Abstract

We present the results of our work on developing fully integrated devices (photonic dicers) for reformatting multimode light to a diffraction limited pseudo-slit. These devices can be used to couple a seeing limited telescope point spread function to a spectrograph operating at the diffraction limit, thus potentially enabling compact, high-resolution spectrographs that are free of modal noise.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 107 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

N. Jovanovic, O. Guyon, F. Martinache, C. Schwab, and N. Cvetojevic, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91477P (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Lægsgaard, Opt. Express 18, 4673 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

A. A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Y. Bellouard, A. Scott, and J. R. Mabesa, Proc. SPIE 5339, 194 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silderberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[Crossref]

Allington-Smith, J. R.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. Harris and J. R. Allington-Smith, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 428, 3139 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bado, P.

A. A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Y. Bellouard, A. Scott, and J. R. Mabesa, Proc. SPIE 5339, 194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silderberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[Crossref]

Basden, A. G.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bellouard, Y.

A. A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Y. Bellouard, A. Scott, and J. R. Mabesa, Proc. SPIE 5339, 194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Betters, C.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Birks, T.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Booth, M.

Brown, G.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Campbell, S.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, D.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cruz, J. L.

Cvetojevic, N.

N. Jovanovic, O. Guyon, F. Martinache, C. Schwab, and N. Cvetojevic, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91477P (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Débarre, D.

Díez, A.

Dugan, M.

A. A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Y. Bellouard, A. Scott, and J. R. Mabesa, Proc. SPIE 5339, 194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Eisenberg, H.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silderberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gendron, E.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grieve, K.

Gris-Sánchez, I.

Gross, S.

Guyon, O.

N. Jovanovic, O. Guyon, F. Martinache, C. Schwab, and N. Cvetojevic, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91477P (2014).
[Crossref]

Harris, R. J.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. J. Harris and J. R. Allington-Smith, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 428, 3139 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haynes, R.

D. Noordegraaf, P. M. W. Skovgaard, M. D. Maack, J. Bland-Hawthorn, R. Haynes, and J. Lægsgaard, Opt. Express 18, 4673 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Hibino, Y.

Horowitz, M.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silderberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ireland, M. J.

Jesacher, A.

Jovanovic, N.

N. Jovanovic, O. Guyon, F. Martinache, C. Schwab, and N. Cvetojevic, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91477P (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Spaleniak, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, M. J. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 21, 27197 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Kar, A. K.

Kern, P.

Kohtoku, M.

Lægsgaard, J.

Lawrence, J.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, J. S.

Leon-Saval, S.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Maack, M. D.

Mabesa, J. R.

A. A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Y. Bellouard, A. Scott, and J. R. Mabesa, Proc. SPIE 5339, 194 (2004).
[Crossref]

MacLachlan, D. G.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mangan, B. J.

Marshall, G. D.

Martinache, F.

N. Jovanovic, O. Guyon, F. Martinache, C. Schwab, and N. Cvetojevic, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91477P (2014).
[Crossref]

Morris, T. J.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Murphy, D. F.

Nasu, Y.

Nielsen, M. D.

Noordegraaf, D.

Pope, B.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Robertson, G.

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Y. Bellouard, A. Scott, and J. R. Mabesa, Proc. SPIE 5339, 194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schwab, C.

N. Jovanovic, O. Guyon, F. Martinache, C. Schwab, and N. Cvetojevic, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91477P (2014).
[Crossref]

Scott, A.

A. A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Y. Bellouard, A. Scott, and J. R. Mabesa, Proc. SPIE 5339, 194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Silderberg, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silderberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[Crossref]

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Spaleniak, I.

Srinivas, S.

Thayil, A.

Thomson, R. R.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. A. Birks, I. Gris-Sánchez, S. Yerolatsitis, S. G. Leon-Saval, and R. R. Thomson, Adv. Opt. Photon. 7, 107 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, Opt. Express 19, 5698 (2011).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

Wilson, T.

Withford, M. J.

Yerolatsitis, S.

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silderberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

R. J. Harris and J. R. Allington-Smith, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 428, 3139 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 450, 428 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (3)

N. Jovanovic, O. Guyon, F. Martinache, C. Schwab, and N. Cvetojevic, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91477P (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. Lawrence, G. Robertson, S. Campbell, B. Pope, C. Betters, S. Leon-Saval, T. Birks, R. Haynes, N. Cvetojevic, and N. Jovanovic, Proc. SPIE 7735, 77350N (2010).
[Crossref]

A. A. Said, M. Dugan, P. Bado, Y. Bellouard, A. Scott, and J. R. Mabesa, Proc. SPIE 5339, 194 (2004).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (604 KB)      A rendered 3D image of the full photonic lantern transition

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. 3D sketch of the waveguide paths that were inscribed to create a 6 × 6 PD transitioning from a MM waveguide to a pseudo-slit via square and linear arrays of SM waveguides.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the 3 × 3 PD showing the three sections, input, PD1, and PD2. Dashed lines indicate dice planes for cutback measurements. The colors represent different waveguide depths within the substrate at the MM state preparation section.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Images of the facets of (a1) the uncoupled SM input end, (b1) the MM end, and (c1) the pseudo-slit end of one of the 7 × 7 PDs. Column (2) shows examples of near-field images of 1550 nm light emitted from the respective structures when illuminated with a SMF at the pseudo-slit for (a2) and the SM input for (b2) and (c2); the modal distribution obtained in all images will change as the input coupling varies. The scale bar in each image represents 50 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Cross-sectional images of a 16-core, 4 × 4 ULI fabricated lantern, obtained using a THG microscope. Bright areas indicate a material boundary. (a) is furthest from the MM end, while (f) is within the MM end of the device. Main image scale bars indicate 20 μm. Inset in (c) shows a high-resolution image of a single square waveguide with 4 μm scale bar.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Average throughputs measured at 1550 nm for PD1 (MM-to-slit) and PD2 (slit-to-MM) for each K by K PD.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Throughputs measured for PD1 (left column) and PD2 (right column). The size of the PD under test increases from (a) to (f). For each set of measurements, each small square represents the percentage throughput measured when injecting 1550 nm light into an input waveguide on the MM state preparation device.

Equations (1)

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M ( π θ Focus D T / 4 λ ) 2 ,

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