Abstract

We report visible continuous-wave laser emission at 636 nm from a praseodymium-doped fluorozirconate glass guided-wave chip laser. This ultra-fast laser inscribed gain chip is demonstrated to be a compact and integrated laser module. The laser module, pumped by 442 nm GaN laser diodes, generates >8  mW lasing output with a beam quality of Mxy21.15×1.1(±0.1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first visible laser emission from a glass-based waveguide chip laser.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

2016 (2)

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (4)

2012 (7)

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 20, 27503 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, D. G. Lancaster, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, and T. M. Monro, Opt. Lett. 37, 996 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Olivier, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, P. Pirasteh, J. Coulon, A. Braud, J.-L. Adam, and V. Nazabal, Opt. Express 20, 25064 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
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W.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Chen, H.-H. Lu, C.-H. Chang, Y.-P. Lin, H.-C. Lin, and H.-W. Wu, Opt. Express 20, 9919 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

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2009 (1)

S. K. Tang, Z. Li, A. R. Abate, J. J. Agresti, D. A. Weitz, D. Psaltis, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 9, 2767 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Pascu, N. Moise, and A. Staicu, J. Mol. Struct. 598, 57 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

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Abate, A. R.

S. K. Tang, Z. Li, A. R. Abate, J. J. Agresti, D. A. Weitz, D. Psaltis, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 9, 2767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.-L.

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Olivier, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, P. Pirasteh, J. Coulon, A. Braud, J.-L. Adam, and V. Nazabal, Opt. Express 20, 25064 (2012).
[Crossref]

Agresti, J. J.

S. K. Tang, Z. Li, A. R. Abate, J. J. Agresti, D. A. Weitz, D. Psaltis, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 9, 2767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, D. G. Lancaster, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barany, F.

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boutarfaia, A.

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
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Braud, A.

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Chang, C.-H.

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Chen, Y.

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Chi, N.

Cornacchia, F.

Coulon, J.

Czeranowsky, C.

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T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
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DePuydt, J. M.

M. A. Haase, J. Qiu, J. M. DePuydt, and H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991).
[Crossref]

Di, J.

Di Lieto, A.

Djouama, T.

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
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Doualan, J.-L.

Dupuis, R. D.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eichler, H. J.

Erden, E.

Fuerbach, A.

Gaebler, V.

Gaponenko, M.

Gross, S.

Guina, M.

Guy, S.

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
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Haase, M. A.

M. A. Haase, J. Qiu, J. M. DePuydt, and H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991).
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Hara, I.

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, I. Hara, and Y. Kubota, Electron. Lett. 44, 1346 (2008).
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Heidepriem, H. E.

Heuer, A.

Heumann, E.

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K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

Kasuga, K.

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, and Y. Kubota, Opt. Lett. 36, 1470 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, I. Hara, and Y. Kubota, Electron. Lett. 44, 1346 (2008).
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Kobayashi, T.

Kotani, A.

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

Kränkel, C.

Kubota, Y.

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, and Y. Kubota, Opt. Lett. 36, 1470 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, I. Hara, and Y. Kubota, Electron. Lett. 44, 1346 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lancaster, D. G.

Leinonen, T.

Lhermite, H.

Li, Z.

S. K. Tang, Z. Li, A. R. Abate, J. J. Agresti, D. A. Weitz, D. Psaltis, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 9, 2767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.-C.

Lin, W.-Y.

Lin, Y.-P.

Liu, B.

Lu, H.-H.

Marshall, G. D.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, D. G. Lancaster, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mei, L.

Metz, P. W.

Michaud-Belleau, V.

Miese, C. T.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, D. G. Lancaster, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moise, N.

M. Pascu, N. Moise, and A. Staicu, J. Mol. Struct. 598, 57 (2001).
[Crossref]

Moncorgé, R.

Monro, T. M.

Mukai, A.

Nazabal, V.

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Olivier, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, P. Pirasteh, J. Coulon, A. Braud, J.-L. Adam, and V. Nazabal, Opt. Express 20, 25064 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nozawa, Y.

Okamoto, H.

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, and Y. Kubota, Opt. Lett. 36, 1470 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Okamoto, K. Kasuga, I. Hara, and Y. Kubota, Electron. Lett. 44, 1346 (2008).
[Crossref]

Olivier, M.

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Olivier, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, P. Pirasteh, J. Coulon, A. Braud, J.-L. Adam, and V. Nazabal, Opt. Express 20, 25064 (2012).
[Crossref]

Osiri, J. K.

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Palmer, G.

G. Palmer, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 21, 17413 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, D. G. Lancaster, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Panah, M. B. M.

M. B. M. Panah and M. Zavvari, Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Parisi, D.

Pascu, M.

M. Pascu, N. Moise, and A. Staicu, J. Mol. Struct. 598, 57 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, 1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pincas, H.

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pirasteh, P.

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Olivier, J.-L. Doualan, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, P. Pirasteh, J. Coulon, A. Braud, J.-L. Adam, and V. Nazabal, Opt. Express 20, 25064 (2012).
[Crossref]

Poulain, M.

