Abstract

In this Letter, reflection-mode optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) using glancing angle-deposited (GLAD) nanostructured Fabry–Perot interferometers (FPI) for in vivo applications is reported. GLAD is a single-step physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique used to fabricate porous nanostructured thin films. Using titanium dioxide, a transparent semiconductor with a high refractive index (n=2.4), the GLAD technique can be employed to fabricate samples with tailored nano-porosity, refractive index periodicities, and high Q-factor reflectance spectra. The OR-PAM in vivo images of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 5-day chicken embryo model are demonstrated. The phantom study shows lateral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio better than 7 μm and 35 dB, respectively. The sensitive GLAD FPI allows photoacoustic imaging down to a few-nJ pulse energy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a FPI-based reflection mode optical resolution photoacoustic imaging technique is demonstrated for in vivo applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 4, 4496 (2014).

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

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[Crossref]

2005 (1)

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Beard, P.

Brett, M.

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H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 4, 4496 (2014).

Fedosejevs, R.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056017 (2010).
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M. M. Hawkeye, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, Introduction: Glancing Angle Deposition Technology, in Glancing Angle Deposition of Thin Films: Engineering the Nanoscale (Wiley, 2014).

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[Crossref]

Kerr, S.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056017 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Lloyd, H.

P. V. Chitnis, H. Lloyd, and R. H. Silverman, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Ultrasonic Symposium (IEEE, 2014), pp. 353–356.

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[Crossref]

S. Ashkenazi, Y. Hou, T. Buma, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 134102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pan, L.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ranasinghesagara, J.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, and R. J. Zemp, Opt. Lett. 36, 4107 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Hajireza, W. Shi, and R. J. Zemp, Opt. Express 19, 20097 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056017 (2010).
[Crossref]

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P. V. Chitnis, H. Lloyd, and R. H. Silverman, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Ultrasonic Symposium (IEEE, 2014), pp. 353–356.

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H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 4, 4496 (2014).

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Utkin, I.

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. V.

L. V. Wang, Scholarpedia 9, 10278 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wei, X.

Witte, R. S.

S. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, Y. Hou, R. S. Witte, and M. O’Donnell, Proc. SPIE 6437, 643728 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

Zemp, R.

Zemp, R. J.

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Zhang, H. F.

H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 4, 4496 (2014).

Zhang, Z.

H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 4, 4496 (2014).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Ashkenazi, Y. Hou, T. Buma, and M. O’Donnell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 134102 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Shi, S. Kerr, I. Utkin, J. Ranasinghesagara, L. Pan, Y. Godwal, R. J. Zemp, and R. Fedosejevs, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 056017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Huang, S. Ashkenazi, Y. Hou, R. S. Witte, and M. O’Donnell, Proc. SPIE 6437, 643728 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scholarpedia (1)

L. V. Wang, Scholarpedia 9, 10278 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Li, B. Dong, Z. Zhang, H. F. Zhang, and C. Sun, Sci. Rep. 4, 4496 (2014).

Science (1)

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, Science 335, 1458 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. V. Chitnis, H. Lloyd, and R. H. Silverman, Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Ultrasonic Symposium (IEEE, 2014), pp. 353–356.

M. M. Hawkeye, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, Introduction: Glancing Angle Deposition Technology, in Glancing Angle Deposition of Thin Films: Engineering the Nanoscale (Wiley, 2014).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup of GLAD OR-PAM. F, filter; OL, objective lens; PMf-SMF, polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber; CL, collimator lens; PBS, polarized beam splitter; BS, beam splitter; SM, 2D scanning mirrors; PD, photodiode; AMP, amplifier.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The configuration of FPI. AR (anti-reflection). (b) Transmission spectrum of the GLAD FPI showing sharp resonant peaks near the C-band. (c) SEM image of first GLAD layer. Dense layers were deposited at an angle of α = 60 ° . Sparse, columnar layers were deposited at an angle of α = 80 ° .
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. GLAD OR-PAM images of carbon fiber network. Images are formed using a pulse energy of (a) 30 nJ, (b)1 nJ. (Scale bar: 100 μm.)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. In vivo images of capillary beds in the CAM-membrane of 5-day chicken embryo model. (Scale bar: 100 μm.)

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