, Microchem. J. 76, 151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kauppinen, J.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Laurila, H. Cattaneo, V. Koskinen, J. Kauppinen, and R. Hernberg, Opt. Express 13, 2453 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, Microchem. J. 76, 151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kilinc, N.

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koester, L.

Kosemen, A.

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koskinen, V.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Laurila, H. Cattaneo, V. Koskinen, J. Kauppinen, and R. Hernberg, Opt. Express 13, 2453 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, Microchem. J. 76, 151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lang, H. P.

F. Huber, H. P. Lang, N. Backmann, D. Rimoldi, and C. Gerber, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laurila, T.

Lee, S. S.

S. S. Lee and R. M. White, J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 230 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lei, J.

Li, H.

Liu, J.

Ma, J.

J. Ma, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, W. Jin, Y. Yang, and S. Fan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 932 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mao, X.

X. Mao, X. Zhou, and Q. Yu, Opt. Commun. 361, 17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mario, S. R.

M. V. Vitorino, S. Carpentier, L. Costa, and S. R. Mario, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 013106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ozturk, S.

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ozturk, Z. Z.

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peltola, J.

Peng, W.

Z. Gong, K. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Zhou, W. Peng, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B 247, 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pickrell, G. R.

Rasool, H. I.

H. I. Rasool, P. R. Wilkinson, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rimoldi, D.

F. Huber, H. P. Lang, N. Backmann, D. Rimoldi, and C. Gerber, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roth, K.

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sader, J. E.

B. D. Adamson, J. E. Sader, and E. J. Bieske, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114510 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, F.

Shi, J.

Song, Y.

Stieg, A. Z.

H. I. Rasool, P. R. Wilkinson, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Turner, J.

Urey, H.

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vainio, M.

Vitorino, M. V.

M. V. Vitorino, S. Carpentier, L. Costa, and S. R. Mario, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 013106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

White, R. M.

S. S. Lee and R. M. White, J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 230 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wilcken, K.

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, Microchem. J. 76, 151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, P. R.

H. I. Rasool, P. R. Wilkinson, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

Xu, F.

Xuan, H.

J. Ma, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, W. Jin, Y. Yang, and S. Fan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 932 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Z. Gong, K. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Zhou, W. Peng, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B 247, 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, W. Jin, Y. Yang, and S. Fan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 932 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yerli, Y.

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.

Yu, Q.

Z. Gong, K. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Zhou, W. Peng, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B 247, 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Mao, X. Zhou, and Q. Yu, Opt. Commun. 361, 17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Yu and X. Zhou, Photon. Sens. 1, 72 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu and A. Wang, J. Lightwave Technol. 34, 1015 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Yu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 817 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, L.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, X.

Z. Gong, K. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Zhou, W. Peng, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B 247, 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Mao, X. Zhou, and Q. Yu, Opt. Commun. 361, 17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Yu and X. Zhou, Photon. Sens. 1, 72 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. V. Vitorino, S. Carpentier, L. Costa, and S. R. Mario, Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 013106 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Yu and A. Wang, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 817 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, W. Jin, Y. Yang, and S. Fan, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 932 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. D. Adamson, J. E. Sader, and E. J. Bieske, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 114510 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. S. Lee and R. M. White, J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 230 (1998).
[Crossref]

Microchem. J. (1)

J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, Microchem. J. 76, 151 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Huber, H. P. Lang, N. Backmann, D. Rimoldi, and C. Gerber, Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 125 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Mao, X. Zhou, and Q. Yu, Opt. Commun. 361, 17 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photon. Sens. (1)

Q. Yu and X. Zhou, Photon. Sens. 1, 72 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. I. Rasool, P. R. Wilkinson, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 023703 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

M. Dukic, J. D. Adams, and G. E. Fantner, Sci. Rep. 5, 16393 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B (2)

Z. Gong, K. Chen, Y. Yang, X. Zhou, W. Peng, and Q. Yu, Sens. Actuators B 247, 290 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Kilinc, O. Cakmak, A. Kosemen, E. Ermek, S. Ozturk, Y. Yerli, Z. Z. Ozturk, and H. Urey, Sens. Actuators B 202, 357 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

V. Koskinen, J. Fonsen, K. Roth, and J. Kauppinen, Vib. Spectrosc. 48, 16 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Result of the modal analysis. (b) Natural frequency of the stainless steel cantilever as a function of the length.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic structure and (b) image of the cantilever sensor head. (c) Image of the stainless steel cantilever.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of the test system for a WLI-based Fabry–Perot cantilever microphone.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Interference spectrum of the fiber-optic Fabry–Perot cantilever microphone.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Time domain response of the cantilever microphone with acoustic pressure of 10 mPa when acoustic frequencies are 500, 1000, and 1500 Hz.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Frequency response of the fiber-optic cantilever microphone with different temperatures. (b) Static cavity length as a function of temperature. (c) Acoustic pressure response of the fiber-optic cantilever microphone at 1 kHz and 30°C.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Spectra of the measured acoustic pressure with the proposed cantilever microphone and reference microphone when an acoustic pressure of 10 mPa is applied at 1 kHz.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A(ω)=F0m(ω02ω2)2+(ωβ/m)2,
I(λ)=2I0(λ)[1+γcos(4π(d0+Δd)λ+π)],