V. Nazabal, M. Poulain, M. Olivier, P. Pirasteh, P. Camy, J.-L. Doualan, S. Guy, T. Djouama, A. Boutarfaia, and J.-L. Adam, J. Fluorine Chem. 134, 18 (2012).
[Crossref]

Psaltis, D.

S. K. Tang, Z. Li, A. R. Abate, J. J. Agresti, D. A. Weitz, D. Psaltis, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 9, 2767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. A. Haase, J. Qiu, J. M. DePuydt, and H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991).
[Crossref]

Richter, A.

Sandrock, T.

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shang, H.

Shen, D.

Sinville, R.

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sizov, D. S.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 963 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soper, S. A.

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Staicu, A.

M. Pascu, N. Moise, and A. Staicu, J. Mol. Struct. 598, 57 (2001).
[Crossref]

Stevens, V. J.

Südmeyer, T.

Taira, T.

Tang, S. K.

S. K. Tang, Z. Li, A. R. Abate, J. J. Agresti, D. A. Weitz, D. Psaltis, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 9, 2767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tonelli, M.

Tsao, J. Y.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 963 (2013).
[Crossref]

Urey, H.

Wang, H.

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, Y.

Weitz, D. A.

S. K. Tang, Z. Li, A. R. Abate, J. J. Agresti, D. A. Weitz, D. Psaltis, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 9, 2767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Whitesides, G. M.

S. K. Tang, Z. Li, A. R. Abate, J. J. Agresti, D. A. Weitz, D. Psaltis, and G. M. Whitesides, Lab Chip 9, 2767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, J. Y. Tsao, and D. S. Sizov, Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 963 (2013).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. J.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, D. G. Lancaster, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3, 332 (2012).
[Crossref]

Witek, M. A.

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Withford, M. J.

Wu, H.-W.

Xu, B.

Yu, H.

Yu, J.

Zavvari, M.

M. B. M. Panah and M. Zavvari, Opt. Quantum Electron. 48, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, R.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, G.

Zhao, J.

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, 1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Optoelectron. (1)

X. Zhu and N. Peyghambarian, Adv. Optoelectron. 2010, 1 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anal. Methods (1)

A. Kotani, M. A. Witek, J. K. Osiri, H. Wang, R. Sinville, H. Pincas, F. Barany, and S. A. Soper, Anal. Methods 4, 58 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Sandrock, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, Appl. Phys. B 58, 149 (1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Haase, J. Qiu, J. M. DePuydt, and H. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1272 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (A) Schematic representation of the visible domain energy level diagram for Pr 3 + : ZBLAN glass and (B) the absorption spectrum (black dotted line) of the Pr 3 + : ZBLAN glass and the spectrum of the pump laser diode (PLD) at 442 nm (blue solid line). After initial excitation at 442 nm, the excited state ( P 2 3 ) can radiatively relax to the ground state ( H 4 3 ) via 479, 523, 635, and 716 nm transitions.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic representation of the experimental setup for visible laser emission. (A) Image of the collimated emission of the monolithic laser. (B) Bright-field microscope image of the laser-etched waveguide and (C) photo of the monolithic waveguide chip laser module. LD(1-2), pump laser diodes at 442 nm; L(1-2), aspheric lens; L(3-4), plano-convex lens; APP(1-2), anamorphic prism pair; M1, reflective mirror for the pump beam; PBSC, polarization beam splitter cube; IC, input coupler; Pr-ZBLAN Chip, Pr 3 + : ZBLAN waveguide chip; OC, output coupler; LPF, long pass filter; PM, power meter.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Slope efficiency measurements at 5% and 3% OC. The experimental data at 5% and 3% OC is represented by circles (black) and squares (red). The slope efficiencies are calculated by using a line of best fit through the experimental data. The solid line (black) is the 5% OC giving a slope efficiency of 10%, and the dotted line (red) is for 3% OC with a slope efficiency of 7%. The estimated lasing threshold for 5% and 3% OC is 55 and 52 mW, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (A) Spectra of the laser output from a HeNe laser (red dotted line) and a Pr 3 + : ZBLAN waveguide chip laser (black solid line). The spectral output of the HeNe laser is at 632.6 nm, and the Pr-ZBLAN laser is at 636 nm. (B) and (C) Beam profile measurements for a Pr-chip laser and HeNe laser. (B) Horizontal (red) and vertical (black) beam profile measurements for the Pr-ZBLAN waveguide chip and (C) horizontal (red) and vertical (black) beam profiles for the HeNe laser. The calculated M 2 values for Pr 3 + : ZBLAN and HeNe output are 1.15 × 1.1 and 1.09 × 1.09 , respectively, calculated by using Eqs. (1)–(3).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. M 2 Values for Pr 3 + : ZBLAN Waveguide and HeNe Laser

Equations (3)

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ϒ ( x ) = κ × 1 + ( x x 0 σ r ) 2 ,
κ 0 = 2 × σ r × λ laser π ,
M 2 = ( κ κ 0 ) 2 ,

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