Abstract

We present a novel resonant Mach–Zehnder modulator whose arms are each loaded with five identical resonators. Size and power consumption are aggressively reduced compared to conventional modulators based on linear phase shifters. At the same time, a large optical bandwidth of 3.8 nm is maintained. We experimentally demonstrate open eye diagrams at 30 Gbps with a signal Q-factor remaining within a factor of 2 of its peak value in an operational temperature range spanning 55°C.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

Y. Li, Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, and A. Poon, Photon. Res. 3, B10 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, Opt. Express 23, 23526 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2012 (1)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, S.

Amberg, P.

Azadeh, S. S.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, Opt. Express 23, 23526 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Bowers, J. E.

Buca, D.

Chang, E.

Chimot, N.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

Djordjevic, S. S.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hauck, J.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J.

Ho, R.

Hu, Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Islamova, E.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Joshi, S.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kurahashi, T.

Lee, J.-H.

Lelarge, F.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lexau, J.

Li, K.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Lin, S.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

Luo, Y.

Mantl, S.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Merget, F.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, Opt. Express 23, 23526 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morito, K.

Moscoso-Mártir, A.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, Opt. Express 23, 23526 (2015).
[Crossref]

Müller, J.

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, Opt. Express 23, 23526 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nomura, S.

Poon, A.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Raj, K.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Romero-García, S.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, Opt. Express 23, 23526 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shubin, I.

Spencer, D. T.

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Usuki, T.

von den Driesch, N.

Wilson, P. R.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. S. Azadeh, F. Merget, S. Romero-García, A. Moscoso-Mártir, N. von den Driesch, J. Müller, S. Mantl, D. Buca, and J. Witzens, Opt. Express 23, 23526 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

Yao, J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, X.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Müller, J. Hauck, B. Shen, S. Romero-García, E. Islamova, S. S. Azadeh, S. Joshi, N. Chimot, A. Moscoso-Mártir, F. Merget, F. Lelarge, and J. Witzens, Adv. Opt. Technol. 4, 119 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nanophotonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, and P. R. Wilson, Nanophotonics 3, 229 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Optica (1)

Photon. Res. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic representation of the proposed RE-MZM. (b) Resonance enhancement factor ( Γ ) for a resonator with a radius of 5 μm and coupling strengths of 0.25 (red line) and 0.45 (green line). (c) FWHM of the resonance, as a measure of the optical bandwidth. (d) Peak enhancement factor ( Γ peak ) at the central resonance wavelength ( λ res ) as a function of the coupling strength ( κ 2 ).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Schematic layout of the proposed resonator. (b) Cross section and (c) top view of the lateral PIN junction phase shifter embedded inside the resonator. (d) Microscope image of the fabricated device.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Calculated OMA of the RE-MZM with 2 V p p in push–pull driving as a function of wavelength for N = 3 (blue), 5 (green), and 7 (red) resonators loaded on each arm. (b) OMA spectra for a RE-MZM with N = 5 and operating temperatures shifted by Δ T = 25 ° C (blue), 0 (black), and + 25 ° C (red).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) SEM image of a fabricated resonator array. (b) Micrograph of the fabricated RE-MZM with electrical contacts for push–pull operation. (c) Electro-optical transmission of the fabricated modulator measured in a 50 Ω environment.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) DC optical transmission measurements for reverse-biased drive voltages of 2 V p p and 4 V p p (with the RE-MZM biased at its quadrature point, the blue curve shows the total output power). (b) RE-MZM efficiency as a function of wavelength. The efficiency of a conventional phase shifter with equivalent PIN configuration is indicated by a dashed red line.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Eye diagrams and extracted signal Q -factor (a) as a function of wavelength at a fixed temperature of 25°C and (b) as a function of temperature at a fixed wavelength of 1544.5 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Modulator Metrics for Different Numbers of Resonators Loaded on Each Arm

Equations (4)

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P output 1 = A · cos 2 ( ( Δ ϕ RF + Δ ϕ 0 + π / 2 ) / 2 ) ,
P output 2 = A · sin 2 ( ( Δ ϕ RF + Δ ϕ 0 + π / 2 ) / 2 ) ,
Δ ϕ RF = ± ( 2 π / λ ) · Δ n eff · Γ · L PS · N ,
OMA [ dB ] = 10 · log 10 ( ( P 1 P 0 ) / P in ) ,

Metrics